Free Abstracted Outline Dissertation Example
Discusses the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in a larger scale: in reference to the various conditions that have produced positive outcomes. A meta-analysis by Hofmann, Asnaani, Vonk, Sawyer, and Fang (2012) identified the various problems and presented an updated position about the efficacy of this treatment approach. The efficacy of CBT will be integrated into the conditions under study and the link to the background and statement of purpose.
The literature review will focus on five pertinent areas. First, it will describe the model that governs the use of the cognitive behavioral model in the treatment of depression and dysthymia. Secondly, it will present research on the general effects of CBT and later review the different CBT modes that have been studies that their effects in light of the different mental health conditions. Understanding the current position on the effect of CBT on depression and dysthymia by reviewing existing systematic reviews and meta-analysis is the fourth goal of the literature review, and lastly, the section will include the limitations that will guide the systematic review.
Body of the Review
Guiding theoretical Framework
Explaining the relationship between the cognitive model and depression. The components of a cognitive model (cognitive triad and cognitive distortions) will be related to depression. Applying cognitive therapy and its behavioral element to treat depression as discussed by Powell, Abreu, de Oliveira, and Sudak (2008).
Cognitive Triad. The triad forms a basis for understanding the mechanism used in CBT. Explanation of core beliefs that lead to dysfunctional assumptions and ultimately negative thought processes will be explained in reference to depression (Powell et al., 2008).
Cognitive Distortions. The false formulations of situations in people with mental disorders will be discussed, and this will progressively move on to depression. The section will present the cognitive misperceptions that individuals hold in different situations leading to the development of depression, and the articles by Cordioli and Knapp (2008) and Powell et al. (2008) will be used.
Cognitive Therapy. The article by Fenn and Byrne (2013) provides comprehensive details about the components of behavioral therapy, advantages, and techniques used. Here, the theoretical approach that forms the basis for most therapeutic interventions in most studies will be explored and explained.
Effect of CBT on Mental Disorders
Presents an overview of systematic review and meta-analyses studies that have been conducted in the past to show the efficacy of CBT when used in various mental health conditions (Hofmann et al., 2012). The section will also act as a preliminary of the subsequent sections that are specific to depression and dysthymia on the styles used and outcomes achieved in reference to CBT. The systematic reviews and analyses will be reviewed in reference to the purpose, methodology, variables, results, and the limitations of the study (Bui, 2014).
Modes of CBT and Associated Efficacies
This section will highlight different controlled trials in reference to the techniques used in the provision of CBT and comparing them to what Fenn and Byrne (2013) theorize. The trials will be discussed based on the conditions being studied as indicated by Kircher et al. (2013); Storch et al. (2013); Craske et al. (2014); Garland et al. (2014); Shechner et al. (2014); Rudd et al. (2015); Wood et al. (2015); and Cherkin (2016). An evidence-based article by Driessen and Hollon (2010) will give insight into the application of CBT on depression.
Effect of CBT on Depression
Summary of previous systematic reviews and meta-analysis as well as individual studies, not part of these reviews, especially the non-controlled studies (Hans & Hiller, 2013; Driessen et al., 2014; Thimm & Antonsen, 2014; Johnsen & Friborg, 2015; Lemmens et al., 2015). Identifying gaps in these reviews and meta-analyses to justify the need for the current systematic review like the example of Johnsen and Friborg (2015) whose research bias indicated that CBT was failing as a treatment approach for depression. Highlight on the attributes of CBT: group cohesion, normalization effects, and relating to others who are struggling with the same condition to justify the efficacy that stems from CBT (Whitfield, 2010).
Research Synthesis and Limitations
A presentation of effect sizes and targeted sample populations for studies aiming to show the effect of CBT on depression and dysthymia is important to understand the magnitude of efficacy, and some of the studies will be used to discuss the results later (Lunenburg & Irby, 2008). Presentation of findings on the available forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and their effects on depression and dysthymia discussed to highlight the pros linked to the efficacy of the therapeutic approach and the cons stemming from methodological bias and guides the current review to avoid replication of error is paramount (Ridley, 2008). Discussion of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to highlight value addition based on the gaps highlighted in the various reviews conducted in the past and inform decisions about the current review (Onwuegbuzie & Frels, 2016).
Delineating the average effect of CBT in general and on depression and dysthymia is described. Pertinent limitations that form a basis for the current systematic review will be explained, and the purpose of the systematic review stated.
Bui, Y. N. (2014). How to Write a Master’s Thesis (2nd Edition). [VitalSource]. Retrievedfrom https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781483321325/.
Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Balderson, B. H., Cook, A. J., Anderson, M. L., Hawkes, R. J., … Turner, J. A. (2016). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs. cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations inadults with chronic low back pain: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 315(12):1240–1249. Doi:10.1001/jama.2016.2323
Cordioli, A. V., & Knapp, P. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of mentaldisorders. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 30(Suppl. 2), s51-s53. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462008000600001.
Craske, M. G., Niles, A. N., Burklund, L. J., Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Vilardaga, J. C., Arch, J. J., Saxbe, D. E., … Lieberman, M. D. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for socialphobia: outcomes and moderators. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 82(6), 1034-48.
Driessen, E., & Hollon, S. D. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for mood disorders: efficacy, moderators and mediators. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 537-55.
Driessen, E., Van, H., Don, F., Peen, J., Kool, S., Westra, D., … Dekker, J. J. (2014). Theefficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy in the outpatient treatment of major depression: A randomized clinical trial. Psychotherapy: New Evidence and New Approaches, 12(3), 324-335.
Fenn, K., & Byrne, M. (2013). The key principles of cognitive behavioral therapy. InnovAiT, 6(9), 579–585. https://doi.org/10.1177/1755738012471029.
Garland, S. N., Carlson, L. E., Stephens, A. J., Antle, M. C., Samuels, C., & Campbell, T. S. (2014). Mindfulness-based stress reduction compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of insomnia comorbid with cancer: A randomized, partiallyblinded, noninferiority trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from http://jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/doi/10.1200/JCO.2012.47.7265.
Hans, E., & Hiller, W. (2013). Effectiveness of and dropout from outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for adult unipolar depression: A meta-analysis of nonrandomizedeffectiveness studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1), 75-88.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy andresearch, 36(5), 427-440.
Johnsen, T. J., & Friborg, O. (2015). The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Anti-Depressive Treatment is Falling: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000015.
Kircher, T., Arolt, V., Jansen, A., Pyka, M., Reinhardt, I., Kellermann, T., Straube, B. (2013). Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neural correlates of fearconditioning in panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 73(1), 93-101.
Lemmens, L. H., Arntz, A., Peeters, F., Hollon, S. D., Roefs, A., Huibers, M. J. (2015). Clinical effectiveness of cognitive therapy v. interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 45(10), 2095-2110.
Lunenburg, F. C., & Irby, B. J. (2008). Writing a successful thesis or dissertation: Tips andstrategies for students in social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Frels, R. (2016). Seven steps to a comprehensive literature review: A multimodal and cultural approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Powell, Vania Bitencourt, Abreu, Neander, Oliveira, Irismar Reis de, & Sudak, Donna. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 30(Suppl. 2), s73-s80. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462008000600004.
Ridley, D. (2008). The literature review: A step-by-step guide for students. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Rudd, M. D., Bryan, C. J., Wertenberger, E. G., Peterson, A. L., Young-McCaughan, S., Mintz, J., … Bruce, T. O. (2015). Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on post-treatment suicide attempts in a military sample: Results of a randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 441-449.
Shechner, T., Rimon-Chakir, A., Britton, J. C., Lotan, D., Apter, A., Bliese, P. D., … Bar-Haim, Y. (2014). Attention bias modification treatment augmenting effects oncognitive behavioral therapy in children with anxiety: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(1), 61-71.
Storch, E. A., Arnold, E. B., Lewin, A. B., Nadeau, J. M., Jones, A. M., De Nadai, A. S., Murphy, T. K. (2013). The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(2), 132-142.
Thimm, J. C., & Antonsen, L. (2014). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression in routine practice. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 292.
Whitfield, G. (2010). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression. Adv Psychiatr Treat., 16, 219-227. Doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.108.005744.
Wood, J. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Alessandri, M., Fujii, C., Renno, P., Laugeson, E., Piacentini, J. C., De Nadai, A. S., Arnold, E., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. K., … Storch, E. A. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrumdisorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. Behavior therapy, 46(1), 7-19.
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