Free An explorative study of the female and male social factor of yoga participation in Hong Kong Dissertation Example

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An explorative study of the female and male social factor of yoga participation in Hong Kong

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Acknowledgment
The implementation of this project is courtesy of the unrelenting assistance I received from my professor, Mr. XXX. I would also be remiss not to mention the input of my tutor in carrying out research methods and picking out literature for my study topic. In addition, the inspiration I drew from my colleagues powered me through the repetitive and double-blinded benefits that would result from this research. It is my pleasure to present this research with the help of everyone, mentioned and unmentioned herein, to help in furthering the science of Sports.

Abstract
The goal of this exploratory research is to find out the trends in and motivations for participation in yoga among males and females in Hong Kong. 60 participants (45 female, 15 male) were answered a 20-question semi-structured questionnaire to obtained qualitative information about their perceptions of yoga. Moreover, four additional participants were interviewed. The findings revealed that gender and time invested in yoga do not correlate (p=0.230). Age determines participation in yoga (p=0.049) and the intensity of doing so (p=0.0000). 96.8 percent of the population considers yoga a female activity. Furthermore, age influenced the encouragement to participate in yoga based on the appearance of the yoga instructor (p=0.027). Most of the sample had no issue with an opposite sex instructor or fellow students. These findings indicate that people do not mind gender differences in yoga classes; however, yoga is still considered a feminine sport. In Hong Kong, females participate in yoga more than males due to its feminine nature and female-directed advertising. Age is a more potent predictor of practicing yoga than sex. The gender differences of yoga participants does not influence their attitudes towards the sport.
Keywords: yoga, yoga practitioners, patriarchy

Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u List of Tables, Figures and Illustrative Content PAGEREF _Toc531000654 h VI2Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc531000655 h 12.1Background Information PAGEREF _Toc531000656 h 12.2The Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc531000657 h 22.3Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc531000658 h 22.4Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc531000659 h 32.5Hypothesis of the study PAGEREF _Toc531000660 h 32.6The Significance of this Research PAGEREF _Toc531000661 h 43Chapter 2: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc531000662 h 53.1The Significance of Yoga to Health PAGEREF _Toc531000663 h 53.2Trends, Extent and Determinants of Yoga Use PAGEREF _Toc531000664 h 63.3Tradition and Culture of Yoga PAGEREF _Toc531000665 h 73.4Culture Aspect PAGEREF _Toc531000666 h 73.5Social aspect of yoga as defined by culture PAGEREF _Toc531000667 h 83.6Yoga in India PAGEREF _Toc531000668 h 93.7Yoga in China PAGEREF _Toc531000669 h 94Chapter 3: Methodology PAGEREF _Toc531000670 h 144.1Research Design PAGEREF _Toc531000671 h 144.2Site of the Study PAGEREF _Toc531000672 h 154.3Target Population PAGEREF _Toc531000673 h 154.4Sample Capacity and Sampling Methods PAGEREF _Toc531000674 h 164.5Variables in the study PAGEREF _Toc531000675 h 174.6Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc531000676 h 184.7The Validity of the Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc531000677 h 194.8Reliability of the Study PAGEREF _Toc531000678 h 194.9 PAGEREF _Toc531000679 h 214.10Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc531000680 h 214.11Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc531000681 h 224.12Ethical considerations PAGEREF _Toc531000682 h 235Chapter 4: Results and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc531000683 h 245.1Results PAGEREF _Toc531000684 h 245.2Discussion PAGEREF _Toc531000685 h 326Chapter 5: Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc531000686 h 367Reference List PAGEREF _Toc531000687 h 378Appendix PAGEREF _Toc531000688 h 43

List of Tables, Figures and Illustrative Content TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 Main Reasons for Practicing Yoga PAGEREF _Toc530525265 h 29Figure 2 Gender vs Independent practice of yoga PAGEREF _Toc530525266 h 31Figure 3 Gender-based opinion on if yoga a feminine activity PAGEREF _Toc530525267 h 32Figure 4 Effect of sex instructor’s gender on yoga participation PAGEREF _Toc530525268 h 35Figure 5 Effect of Negative Yoga Experience to wanting a Same-Sex Instructor PAGEREF _Toc530525269 h 38

Chapter 1: IntroductionBackground Information
Yoga is a marginal sport that is yet to be adopted by mainstream audiences around the world. The lack of knowledge about the scope and benefits of yoga let alone the perspectives that various people have of yoga is largely unknown. However, there is a clear difference in yoga participation that follows demographic characteristics; more so, along gender lines. Hence it is crucial to understand the underlying predictors of this trend, and to disambiguate the true nature of yoga.
Numerous definitions have been postulated to elucidate the term yoga. However, all the definitions have one thing in common- they argue that yoga is an art and a culture that is particular to a given society. In his words, Freeman described yoga as “a meditative discipline and a way of gaining insight into the nature of the mind and reality” (Horrigan, 2004, p. 65). Freeman continued to argue that yoga is more than just a sport but an exercise that could be prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity and increase in BMI (body mass index). Indeed, Freeman noted that “yoga is ultimately freedom or liberation, and its benefit is much more than simply good health” (Horrigan, 2004, p. 65).
Moreover, most yoga specialists are in consensus that yoga is the remedy for the harm that people do to their body because of modern living, the type of jobs, and the way of dieting. Moreover, yoga is seen as a corrective measure to people who have a postural conditioning because of accident, immobility, and physical disability. While agreeing with the findings of Freeman, Satchidananda (1990) argues that yoga is an exercise that is aimed at the total transformation of an individual in terms of mental, physical, emotional and social aspects to become a harmonized and perfect being. Moreover, Satchidananda (1990) argued that yoga is an activity where people with successes, pains, pleasures, and failures “seek refuge for sage of permanent peace, joy and selfless dedication to the entire creation” (p. 252). Therefore, the real significance of yoga being ineffective in predicting the demographic trends in its practice calls for further research.
The Statement of the Problem
This study intends to investigate the sociological trends of people who practice yoga and their attitudes towards the different aspects in which they experience it. The investigation will centre on the rise of yoga as a cultural heritage in Asia and the adoption of yoga as an exercise among males and females. The practice of yoga in China (Hong Kong) will form the basis of this investigation. While exploring yoga practice and participation in China, research will be compare the female and male social factor of yoga participation in Hong Kong. While the researcher will obtain raw data from the interviews and questionnaires, the investigator will also use the evidence-based publications covering yoga’s essence and philosophy. This study will compare the social and gender application of yoga exercise in Hong Kong reminiscent to the yoga practice. Furthermore, this investigation will examine the effect of yoga on health including mindfulness, meditation, as well as metaphysical properties.
Objectives of the study
The main objective of this investigation is to compare the social participation of yoga exercise by male and female residents of Hong Kong. Besides, the investigator will interrogate the benefits, threats and perception of participating yoga practice. In essence, the following points summarize the objectives of this investigation:
(1) To investigate yoga participation of female/ male in Hong Kong as compared to other countries’ statistical data
(2) To find out the major social factors that interfere or facilitate female/male participation of yoga in Hong Kong
(3) To recommend ways of increasing the yoga participation in Hong Kong
Research Questions
When covering this investigation, the researcher will be guided by the following research questions:
How does the participation of female and male in Hong Kong differ?
In what ways does a yoga practitioner perceive benefits from yoga?
In what ways does a yoga practitioner perceive threats or undoing while partaking in yoga?
What are the primary elements that interfere or facilitate the engagement of male and female yoga practitioners in Hong Kong?
How do people who practice yoga experience it?
In what manner can the community can increase its engagement in the yoga activities?
Hypothesis of the study
While conducting this investigation, the investigator proposes the following hypotheses:
Gender and participation in yoga activities in Hong Kong are independent of each other.
There is a dependence between age and participation in yoga activities among the Hong Kong residents.
The Significance of this Research
The recent rise in the involvement of yoga activities not only in the Asian countries but also across the globe has led to the selection of this topic. Moreover, the rise of yoga has raised questions about the underlying factors underlying its origin and the demographic considerations of the participants. Many observers see yoga is an Asian sport while others see it as sport for middle and upper income earners. Mores so, there are those who see yoga as a sport for men. Therefore, as it appears, the reputation transcends the love for the arts and desire to keep fit among the enthusiasts of yoga. Indeed, the adoption of yoga as a recreational and medicinal activity has been attributed to its high rate of diffusion across the world. In spite of the nature of the sport, there are limited studies that have explored the global influence of gender on yoga activities. Consequently, the significance of the present research emanates from its attempt to fill these gaps by investigating the contribution of female and male social factor of yoga participation in Hong Kong. Moreover, this investigation will form part of the body of knowledge in this area that will be used by future scholars while conducting similar investigations.

Chapter 2: Literature ReviewThis chapter reviews the literature of the related materials that focus on yoga practices and practitioners. While interrogating the materials the investigator will be guided by theories and concepts that describe the topic. Consequently, the first section of the literature review will highlight some of the peer-reviewed sources that apply in yoga practices. The choice of the theories to use is based on the application of the concept in improving one’s health. Besides, the investigator will select theories and written literature that explore on the impact of gender on yoga activities and the rule gender plays in determining the type of activities a particular player will choose. The second section of this literature review will focus on the past materials that highlight importance of yoga activities to human health, socialization, and resource mobilization.
Lastly, the review will focus on the social, traditional and cultural aspect of sports/yoga as discussed by other scholars.
The Significance of Yoga to Health
One of the most researched topics is yoga’s significance on the health of an individual. In fact, yoga as has been recommended to patients who were initially bed-ridden as well as individuals who are on the weight reducing programs. A study by Harinath et al (2004) noted that through yoga, practitioners reported exceptional welfare, spanning their physiology, physicality, mental and emotive states. In the Western countries, yoga is believed to be an exercise that helps one’s body to release its accrued stress and optimize its physical state. The term that is used in the western countries to refer to the physical posture of yoga is Hatha Yoga (Coulter, 2001). Consequently, Coulter (2001) opines that through regular Hatha yoga activities, an individual’s posture is corrected, flexibility is increased, and muscle strength and endurance are also improved. Moreover, frequent Hatha yoga activities are a catalyst to promote muscle relaxation. Attending a Hatha yoga class is one of the most intriguing phenomenon in HK where both men and women are actively involved in true self-activities. In most cases, the yoga classes are guided in murky rooms that is accompanied by that are aromatised with incense filled with POP music.
There are various theories that have been put in place by psychologists as they try to elucidate the importance of yoga activities on the physical fitness of the participants. However, since the area has not been widely covered by past researchers, psychologists and other scholars are developing theories on the effect of yoga activities on relaxation and cognition. Attentional Behavioral Cognitive Relaxation and Progressive Muscle Relaxation frameworks are some of theoretical frameworks that are used by investigators to elucidate the phenomenon. In selecting these theories, the one tries to pin down yoga’s significance in an individual’s wellbeing regarding behavioural and muscle relaxation. Moreover, the past scholars who have used these theories have realized that the models have sensitivity and reliability in replicating outcomes surrounding yoga with their postulated predictors. For example, the progressive muscle relaxation theory has been used in the field of clinical psychology where the practitioner contracts their muscles, then relaxes them instantly. Repeated practices of relaxation technique ensures that the practitioners have positive benefits that present in a person’s physic, physiology, psychology and emotions (Smith, 2007).
Trends, Extent and Determinants of Yoga UseA nationally representative sample of the United States reveals that most lifetime subscribers to yoga, compared to non-subscribing parties have a high chance of being younger, female, black or non-Hispanic white, educated to college level, financial stable, and healthy (Cramer et al., 2016, p. 31). Cramer et al. (2016) realized that most people in the US practiced yoga to treat either back pain or as a preventative measure against disease (p. 230). Yoga has not been a mainstream activity in the US given its foreign nativity in India. Hence, literature in India indicates the various roles that yoga plays in the society, and thus the figureheads and stakeholders of such roles embody yoga in its true essence. The occupation of such roles also acts as a potent determinant of yoga practice. Zhu et al. (2016) conducted a systematic review that listed the various ways in which Indians identify with yoga including the Islamic faith and leadership (p. 122, 128). However, the sociological trends in yoga participation as described by Cramer et al. (2016) indicate that females are more likely to participate in yoga than males.
Tradition and Culture of YogaThe differences in yoga practice in China and India is essential to understand the reasons behind the practice of yoga in China. This was necessary because as earlier on discussed, yoga originated from India and therefore it was essential to follow the path yoga took from its source, inception in the country till its current status today thereby encompassing the social aspect of life of the people of China and the culture/traditions that yield from yoga practice.
Culture AspectThe development of yoga in India occurred around 2,500 years ago around the time traditional Chinese Medicine was being developed in China, a health care system. These included various types of healing/relaxing exercises that were referred to as Tai Chi and Qigong. The inception of yoga to China was just an addition to the therapeutic exercises such as Tai Chi that existed. Other schools of thought, however, believe that different people all over the world developed yoga in different forms and its inception was not necessarily in India, although India was the main developer of the practice. This much is agreed upon (Anon., 2013; Abbott, 2014; Rogers 2010).
Yoga as it is known know in its modern form was however introduced into Hong Kong by a practitioner named Wai Lana through China’s Central Television in the year 1988. Her numerous exercises that were aired provided the basis of inspiration for yoga students and yoga centres in the country (PTI, 2016; Louli, 2018; Gao, 2017; Feretti, 2008; Shih, 2018).
Social aspect of yoga as defined by cultureYoga practice in China is majorly along the lines of gender. A research authorized by the Chinese government shows that more women than men are yoga practitioners. The study shows that the women are motivated by the need to maintain their youthful glow and good health.
The practise of yoga is seen to be rampant among the society of China and is seemingly increasing by the day. The first official research in China on India’s yoga practice, ‘Blue Book’ entitled, China Yoga Industry Development Report, shows that the widespread increase in yoga practice in China. This widespread has been immensely increased by the great connection that exists between India’s yoga in its purest form and the traditional Chinese culture such as traditional Chinese medicine. A series of questionnaires and various types of interviews such as face-to-face interviews were used in different cities to obtain this information (Patranobis, 2017 p. 4).
Yongjian Zhang, one of the many scholars who wrote the Blue Book in May 2015, in a yoga conference showed the distinct difference that exists between Indian and Chinese practice of yoga. According to him, India has its leading yoga practitioners being male while China has most of its yoga practitioners being women of between the ages of 25 and 40. This evidence supports the ideation that there is a sharp discrepancy in yoga practice in China based on gender and age (Patranobis, 2017 p. 22).
In addition to this, Yongjian Zhang also noted another clear distinction in the reasons why yoga is practiced in the two countries.
Yoga in IndiaIn his research, Yongjian Zhang claimed that in India, people practice yoga as part of a spiritual order and a mode of philosophical gain.
Yoga in ChinaThe first official research in China on India’s yoga practice, ‘Blue Book’ entitled, China Yoga Industry Development Report, shows that the main purpose as to why people in China practise yoga is to maintain their good state of health and young appearance as earlier on mentioned (Patranobis, 2017 p. 51).
Furthermore, Yongjian Zhang’s study evidences that the culture of practicing yoga in China is also motivated by alternative variables like the rate of development of China’s economy and the income levels among the people. Cities with a high income have many yoga centres thus promote the practice of yoga. To support this, he made comparisons between well to do economies of cities such as Hong Kong, Jilin, Lioning and Heilongjiang (although relatively less developed in their economy) and he compared this to the economies of other cities such as Xinjiang, Uyghur and Tibet that have a lower economic growth and development rate. These regions do not practice yoga as much as the other cities that have better economies thus have less yoga centre. According to the Blue Book report, China has approximately 10,800 registered yoga teaching centres (Patranobis, 2017, p. 44). However, yoga can also be considered a cost-effective sport as it requirements minimal equipment and can be done independently after a few classes (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine 2009; Aboagye et al. 2015).
A survey done by Gaille (2015) on 21 Staggering Yoga Demographics in the United States show Statistics that depict a direct interrelation between household income and attendance of yoga classes. According to this study, Gaille showed that 68% of Yoga practitioners make approximately $75,000 every year. This statistic only indicates that the culture of yoga is for the rich is highly predominant and the fact that almost all centres that offer yoga have their prices being high does not help eradicate this notion. These high prices, however, lead to only the affluent benefiting from the full range of benefits accrued from practicing yoga (Godard, 2018; Marylynn Wei, 2016). Other than the exercises, the survey also showed that many of the struggling people could not afford the yogic diet that comes with the activities thereby not supporting the cause of attaining a widespread cultural practice of yoga among the people.
Yongjian Zhang’s research also showed that the increasing spread of practicing yoga between the Chinese was because of people’s need to protect themselves against lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and heart-related problems. This need to defend oneself from such conditions was the ultimate goal of achieving an overall state of good health (Patranobis, 2017 p. 12). In her research titled Role of yoga in prevention and management of lifestyle diseases, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani (2017, p. 47) illustrated how yoga, not only helps in prevention of lifestyle disorders but also aids in the management of mental and emotional stress thereby providing relief to affected practitioners. To achieve this, she illustrated how good health and stress management correlate with each other through a comprehensive approach of following yogic diet, lifestyle, attitude and general exercises. Together, they provide stress relief that is fundamental for general well-being.
Birdee et al. (2008, pp. 13-30) used a cross-sectional data survey technique in which they obtained data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of 2002 that showed impacts that yoga has on lifestyle diseases. The results showed that a negative correlation between the two as yoga practitioners developed fewer lifestyle diseases and the affected ones managed the diseases more effectively that non-yoga practitioners. Their results also showed great mental development and limited to few musculoskeletal conditions among yoga practitioners.
Various societal/social aspects can be used to achieve an increase in the numnber of yoga participants in Hong Kong. Among these aspects that can be used include:
1. Education
The public importance of yoga incentivized the establishment of the founding yoga college in China in the year 2015. The India-China Yoga College (ICYC) was because of several agreements between China and India. The school admits students from both countries and thus seeks to break cultural barriers. It also offers post-graduate studies on yoga (Ding, 2018 p. 3). 2. Peace-building initiatives
Yoga can be used to spread peace among the people in the society. This abiility to promote peace is further facilitated by the fact that yoga is increasingly being practiced by more people. According to Yoga International, about 10 million Chinese practice yoga now compared to the 16 million Americans practicing it. This trend stems from higher rates charged in areas like those that Shanghai compared to charges in America (Yunxiu 19, p. 19; Shih, Kim & Cohen 2018, p. S14). Despite this, many Chinese are increasingly practicing yoga, although not in its raw Indian form, the American kind, causing many to claim it to be the upcoming new yoga superpower (Xiao-ying 2010, p. 26; Juan 2005, p. 27). The fact that yoga is being practiced in almost all part of the countries and is being leveraged as an instrument to promote peace is increasingly increasing its popularity (Simpson, 2018).
Why is yoga still not as widespread as it should be despite the numerous rewards that come with it as seen?
2. Gender
Gender still poses as the main problem that limits the growth of yoga in the society. Despite the apparent benefits associated with yoga, as mentioned above, women still practice yoga more than men in China and other parts of the world except for India. This is attested to partrichal reasons such as the perception of yoga being a female sport. Other men claim to lack the flexibility ‘required’ to perform yoga. According to a survey conducted by Elaine et al. (2017) through a series of interviews, results showed that the main reasons as to why men shy off from yoga included the ones mentioned above in addition to the idea that the peaceful nature of yoga, meditation and the mantra associated with modern yoga gives it a feminine viewpoint. The survey showed that men deem themselves as patriarchal figures who lack the femininity needed to practice yoga. The study also showed that men shy away from yoga because they believe it does not pose as a challenge that results from a painful experience from which one emerges victorious. These patriarchal answers were synonymous to both male and female counterparts who participated in the research. The bulk of respondents in this survey were females, accounting for 80% of the total respondents. This statistic only shows the extent to which yoga is taken to be feminine.
Yoga cuts across all genders and its benefits are accrued by all, and, therefore, there is motivation to promote the practice to all, particularly to men in China thus breaking down the cultural walls the idea that yoga is only for female practitioners. A well-known fact is that in history, men primarily practiced yoga. This fact shows the need to put an end to this belief is that yoga is not for men (Bhogal 2018, p. 1; Chanda, Singh & Verma, p. 18). The yoga known to the world of today actually dates back to Krishnamacharya in 1888, who together with his wife taught yoga to men in India. He later started offering classes to females separately from men giving them less intense activities. This shows that excuse often given by men that they are not nearly as flexible or anatomically gifted to practice yoga is merely an excuse. This should form a basis for encouraging men to go back to the practice as it was well done by their fellow men before (Mah 2017).

Chapter 3: MethodologyThis section focuses on the procedure that was utilized to collect data and the instruments employed in collecting data (data instruments) by the researcher. The section has various parts: research design, location of the study, target population, sample size and techniques, variables, validity of the study and its research instruments and their reliability, data collection, data analysis and ethical considerations. Research design will majorly address the population size the instruments of data collection and their validity. In data collection, a detailed account of how the data is collected and analysed will be highlighted. It will also discuss the ethical considerations required in research design and data collection processes.
Research Design
Myers, Well, and Lorch (2010) defined the framework of a research as the general conceptual structure that is utilized by the investigator in conducting a given study. There are various structural designs that can be employed when conducting a particular research; descriptive, explanatory, and theoretical. In this study, the researcher will employ a descriptive research design. Through descriptive design, the study will be able to tell the pattern of yoga participation that exist in Hong Kong (Bhogal, 2016). The descriptive design aims at explaining the aetiology of circumstances. In our case why the population of individuals actively participating in Yoga within Hong Kong is the way it is. In selecting this type of research design, the investigator is guided by the objectives and the research questions. In particular, the investigator will focus on explaining the absorption of yoga among the residents of HK. Based on the observations made, the investigator will make informed explanations on the hypotheses proposed.
Besides, the descriptive approach, it is critical that the investigator identifies the scientific approach that will be utilized to elucidate the observations made. In this regard, the researcher proposes the use of a deductive research approach. In using the deductive design, the investigator will rely on the proposed hypotheses, which will help in formulating general statements (Brems et al., 2016; Cottrell & McKenzie 2010; Schwartz-Shea & Yanow 2013). From these general statements, the researcher will develop an account for the existing theories, and hypotheses from which a conclusion will be founded. Moreover, the choice of a deductive approach is necessitated by the concept that the framework is scientific in nature hence it will favour the hypothesis testing procedure. Besides, the deductive approach will form bases of explaining the social, gender and cultural influence of Hong Kong residence yoga practice (Myers, Well, and Lorch, 2010). In conclusion, the deductive approach is applicable in this investigation in that it an in-depth analysis of the correlation between the selected predictors, case in point, the correlation between the sex of the yoga participants with other variables such as cultural and social factors.
Site of the StudyThe site of the research covers the whole of Hong Kong. Hong Kong is an autonomous city found in southeastern China. It has a population of 7,448,900 million. The geographical size of Hong Kong is 2,755 kilometres square, a cosmopolitan town dominated by the Han Chinese that comprise of about 90 percent of the population.
Target Population
The objective population for this study encompasses the whole population of Yoga participants in Hong Kong. The researcher is investigating how social factors affect both male and female active participation in Yoga within Hong Kong. The study will take a sample of 64 individuals who .will partake in the research by answering the and taking part in interviews. The population will include individuals from different backgrounds, religion, gender and age all of whom actively take part in Yoga (C. McCall, 2013). It is vital to note that the study targets the yoga participation behavior of all individuals from all works of life in Hong Kong. One .of the target finding for the research is to determine how social factors affect the active engagement of individuals into yoga. The research findings will be a representation of the whole population in Hong Kong.
The research population targeted by the study targets people of different ethnicity since Hong Kong is a cosmopolitan city. Since the study hinges on yoga activity, it will only target individuals who regularly do Yoga.
Sample Capacity and Sampling MethodsThe sample capacity of the research will comprise of 64 individuals (60 filled questionnaire, 4 were interviewed) from different backgrounds all of whom reside in Hong Kong. A convenience sampling method will be used to select participants, who are Hong Kong residents aged 18 years or above. Every participant will be invited to give his or her consent. In particular, the investigator will use the convenience sampling that will encourage the relevant respondents to have their views taken into account. In this regard, the researcher will select the representative sample using stratified sampling technique (Amaratunga, Baldry, Sarshar, and Newton, 2002). The first strata will consider sex gender of the responders in which the ratio for selection will proportional to each gender. The second strata will consider on the age of the responders where the entire group will be above 18 years. The sample size of the participants to be used in this investigation will be calculated using the Yamane’s sample size determination formula:
N = N/ (1+Ne^2)
The sampling technique will be convenience sampling as the study aimed to determine the influence of different social factors to the general participation of individuals in yoga practice. Convenience sampling allows the selection of persons that fit the characteristics that are suitable for participation in this study. Since the city is big and only 64 individuals are required for the study. Persons with disability, medically prescribed yoga practice or yoga instructors were left out of the study due to their leaning towards yoga that might arise bias in the study. This move will give a sense of relevance of the sample from the Hong Kong population participating in the study (Jain, 2012). The study will integrate both yoga instructors (teachers) and other participants (students) in its sampling.
Variables in the studyThe study is composed of dependent and independent variables. The independent variables in the study are the demographic factors that individuals in the study possess while the dependent predictor is their activeness in yoga participation. The social factors are not controlled by other factors in the study. Their change, however, changes the likeliness on an individual engaging in yoga. What the statement means is that social factors affect the dependence of the sample population on yoga. Research suggests that Yoga practice in Hong Kong is majorly done to keep fit or for spiritual purposes (Groessl, Chopra and Mills, 2015). The social status of an individual may greatly affect their need to practice yoga in terms of time and dedication. If an individual is overweight due to leading a social life that predisposes them to be overweight, then they might get the urge to do yoga (Moliver et al., 2011). An individual from a lower social class who might not get all the necessary nutrition to add weight might not be very devoted to yoga. The same case might happen due to their spiritual attachment to yoga. An individual who sees yoga as a way to build their spiritual awareness is more motivated to do yoga than an individual who does not connect their spiritual attachment to yoga (Kaley-Isley, 2016). Social-spiritual factors are, therefore, the independent variables in our study and the dependent predictor is the active participation in yoga due to the involvement of the social-spiritual factors (Mukherjee, 2016).
Research InstrumentsThe research instrument to employ in this research is the utilization of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire comprises of two parts that the respondents have to answer; the first part contains demographical information of the respondent such as their age, sex and their level of income. The second part will contain information on the respondents’ preference for yoga, and what inhibits or pushes them towards practicing yoga (Law, 2015). Each individual participating in the design will be required to fill one questionnaire after which they might be called to retake the questionnaire after some time so as to increase the trustworthiness of the questionnaire.
The 20-question interview followed an almost similar structure to the questionnaire with an added aspect of the qualitative data collected. The interviews were supposed to be recorded and stored for the development of transcripts and extraction of qualitative data. However, all interviewees did not provide consent for the recording of their intervews. These recordings could have limited the errors due to written documentation or remembering from memory. Moreover, observed bodily ques add to the quality of responses.
The advantage of employing the use of questionnaires is that they are fast. For instance, in our case, we can get all the information filled by the 64 participants simultaneously. The other advantage is that it also makes the accumulation of data very easy. One disadvantage of relying on questionnaires is that unscrupulous individuals might use the chance to give false information that will lead to wrong representation by the research.
The Validity of the Research InstrumentsThe validity of the research instruments refers to the accuracy to which a measurement tool used for collecting data gives relative to the representation on the ground. The validity of the such a tool is important as it affects the outcome of a study. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire is accurate, the study will carry out a pilot programme with the questionnaire to determine its accuracy before the actual research (Shetty, 2016). The pilot activity will help reconstruct any ambiguity that might lead to data misinformation of loss before the undertaking of the investigation.
The validity of research on a questionnaire is hard to establish as questionnaires rely on putting trust in the sample population. In some cases, the participants might end up falsifying the information they give. The use of test-retest can help determine the consistency of the data given by an individual. Another method of getting the respondents to give trustworthy information is through taking time to explain the aim and importance of the study to the respondents before they undergo the data sharing process (Shetty, 2016).
Reliability of the Study
A research tool’s reliability refers to the measure in which it gives consistent results when employed after a repeated trial. The pilot project will help calibrate the instrument into giving consistent results throughout the investigation. The study will also incorporate the use of the test-retest technique. It involves administering the same questionnaire twice to the same respondent. The outcome will tell on whether the information given by the respondent is consistent and accurate for use in the research study. Test-retest brings a sense of trustworthiness to the data collected. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient will also get used in assaying the reliability of the instruments used (Telles et al., 2014).
Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient
N (xy – (x) (
y)
3429004762500
(Nx 2 – ( ∑x ) 2 ( Ny2 – (y) 2
Correlation between two variables x and y
X y

Some of the products of each x deviation X y deviation
∑ x2

The sum of squared X scores
∑ y2

The sum of squared Y scores
N

Total number of items
Data CollectionData collection refers to the methods used to gather the information required by the study. It entails the whole process of carrying out interviews and filling of the questionnaires.
The investigation will adopt a mixed method approach through the use of both questionnaire survey and interviews and 60 participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire encompassing around 40 questions. For the interview, 4 participants were asked to conduct an interview including about 20 questions. It took 20 to 30 minutes to complete each interview. The data collection will be conducted in English. The mixed framework regards the utilization of both first-hand and second-hand data. Regarding secondary data, the investigator will use past literature. The materials that will be utilized by the investigator are peer-reviewed journals, websites, magazines, and textbooks. However, the investigator will be disadvantaged when using the secondary method approach since the research topic has not been adequately been covered by many scholars. Also, being a research in arts and culture, there is a likelihood that the information obtained from the website could be biased in order to entice tourists (Rankin-Box, 2015). As noted above, the primary data will be collected through a survey technique in which the interviews and questionnaires will be employed as the research tools. The importance of the two research tools being the ability to reach a higher number of respondents and the fact that it minimizes biases in the collected raw data (YJ EDITORS, 2013). It is also fast and easy to employ the research tools. Mainly, the investigator will use survey research design. The researcher will request voluntary submission from the targeted respondents before scheduling the interviews. The mode of communication with the potential interviewees includes emails and telephones. For questionnaires, permission will be sought through emails or referrals from colleagues and friends.
The questionnaires are tailored to give multiple options for answers so as to get rid of any ambiguity from the respondent while they give their answers. The multiple choices will also make it easy for respondents. The person who will be in charge of undertaking the interviews will first create a rapport with the sample population to make any clarification on questions they might want more light to be shed on (Rao, Varambally and Gangadhar, 2013). The interviews and questionnaire will only get undertaken after the respondents have been assured of total confidentiality and also after they give their consent of participation.
The conduction of interviews also added to the qualitative data that the study had to determine its hypothesis. The interviews were semi-structured allowing the interviewees room to describe the etiology of their answers.
Data AnalysisData analysis is simply checking the information gathered to ensure they are consistent and that all the errors in them are eliminated. The questionnaires are checked to ensure their completeness in filling. The move is aimed at spotting any omissions or errors analysis also helps to examine the eligibility of the respondent. For instance, in our example, analysis of the questionnaire might be able to rule out any respondent who participated in the survey and yet they are below 18 years of age. Through the analysis, one is able to determine whether the responses given by the sample size are relevant for the study.
Data analysis also involves the process of collating and coding of the data collected. The data will eventually get categorized and synthesized. For quantitative data, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software Program will be utilized to analyse the data (YJ EDITORS, 2013). The information will then get generated and presented in form of tables, graphs and pie charts.
Data analysis is an important step that builds up to the evaluation and interpretation of the collected information. Data analysis mostly goes hand in hand with the collection of the data collected so as to save the time spent on data sifting. Accumulating data for later analysis often builds a room for errors. It is therefore advisable to analyse the information as it comes. Data analysis should be done by a trained staff as the data is needed in its accurate form for the research to give accurate results.
Ethical considerationsThe ethical considerations that the study will adhere to include; requesting for the offered consent of the persons partaking in the research, no one will be coerced or forcefully enrolled in the study without their consent. The researcher must assure the respondent confidentiality of the information they will give. Part of the confidentiality is achieved by the fact that the questionnaires do not ask for an individual’s name or identification details. The audio files for the interviews were stored in a password-encrypted USB storage device and kept safely in a school locker. The data will be stored for three years after which it will be deleted. The third ethical consideration is that the information acquired will not be used anywhere else apart from the study it is intended for (McCall, 2012). The research will also ensure it provides an equitable selection of the respondents through the employment of random sampling. Sampling should be random since the information sorted for will be a representation of the whole city.

Chapter 4: Results and DiscussionResultsThis section will analyse the collected variables to identify their trends descriptively and through correlations to deduce the correlation of the data to gender, age, income and education levels.
The questionnaire respondents were 60 in number (45 females, 15 males) aged between 18 to 64 years old. 16.67 percent (n=10) of the participants partook in yoga for less than 6 months, while 11.67 percent (n=7) of them for 7 to 12 months. 55 percent (n=33) of them have been practicing yoga for about one to one and a half years. 10 percent (n=6) had taken part in yoga for 37 to 72 months while the rest (1.17 percent – one women) have been participating in yoga for more than 73 months. The highest prevalence of yoga was realized in the group that have been participating in yoga between one to one and a half years, with women making the larger portion of this group (n=27). 69.70 percent (n=24) of the people in modal group was within the 24 to 35 years age range. The relationship between gender and the period of partaking in yoga does not exhibit statistical significance (p=0.322); hence, the first hypothesis is denied. However, age is a potent determinant of participation in yoga (p=0.049); hence, confirming the third hypothesis. This relationship might stem from the financial stability of persons in the 24 to 35 years that encourages their health-seeking behaviors.
Most women thought of yoga as beneficial for their mental health (n=22) and as a good alternative fitness program (n=15) while almost 50 percent of the males thought it as a way to make students calmer (n=7) and improve mental health (n=5). Opinions about the perceived benefits of yoga indicated a distinct statistical difference (p=0.002). However, in answering the question, “What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Why?”, most interviewees cited flexibility, cardiologic benefits and muscular strength as the benefits that yoga afforded males. However, the age differences of the sample had little influence on their reason to partake in yoga (p=-.204). Moreover, the gender differences showed a statistical difference in knowledge about yoga (p=0.002); however, up to 75 percent of the study sample knew about yoga from their friends, family or relatives. Age-related difference in knowledge about yoga show no significance (p=.358) despite the increasing online participation of younger audiences that makes them likely to learn of it from online sources while older generations subscribe to paper media (Castells 2010, p. 152).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Main Reasons for Practicing YogaParticipation in yoga exhibits no gender differences in relation to the time that it is practiced (p=0.736) and spending on yoga (p=0.498).
Age differences show no significance in the number of instances that yoga is practiced independently over a week (p=0.433). However, middle-aged persons exhibit a high prevalence of yoga practice. Furthermore, there is a difference in age-related yoga practicing times in the selected sample (p=.0000). Apparently, age is a potent predictor of yoga habits than gender.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Gender vs Independent practice of yogaEducation levels do not influence the awareness on yoga (p=0.334), the reasons behind participating (p=0.966), the periodicity and the duration of yoga that they do. Moreover, the education levels have insignificant statistical significance on the other investigated variables.
There is a substantial correlation between the income levels and the time that one practices yoga (p=0.047). This correlation could stem from the amount of disposable time available to persons with low-income individuals having more time to participate in yoga than high-income individuals.
96.8 percent of the participants considered yoga to be mostly a female activity in Hong Kong. 26.6 percent assumed the women want get fit, 7.8 percent thought it was because of female-directed advertising, 3.1 percent thought it was exclusively a female sport while another 3.1 percent thought that men are embarrassed to be associated with such a feminine sport (see Figure 3). Only one respondent answered “no” to the interview question “Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity?”. A majority of the participants (57.9 percent) disagree that yoga is a feminine activity. This opinion is not related to their gender (p= 0.932).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Gender-based opinion on if yoga a feminine activity36.67 percent of the population attribute yoga to inner peace. However, the excitement to participate in yoga shows insignificant statistical difference among the sexes (p=0.257).
Only 7 percent of the representative population does not participate in other sports apart from yoga. This trend is not different across the gender barrier (p=0.254). Participation in multiple sports is a common occurrence.
The population perceives that yoga is most beneficial for women in strengthening stabilizers (37.5 percent), improving mobility (25 percent), mindfulness (15.6 percent) and weight loss (12.5 percent). As for males, the outstanding perceived benefits are strengthening stabilizers (40.6 percent), improving mobility (31.3 percent) and reducing chance of injury (14 percent). Social interaction is not a perceived priority among those who go to yoga.
42.2 percent of the population prefer a female yoga instructor while 34.4 percent prefer a male instructor. The rest have no preference as to the sex of the instructor. These preferences do not have significant correlations to the gender of the population (p=0.096). Most of the population (60.9 percent) is neutral to the sex of the instructor and its impact on their performance of yoga while 31.2 percent of the population insist that it would have no impact on their performance; hence, dismantling the patriarchal reasoning that was assumed fomerly. This correlation lacks a gender association too (p=0.053). In essence, the stereotypical assignment of occupations has long been an archaic stance. Therefore, most people are at ease with either sex assuming responsibilities that are traditionally assigned to other sexes without patriarchal undertones.
85.9 percent of the population either had no issue or were comfortable with yoga poses despite their feminine nature (coquettishness). More so, the male population showed limited objection to this aspect as the correlation of this opinion to gender had no significance (p=0.143). Most of the male interviewees answered the question “Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish?” without the expected patriarchal undertones, and they understood that the poses served a greater purpose than their physical outlook.
93.8 percent of the population are comfortable with mixed gender yoga classes. This preference is also uniform across both genders (p=0.233). The mindfulness conferred by yoga to its practitioners could be a factor in dispelling the pickiness and worry that might arise from having shared classes with the opposite sex (a consequence of this correlation shown in Figure 4). Similarly, 87.5 percent of the population would not sign up for a class owing to the celebrity status of its instructor. The lack of a mainstream audience for yoga makes people keen on the content rather than the superficial features of yoga. An interviewee answered the question “Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Why?” with a “no” stating that “…it is the class quality that matters”. A celebrity yogi is good and all, but yoga practitioners are after the sport’s benefits rather than its glamor. The concern for the appearance of the coach is only significant in age-based differences (p=0.027). The percentage of the population concerned about the appearance of the yoga coach decreases with increasing age. This trend shows a growth or maturity-related increase in depth of perception of the significance of yoga from a superficial perspective in the population’s younger years.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 Effect of sex instructor’s gender on yoga participationA majority of representative sample (92.2 percent) perceive that yoga advertising mostly targets women. An interview answered this question, “Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Why?”in a similar fashion and blamed the existing patriarchal stereotypes on its occurrence.
65.6 percent of the population considers yoga to be a difficult activity. The seemingly minimalistic sport is challenging to most of the people that have taken an interest in it. Unlike what one would expect from a feminine sport, yoga calls for the sequestering of incredible physical and mental might. Unsurprisingly, this view is similar across gender lines (p=0.095) and age groups (p=0.078). The difficulty of yoga is not selective of gender or age as its presentation seems to be. Yoga is a demanding sport, and to benefit from all its perquisites, it demands intense physical and mental investment.
46.9 percent of the population prefers dynamic yoga, 32.8 percent static yoga and 20.3 de-stressing yoga. Statistically, such preferences are not gender specific (p=0.399). The intentions to partake in yoga are variable for different people. Therefore, the arbitrary alternation of preferences from person to person account for the previous results that indicated arbitrary reasons for participation in yoga. The majority of persons that prefer dynamic yoga indicate the need for physical fitness more than mindfulness and disease treatment or prevention. Such trends indicate that yoga practitioners have different tastes in their own sense.
A majority of the representative sample (76.6 percent) do not mind having an opposite sex instructor to teach yoga. This variable has lacks a gender inclination of statistical significance (p=0.282). This appreciation of the skills of yogis despite their sex is creditable to the progressive nature of society. In addition, most of those interested in yoga (93.8 percent) paid little interest to the opposite sex in building their intent to attend yoga. Moreover, 64.1 percent of the population had were neither thrilled nor abhorred by the thought of a same gender yoga class. Such realization decimates the gender-based stereotypes that exist in regards to yoga and those who attend its classes. 95.3 percent had no issue with the assistance of an opposite sex instructor in adjusting their yoga pose. All these qualitative opinions lack statistical gender distinction according to the results.
Moreover, 78.1 percent of individuals are yet to have a negative experience in yoga class, and this has no gender correlation (see Figure 5). Those who did largely attributed it to the difficulty in performing a pose (7.8 percent) or being teased for their actions in yoga class (6.3 percent). These occurrences are commonplace given the difficulty of yoga that most of the population had acknowledged in earlier results.
Overall, the major expectations of the population while participating in yoga includes muscle muscular stretching (42.2 percent), relaxation (31.3 percent) and physical exercise (12.5 percent). Spiritual and mindfulness is key to 12.6 percent of the population while the remainder seek life coaching from yoga.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 Effect of Negative Yoga Experience to wanting a Same-Sex InstructorThe lack of significant correlation in most of the predictors with gender, age groups, education and income level might stem from a systemic error that was overlooked in the sampling stage. The sample was not accurate in its representation of the populations that it was trying to investigate.
DiscussionThe findings on the perceived benefits of yoga (see Figure 1) differ from the conclusions of Cramer et al. (2016) who found that people mostly subscribe to yoga for treating back pain or disease prevention. Also, this population does not strongly replicate Ding’s (2018) finding that yoga helps students to achieve tranquility.
Zhu et al. (2016) noted that yoga is a cultural sport; therefore, the social aspect of its adoption does not come as a surprise in these findings. Age-related difference in knowledge about yoga show no significance (p=.358) despite the increasing online participation of younger audiences that makes them likely to learn of it from online sources while older generations subscribe to paper media (Castells 2010, p. 152). Hence, the findings support existing literature in estimating that yoga is acquired from social relationships rather than from various media. Similarly, education levels had no influence on yoga awareness. This relationship is a function of the cultural nature of yoga. It is not a part of most educational curricula but it is engrained in societies. Consequently, the majority of people learn of it from their friends, family or relatives (Waegemann 2010, p. 25; Georg 2002).
The timing of yoga practice among the population lacks potent predictors. Yoga is a light sport in that it does not require partners (once experienced), and expensive equipment. Therefore, the timing of practice is largely to one’s convenience, making it statistically impractical to pin down the time that individuals are more inclined to be participating yoga. Moreover, given the relatively low cost of yoga, cost is rarely a factor that determines participation in the sport (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine 2009; Aboagye et al. 2015).
Middle-aged persons have a higher likelihood of participating in yoga independently. This trend is likely because of their cultured knowledge of the sport compared to their younger counterparts. Alternatively, older people may be wary of hurting themselves while practicing independently; hence, the need for an instructor to assist them with yoga.
The findings revealed that income levels have an inverse relationship with amount of yoga participation. This finding goes against Gaille’s (2015) postulation that high income families have high participation in yoga. Alternatively, people who work long hours only have nights or weekends to partake in yoga (Gura 2002, p. 4; Mulla & Krishnan 2006, p. 27).
Most participants perceive yoga as a feminine activity. The existing stereotypes are a significant indicator of the behaviors of people within the society. There are alternative opinions regarding why most people think yoga is a female sport. However, if its tradition is anything to go by, yoga is a unisex sport that has unyielding benefits for both sexes. Therefore, in their stereotypical avoidance of the sport, the men in Hong Kong are denying themselves of the much-needed benefits associated with yoga.
Zhu et al. (2016) listed mental health, tranquility, religious enlightenment (Islam), leadership ability and much more to yoga. These latent benefits conferred by yoga to its subscribers enables allows them to have a calm and undisturbed persona. The 36.67 percent of the population attributed yoga to their inner peace.
93 percent of the population participate in other sports aside from yoga. Supplementing another sport with yoga is convenient as it helps in improving mobility, flexibility and agility (Atkinson 2010, p. 1265; Tekur, Singphow, Nagendra & Raghuram 2008, p. 639). The exertion that other sports requires is cancelled out during yoga sessions. Therefore, yoga can be considered an outlet for the stresses of other sports that an individual partakes in beforehand.
Most people perceive the value of yoga as intrinsic to its form rather than the people around it (Smith 2007; Harinath et al 2004). The significance of yoga is appreciated deeply by both parties involves, and persons invested in it for superficial reasons rarely find relevance within its circles (Smith et al. 2011). Hence, social interaction, genders of the instructor, and its influence on their performance are not a priority for those who attend yoga. However, the interview question, “Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Why?” showed that a disproportionate composition of a yoga class might make a participant uncomfortable. Moreover, the question, “Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor helped you adjust the pose? Will you resist? Why?” indicated that most of the participants would be uncomfortable. However, the benefits of yoga supersede its superficial coquettishness that any experienced yoga practitioner looks beyond when in their element unlike some research findings (Elaine et al. 2017). It would be ignorant to assume that such poses define the essence of yoga (Mah 2017). Actually, yoga is an evidence-based practice that optimizes the physical, mental and spiritual acuities of its practitioners with age-old movements (Patranobis 2017 p. 22; Ives & Sosnoff 2000, p. 68).
As mentioned before, with coquettish poses, seemingly low physical exertion and lack of contact makes it difficult to market to men whose patriarchy is a huge part of their identity. The benefits of yoga are hard to grasp in media, and advertisers that intend to turn a profit market resort to the most convenient population to market to in the current social environment: women (Puustinen & Rautaniemi 2015, p. 46).
An interviewee answered the question, “Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Why?” with neutrality because he would rather have an instructor with “…great knowledge about yoga, not about sexual”. As mentioned before, the essence of yoga supersedes the sexist perspectives that its audience might harbor (Bhogal 2018, p. 1). Hence, in actual practice, gender is not a potent predictor of yoga practice despite the apparent difference in yoga participation that favors females.
Chapter 5: ConclusionIf the chosen population was representative of yoga participation in Hong Kong, indeed there is a gender difference in the participation in yoga. The results of this research estimate that there exists a significant proportional difference in the participation in yoga based on gender and age. This variation is largely attributed to the patriarchal considerations that drive one to participate in yoga. Moreover, mainstream media rarely targets men to participate in yoga. However, the habit of practicing yoga stems from familial sources since it is a traditional or cultural sport. Therefore, one is likely to participate in yoga if their family, friends or relatives have adopted it. Beyond the personal perspectives, yoga offers significant health benefits that everyone could benefit from. Therefore, the systematic avoidance of yoga practice is deleterious to the health of a majority of the Hong Kong population. These findings suggest that the advertising, attitudes and perceived benefits of yoga need adjustment for people to take yoga seriously. There are reliable publications that advocate for the incorporation of yoga into our activities of daily living. This research, albeit askew in the variation of its sample, has shown that most people recognize yoga for its intensity, benefits and gender neutrality. Therefore, the assumption that males do not appreciate yoga is unfounded; however, the male proportion of the sample size does not inspire confidence in the replicability of the results of this research. Hence, the existing research gap could be filled with a research that is fairly representative of genders, age groups, education levels and income levels. This perfection is hard to achieve given the already askew composition (mostly female) of people that participate in yoga that are necessary for the inclusion in such a study. Nevertheless, this study dispelled stereotypes that exist about the sexism in yoga practice and the inspirations behind the participation in yoga.
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AppendixCrosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
What is your gender? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How long have you been practicing yoga CrosstabulationCount
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is your gender? Female 6 5 27 3 3 1 45
Male 4 2 6 3 0 0 15
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
What is your gender? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? CrosstabulationCount
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is your gender? Female 3 3 1 22 1 15 45
Male 1 7 2 5 0 0 15
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
What is your gender? * How did you find out about yoga? CrosstabulationCount
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is your gender? Female 33 7 4 1 45
Male 13 2 0 0 15
Total 46 9 4 1 60
What is your gender? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is your gender? Female 34 8 1 2 45
Male 12 1 0 2 15
Total 46 9 1 4 60
What is your gender? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is your gender? Female 23 15 6 1 45
Male 10 3 1 0 14
Total 33 18 7 1 59
What is your gender? * What time can you practice? CrosstabulationCount
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is your gender? Female 5 39 1 45
Male 1 14 0 15
Total 6 53 1 60
What is your gender? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? CrosstabulationCount
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is your gender? Female 19 15 8 3 45
Male 8 6 1 0 15
Total 27 21 9 3 60
What is your gender? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is your gender? Female 21 12 3 5 2 0 1 1 45
Male 5 5 1 1 1 2 0 0 15
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
What is your gender? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? CrosstabulationCount
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 2 8 8 25 2 45
Male 0 3 3 8 1 15
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
What is your gender? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is your gender? Female 3 13 4 7 3 9 4 2 45
Male 0 9 1 2 0 1 0 2 15
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
What is your gender? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? CrosstabulationCount
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is your gender? Female 11 13 19 2 45
Male 2 7 6 0 15
Total 13 20 25 2 60
What is your gender? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? CrosstabulationCount
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is your gender? Female 14 10 3 1 9 2 6 45
Male 4 4 1 2 1 2 1 15
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is your gender? Female 1 18 11 3 3 9 45
Male 2 3 5 0 4 1 15
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is your gender? Female 0 20 16 9 0 45
Male 1 4 4 4 2 15
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
What is your gender? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? CrosstabulationCount
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is your gender? Female 21 13 11 45
Male 4 9 2 15
Total 25 22 13 60
What is your gender? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 1 0 28 14 2 45
Male 2 1 11 1 0 15
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
What is your gender? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) CrosstabulationCount
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is your gender? Female 1 3 12 24 5 45
Male 0 4 4 6 1 15
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
What is your gender? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? CrosstabulationCount
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is your gender? Female 1 44 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 3 57 60
What is your gender? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? CrosstabulationCount
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 4 8 12 19 2 45
Male 1 3 9 2 0 15
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
What is your gender? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) CrosstabulationCount
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 3 13 24 5 45
Male 0 6 8 1 15
Total 3 19 32 6 60
What is your gender? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? CrosstabulationCount
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is your gender? Female 42 0 3 45
Male 13 1 1 15
Total 55 1 4 60
What is your gender? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is your gender? Female 6 20 8 11 45
Male 3 11 1 0 15
Total 9 31 9 11 60
What is your gender? * What type of yoga would you like? CrosstabulationCount
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is your gender? Female 11 24 10 45
Male 9 5 1 15
Total 20 29 11 60
What is your gender? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is your gender? Female 5 2 38 45
Male 5 1 9 15
Total 10 3 47 60
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q28. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is your gender? Female 3 15 7 1 1 17 1 45
Male 1 4 4 1 0 5 0 15
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
What is your gender? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? CrosstabulationCount
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is your gender? Female 1 44 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 3 57 60
What is your gender? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? CrosstabulationCount
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is your gender? Female 1 1 5 30 7 1 45
Male 1 2 1 10 0 1 15
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
What is your gender? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? CrosstabulationCount
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 1 21 22 1 45
Male 0 8 5 2 15
Total 1 29 27 3 60
What is your gender? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is your gender? Female 7 37 1 45
Male 3 12 0 15
Total 10 49 1 60
What is your gender? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? CrosstabulationCount
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is your gender? Female 8 37 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 10 50 60
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q34. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is your gender? Female 1 4 5 34 0 1 45
Male 1 0 0 13 1 0 15
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
What is your gender? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? CrosstabulationCount
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is your gender? Female 6 1 14 20 3 1 45
Male 1 3 5 5 1 0 15
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How long have you been practicing yoga CrosstabulationCount
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 8 5 23 4 0 1 41
35-44 years old 0 2 6 2 1 0 11
45-54 years old 2 0 3 0 2 0 7
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? CrosstabulationCount
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 8 2 19 0 10 41
35-44 years old 2 2 0 6 0 1 11
45-54 years old 0 0 1 2 1 3 7
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How did you find out about yoga? CrosstabulationCount
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 31 8 2 0 41
35-44 years old 8 0 2 1 11
45-54 years old 6 1 0 0 7
Total 46 9 4 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 31 6 0 4 41
35-44 years old 8 2 1 0 11
45-54 years old 6 1 0 0 7
Total 46 9 1 4 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 24 12 4 0 40
35-44 years old 4 4 2 1 11
45-54 years old 5 1 1 0 7
Total 33 18 7 1 59
Which age category below do you belong to? * What time can you practice? CrosstabulationCount
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 4 37 0 41
35-44 years old 0 10 1 11
45-54 years old 2 5 0 7
Total 6 53 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? CrosstabulationCount
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 17 16 7 1 41
35-44 years old 6 3 0 2 11
45-54 years old 4 2 1 0 7
Total 27 21 9 3 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 18 10 0 6 3 2 1 1 41
35-44 years old 4 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 11
45-54 years old 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 7
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? CrosstabulationCount
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 8 7 22 3 41
35-44 years old 0 1 2 8 0 11
45-54 years old 1 2 1 3 0 7
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 2 15 3 5 2 6 4 4 41
35-44 years old 1 5 0 3 0 2 0 0 11
45-54 years old 0 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 7
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? CrosstabulationCount
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 8 15 18 0 41
35-44 years old 2 3 4 2 11
45-54 years old 3 2 2 0 7
Total 13 20 25 2 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? CrosstabulationCount
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 11 9 1 3 10 2 5 41
35-44 years old 5 1 3 0 0 1 1 11
45-54 years old 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 7
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 3 13 8 3 6 8 41
35-44 years old 0 5 4 0 0 2 11
45-54 years old 0 2 4 0 1 0 7
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 15 13 11 1 41
35-44 years old 0 5 4 2 0 11
45-54 years old 0 3 3 0 1 7
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? CrosstabulationCount
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 16 17 8 41
35-44 years old 4 3 4 11
45-54 years old 4 2 1 7
Total 25 22 13 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 2 1 26 10 2 41
35-44 years old 1 0 8 2 0 11
45-54 years old 0 0 5 2 0 7
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) CrosstabulationCount
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 0 6 12 17 6 41
35-44 years old 1 0 3 7 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 0 6 0 7
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? CrosstabulationCount
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 39 41
35-44 years old 1 10 11
45-54 years old 0 7 7
Total 3 57 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? CrosstabulationCount
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 4 8 15 13 1 41
35-44 years old 0 1 4 5 1 11
45-54 years old 1 1 2 3 0 7
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) CrosstabulationCount
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 1 13 23 4 41
35-44 years old 1 5 3 2 11
45-54 years old 1 1 5 0 7
Total 3 19 32 6 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? CrosstabulationCount
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 39 1 1 41
35-44 years old 8 0 3 11
45-54 years old 7 0 0 7
Total 55 1 4 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 9 20 6 6 41
35-44 years old 0 7 0 4 11
45-54 years old 0 4 2 1 7
Total 9 31 9 11 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * What type of yoga would you like? CrosstabulationCount
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 15 20 6 41
35-44 years old 3 6 2 11
45-54 years old 2 2 3 7
Total 20 29 11 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 1
25-34 years old 7 3 31 41
35-44 years old 2 0 9 11
45-54 years old 1 0 6 7
Total 10 3 47 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q28. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 2 11 7 2 0 18 1 41
35-44 years old 1 6 3 0 0 1 0 11
45-54 years old 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 7
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? CrosstabulationCount
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 39 41
35-44 years old 0 11 11
45-54 years old 1 6 7
Total 3 57 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? CrosstabulationCount
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 2 3 5 25 4 2 41
35-44 years old 0 0 0 10 1 0 11
45-54 years old 0 0 1 5 1 0 7
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? CrosstabulationCount
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 19 18 3 41
35-44 years old 0 6 5 0 11
45-54 years old 0 3 4 0 7
Total 1 29 27 3 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 8 33 0 41
35-44 years old 2 8 1 11
45-54 years old 0 7 0 7
Total 10 49 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? CrosstabulationCount
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 8 33 41
35-44 years old 2 9 11
45-54 years old 0 7 7
Total 10 50 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q34. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 3 4 32 0 1 41
35-44 years old 1 0 1 8 1 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 0 6 0 0 7
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
Which age category below do you belong to? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? CrosstabulationCount
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 5 3 13 15 4 1 41
35-44 years old 2 0 4 5 0 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 2 4 0 0 7
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How long have you been practicing yoga CrosstabulationCount
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 0 4 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 1 4 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 5 22 3 1 1 39
Master’s Degree 1 1 3 2 2 0 9
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? CrosstabulationCount
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 2 0 3 0 1 6
Associate Degree 1 1 0 2 0 2 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 6 2 18 1 9 39
Master’s Degree 0 1 1 4 0 3 9
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How did you find out about yoga? CrosstabulationCount
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 6 0 0 0 6
Associate Degree 5 1 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 28 7 4 0 39
Master’s Degree 7 1 0 1 9
Total 46 9 4 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 4 0 1 1 6
Associate Degree 5 1 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 30 7 0 2 39
Master’s Degree 7 1 0 1 9
Total 46 9 1 4 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 3 2 0 1 6
Associate Degree 4 1 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 21 12 5 0 38
Master’s Degree 5 3 1 0 9
Total 33 18 7 1 59
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What time can you practice? CrosstabulationCount
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 0 6
Associate Degree 0 6 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 5 34 0 39
Master’s Degree 1 7 1 9
Total 6 53 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? CrosstabulationCount
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 5 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 4 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 15 14 9 1 39
Master’s Degree 3 5 0 1 9
Total 27 21 9 3 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 6
Associate Degree 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 17 10 3 5 2 1 1 0 39
Master’s Degree 5 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 9
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? CrosstabulationCount
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 0 1 4 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 7 6 22 3 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 2 5 0 9
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 10 2 6 3 8 4 4 39
Master’s Degree 0 4 2 2 0 1 0 0 9
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? CrosstabulationCount
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 3 2 0 6
Associate Degree 2 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 8 12 17 2 39
Master’s Degree 2 3 4 0 9
Total 13 20 25 2 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? CrosstabulationCount
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 6
Associate Degree 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 14 9 3 0 8 2 3 39
Master’s Degree 1 2 0 2 0 2 2 9
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 3 0 0 1 2 6
Associate Degree 0 3 1 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 12 11 2 4 7 39
Master’s Degree 0 3 4 0 2 0 9
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 3 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 0 16 11 10 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 4 4 1 0 9
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? CrosstabulationCount
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 4 1 6
Associate Degree 2 3 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 17 12 10 39
Master’s Degree 5 3 1 9
Total 25 22 13 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 6 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 0 3 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 1 25 9 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 5 4 0 9
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) CrosstabulationCount
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 1 3 2 0 6
Associate Degree 1 1 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 0 4 10 19 6 39
Master’s Degree 0 1 1 7 0 9
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? CrosstabulationCount
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 6
Associate Degree 0 6 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 36 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 3 57 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? CrosstabulationCount
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 1 4 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 3 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 4 6 12 16 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 2 4 1 9
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) CrosstabulationCount
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 1 3 2 6
Associate Degree 1 4 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 12 23 3 39
Master’s Degree 1 2 5 1 9
Total 3 19 32 6 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? CrosstabulationCount
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 4 1 1 6
Associate Degree 6 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 37 0 2 39
Master’s Degree 8 0 1 9
Total 55 1 4 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 6
Associate Degree 0 4 1 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 19 6 7 39
Master’s Degree 1 6 0 2 9
Total 9 31 9 11 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What type of yoga would you like? CrosstabulationCount
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 3 2 6
Associate Degree 1 3 2 6
Bachelor’s Degree 18 17 4 39
Master’s Degree 0 6 3 9
Total 20 29 11 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 6 6
Associate Degree 1 0 5 6
Bachelor’s Degree 8 3 28 39
Master’s Degree 1 0 8 9
Total 10 3 47 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q28. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 6
Associate Degree 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 15 8 2 0 12 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 1 0 1 5 0 9
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? CrosstabulationCount
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 6
Associate Degree 1 5 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 37 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 3 57 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? CrosstabulationCount
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 0 5 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 0 0 5 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 3 3 24 5 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 3 6 0 0 9
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? CrosstabulationCount
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 4 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 17 18 3 39
Master’s Degree 0 5 4 0 9
Total 1 29 27 3 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 1 6
Associate Degree 1 5 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 32 0 39
Master’s Degree 2 7 0 9
Total 10 49 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? CrosstabulationCount
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 5 6
Associate Degree 0 6 6
Bachelor’s Degree 9 30 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 10 50 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q34. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 1 5 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 1 0 5 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 3 4 28 1 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? CrosstabulationCount
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 0 1 5 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 4 1 15 14 4 1 39
Master’s Degree 2 1 1 5 0 0 9
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How long have you been practicing yoga CrosstabulationCount
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 5 21 5 0 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 3 2 8 0 1 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 2 0 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? CrosstabulationCount
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 9 1 16 0 10 39
$30,001 – $50,000 1 0 1 9 0 3 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 1 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How did you find out about yoga? CrosstabulationCount
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 30 5 4 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 11 2 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 46 9 4 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 30 5 1 3 39
$30,001 – $50,000 10 3 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 46 9 1 4 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? CrosstabulationCount
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 25 8 4 1 38
$30,001 – $50,000 5 7 2 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 33 18 7 1 59
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What time can you practice? CrosstabulationCount
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 13 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 6 53 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? CrosstabulationCount
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 20 14 3 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 4 5 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 2 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 27 21 9 3 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 16 11 3 6 1 1 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 6 4 0 0 2 1 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? CrosstabulationCount
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 4 8 24 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 7 1 5 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 16 3 5 2 5 4 3 39
$30,001 – $50,000 1 2 2 4 0 4 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? CrosstabulationCount
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 11 19 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 7 5 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 2 1 1 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 13 20 25 2 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? CrosstabulationCount
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 13 10 3 1 6 2 4 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 2 1 2 4 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 14 10 3 4 5 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 5 3 0 2 4 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? CrosstabulationCount
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 14 13 10 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 6 4 3 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 1
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? CrosstabulationCount
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 17 16 6 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 4 6 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 25 22 13 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 0 26 9 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 1 8 4 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 3 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) CrosstabulationCount
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 4 15 15 4 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 3 1 8 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 0 4 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? CrosstabulationCount
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 14 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 3 57 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? CrosstabulationCount
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 0 9 16 13 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 2 4 4 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) CrosstabulationCount
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 16 19 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 3 9 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 0 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 0 1
Total 3 19 32 6 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? CrosstabulationCount
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 36 1 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 13 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 1
Total 55 1 4 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 17 7 8 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 10 1 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 9 31 9 11 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What type of yoga would you like? CrosstabulationCount
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 14 17 8 39
$30,001 – $50,000 5 7 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 20 29 11 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? CrosstabulationCount
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 2 30 39
$30,001 – $50,000 3 1 10 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 1
Total 10 3 47 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q28. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 4 10 10 2 0 12 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? CrosstabulationCount
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 14 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 3 57 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? CrosstabulationCount
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 3 3 23 6 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 0 2 12 0 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 2 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? CrosstabulationCount
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 20 18 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 4 7 3 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 1 29 27 3 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? CrosstabulationCount
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 6 32 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 10 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 10 49 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? CrosstabulationCount
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 32 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 12 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 10 50 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q34. CrosstabulationCount
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 3 4 29 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 0 1 12 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? CrosstabulationCount
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 5 3 15 15 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 0 3 5 3 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 1 1 2 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Crosstabs
Notes
Output Created 20-NOV-2018 00:50:06
Comments Input Data C:UsersdavidDownloadsUntitled2 (1).savActive Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working Data File 60
Missing Value Handling Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics for each table are based on all the cases with valid data in the specified range(s) for all variables in each table.
Syntax CROSSTABS
/TABLES=gender age grades income BY no._practicing_yoga reason find_out no._of_times no._of_hours when spend_on_yc which_gender_more feminine get_you_excited helpful other_sports benefits_female benefits_male instructor diff_or_easy coquettish comfortable appearance celebrity_t advertising
diff_activity type_of_yoga opposite_sex_instructor Refer_Q28 much_opp_sex same_gender adjust
look_your_pose negative Refer_Q34 expect_t_most_of /FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES
/STATISTICS=CHISQ
/CELLS=COUNT
/COUNT ROUND CELL.
Resources Processor Time 00:00:00.27
Elapsed Time 00:00:00.57
Dimensions Requested 2
Cells Available 524245
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
What is your gender? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
Which age category below do you belong to? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How long have you been practicing yoga 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What is your main reason of practice yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How did you find out about yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? 59 98.3% 1 1.7% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What time can you practice? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What type of yoga would you like? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q28. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q34. 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? 60 100.0% 0 0.0% 60 100.0%
What is your gender? * How long have you been practicing yogaCrosstab
Count
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is your gender? Female 6 5 27 3 3 1 45
Male 4 2 6 3 0 0 15
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.399a 5 .369
Likelihood Ratio 6.033 5 .303
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.172 1 .279
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * What is your main reason of practice yoga?
Crosstab
Count
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is your gender? Female 3 3 1 22 1 15 45
Male 1 7 2 5 0 0 15
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.516a 5 .002
Likelihood Ratio 21.070 5 .001
Linear-by-Linear Association 12.160 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * How did you find out about yoga?
Crosstab
Count
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is your gender? Female 33 7 4 1 45
Male 13 2 0 0 15
Total 46 9 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.965a 3 .580
Likelihood Ratio 3.169 3 .366
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.727 1 .189
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is your gender? Female 34 8 1 2 45
Male 12 1 0 2 15
Total 46 9 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.622a 3 .454
Likelihood Ratio 2.851 3 .415
Linear-by-Linear Association .204 1 .652
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is your gender? Female 23 15 6 1 45
Male 10 3 1 0 14
Total 33 18 7 1 59
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.940a 3 .585
Likelihood Ratio 2.209 3 .530
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.733 1 .188
N of Valid Cases 59 a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .24.
What is your gender? * What time can you practice?
Crosstab
Count
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is your gender? Female 5 39 1 45
Male 1 14 0 15
Total 6 53 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .612a 2 .736
Likelihood Ratio .874 2 .646
Linear-by-Linear Association .128 1 .720
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly?
Crosstab
Count
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is your gender? Female 19 15 8 3 45
Male 8 6 1 0 15
Total 27 21 9 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.377a 3 .498
Likelihood Ratio 3.258 3 .353
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.840 1 .175
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (37.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is your gender? Female 21 12 3 5 2 0 1 1 45
Male 5 5 1 1 1 2 0 0 15
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.638a 7 .366
Likelihood Ratio 7.702 7 .360
Linear-by-Linear Association .763 1 .382
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity?
Crosstab
Count
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 2 8 8 25 2 45
Male 0 3 3 8 1 15
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .848a 4 .932
Likelihood Ratio 1.325 4 .857
Linear-by-Linear Association .096 1 .756
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 6 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
What is your gender? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is your gender? Female 3 13 4 7 3 9 4 2 45
Male 0 9 1 2 0 1 0 2 15
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.940a 7 .257
Likelihood Ratio 11.128 7 .133
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.051 1 .305
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful?
Crosstab
Count
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is your gender? Female 11 13 19 2 45
Male 2 7 6 0 15
Total 13 20 25 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.388a 3 .496
Likelihood Ratio 2.866 3 .413
Linear-by-Linear Association .000 1 1.000
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (37.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
What is your gender? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports?
Crosstab
Count
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is your gender? Female 14 10 3 1 9 2 6 45
Male 4 4 1 2 1 2 1 15
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.909a 6 .433
Likelihood Ratio 5.553 6 .475
Linear-by-Linear Association .063 1 .802
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 10 cells (71.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is your gender? Female 1 18 11 3 3 9 45
Male 2 3 5 0 4 1 15
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.454a 5 .063
Likelihood Ratio 10.499 5 .062
Linear-by-Linear Association .036 1 .850
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 7 cells (58.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is your gender? Female 0 20 16 9 0 45
Male 1 4 4 4 2 15
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.386a 4 .034
Likelihood Ratio 9.789 4 .044
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.980 1 .084
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor?
Crosstab
Count
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is your gender? Female 21 13 11 45
Male 4 9 2 15
Total 25 22 13 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.691a 2 .096
Likelihood Ratio 4.567 2 .102
Linear-by-Linear Association .147 1 .701
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 1 cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.25.
What is your gender? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 1 0 28 14 2 45
Male 2 1 11 1 0 15
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.347a 4 .053
Likelihood Ratio 9.913 4 .042
Linear-by-Linear Association 7.648 1 .006
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 7 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose)
Crosstab
Count
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is your gender? Female 1 3 12 24 5 45
Male 0 4 4 6 1 15
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.813a 4 .307
Likelihood Ratio 4.494 4 .343
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.022 1 .155
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 6 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class?
Crosstab
Count
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is your gender? Female 1 44 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.924a 1 .087 Continuity Correctionb1.053 1 .305 Likelihood Ratio 2.451 1 .117 Fisher’s Exact Test .151 .151
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.875 1 .090 N of Valid Cases 60 a. 2 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table
What is your gender? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance?
Crosstab
Count
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 4 8 12 19 2 45
Male 1 3 9 2 0 15
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.018a 4 .135
Likelihood Ratio 7.694 4 .103
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.405 1 .236
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
What is your gender? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam)
Crosstab
Count
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 3 13 24 5 45
Male 0 6 8 1 15
Total 3 19 32 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.661a 3 .646
Likelihood Ratio 2.385 3 .496
Linear-by-Linear Association .011 1 .918
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to?
Crosstab
Count
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is your gender? Female 42 0 3 45
Male 13 1 1 15
Total 55 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.055a 2 .217
Likelihood Ratio 2.828 2 .243
Linear-by-Linear Association .188 1 .664
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is your gender? Female 6 20 8 11 45
Male 3 11 1 0 15
Total 9 31 9 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.743a 3 .081
Likelihood Ratio 9.420 3 .024
Linear-by-Linear Association 5.470 1 .019
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (37.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.25.
What is your gender? * What type of yoga would you like?
Crosstab
Count
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is your gender? Female 11 24 10 45
Male 9 5 1 15
Total 20 29 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.683a 2 .035
Likelihood Ratio 6.590 2 .037
Linear-by-Linear Association 5.848 1 .016
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 1 cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.75.
What is your gender? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is your gender? Female 5 2 38 45
Male 5 1 9 15
Total 10 3 47 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.303a 2 .116
Likelihood Ratio 3.891 2 .143
Linear-by-Linear Association 4.229 1 .040
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q28.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is your gender? Female 3 15 7 1 1 17 1 45
Male 1 4 4 1 0 5 0 15
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.309a 6 .889
Likelihood Ratio 2.649 6 .851
Linear-by-Linear Association .074 1 .786
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 10 cells (71.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class?
Crosstab
Count
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is your gender? Female 1 44 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.924a 1 .087 Continuity Correctionb1.053 1 .305 Likelihood Ratio 2.451 1 .117 Fisher’s Exact Test .151 .151
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.875 1 .090 N of Valid Cases 60 a. 2 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .75.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table
What is your gender? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender?
Crosstab
Count
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is your gender? Female 1 1 5 30 7 1 45
Male 1 2 1 10 0 1 15
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.667a 5 .247
Likelihood Ratio 7.722 5 .172
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.888 1 .169
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
What is your gender? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose?
Crosstab
Count
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your gender? Female 1 21 22 1 45
Male 0 8 5 2 15
Total 1 29 27 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.819a 3 .282
Likelihood Ratio 3.624 3 .305
Linear-by-Linear Association .229 1 .633
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is your gender? Female 7 37 1 45
Male 3 12 0 15
Total 10 49 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .473a 2 .789
Likelihood Ratio .710 2 .701
Linear-by-Linear Association .306 1 .580
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes?
Crosstab
Count
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is your gender? Female 8 37 45
Male 2 13 15
Total 10 50 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .160a 1 .689 Continuity Correctionb.000 1 1.000 Likelihood Ratio .166 1 .683 Fisher’s Exact Test 1.000 .519
Linear-by-Linear Association .157 1 .692 N of Valid Cases 60 a. 1 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.50.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table
What is your gender? * Why? Please refer to Q34.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is your gender? Female 1 4 5 34 0 1 45
Male 1 0 0 13 1 0 15
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.177a 5 .208
Likelihood Ratio 9.275 5 .099
Linear-by-Linear Association .528 1 .467
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 10 cells (83.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
What is your gender? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of?
Crosstab
Count
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is your gender? Female 6 1 14 20 3 1 45
Male 1 3 5 5 1 0 15
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.446a 5 .265
Likelihood Ratio 5.820 5 .324
Linear-by-Linear Association .396 1 .529
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .25.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How long have you been practicing yogaCrosstab
Count
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 8 5 23 4 0 1 41
35-44 years old 0 2 6 2 1 0 11
45-54 years old 2 0 3 0 2 0 7
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 16.952a 15 .322
Likelihood Ratio 18.527 15 .236
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.253 1 .263
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * What is your main reason of practice yoga?
Crosstab
Count
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 8 2 19 0 10 41
35-44 years old 2 2 0 6 0 1 11
45-54 years old 0 0 1 2 1 3 7
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.217a 15 .204
Likelihood Ratio 17.029 15 .317
Linear-by-Linear Association .180 1 .671
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How did you find out about yoga?
Crosstab
Count
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 31 8 2 0 41
35-44 years old 8 0 2 1 11
45-54 years old 6 1 0 0 7
Total 46 9 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.905a 9 .358
Likelihood Ratio 10.432 9 .317
Linear-by-Linear Association .071 1 .790
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 31 6 0 4 41
35-44 years old 8 2 1 0 11
45-54 years old 6 1 0 0 7
Total 46 9 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.712a 9 .667
Likelihood Ratio 6.980 9 .639
Linear-by-Linear Association .495 1 .482
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 24 12 4 0 40
35-44 years old 4 4 2 1 11
45-54 years old 5 1 1 0 7
Total 33 18 7 1 59
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.049a 9 .433
Likelihood Ratio 8.299 9 .504
Linear-by-Linear Association .174 1 .677
N of Valid Cases 59 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * What time can you practice?
Crosstab
Count
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 4 37 0 41
35-44 years old 0 10 1 11
45-54 years old 2 5 0 7
Total 6 53 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.338a 6 .214
Likelihood Ratio 7.677 6 .263
Linear-by-Linear Association .571 1 .450
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly?
Crosstab
Count
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 17 16 7 1 41
35-44 years old 6 3 0 2 11
45-54 years old 4 2 1 0 7
Total 27 21 9 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 13.173a 9 .155
Likelihood Ratio 11.848 9 .222
Linear-by-Linear Association .751 1 .386
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 18 10 0 6 3 2 1 1 41
35-44 years old 4 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 11
45-54 years old 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 7
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 20.581a 21 .485
Likelihood Ratio 23.897 21 .298
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.044 1 .153
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 30 cells (93.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity?
Crosstab
Count
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 8 7 22 3 41
35-44 years old 0 1 2 8 0 11
45-54 years old 1 2 1 3 0 7
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.651a 12 .559
Likelihood Ratio 9.690 12 .643
Linear-by-Linear Association .755 1 .385
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 16 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 2 15 3 5 2 6 4 4 41
35-44 years old 1 5 0 3 0 2 0 0 11
45-54 years old 0 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 7
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 17.279a 21 .694
Likelihood Ratio 17.904 21 .655
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.493 1 .222
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 29 cells (90.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful?
Crosstab
Count
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 8 15 18 0 41
35-44 years old 2 3 4 2 11
45-54 years old 3 2 2 0 7
Total 13 20 25 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.586a 9 .182
Likelihood Ratio 10.508 9 .311
Linear-by-Linear Association .538 1 .463
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
Which age category below do you belong to? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports?
Crosstab
Count
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 11 9 1 3 10 2 5 41
35-44 years old 5 1 3 0 0 1 1 11
45-54 years old 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 7
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 21.833a 18 .239
Likelihood Ratio 22.663 18 .204
Linear-by-Linear Association .373 1 .542
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 25 cells (89.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 3 13 8 3 6 8 41
35-44 years old 0 5 4 0 0 2 11
45-54 years old 0 2 4 0 1 0 7
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 11.719a 15 .700
Likelihood Ratio 15.477 15 .418
Linear-by-Linear Association .474 1 .491
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 15 13 11 1 41
35-44 years old 0 5 4 2 0 11
45-54 years old 0 3 3 0 1 7
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.482a 12 .824
Likelihood Ratio 8.799 12 .720
Linear-by-Linear Association .021 1 .884
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor?
Crosstab
Count
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 16 17 8 41
35-44 years old 4 3 4 11
45-54 years old 4 2 1 7
Total 25 22 13 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.953a 6 .683
Likelihood Ratio 4.132 6 .659
Linear-by-Linear Association .002 1 .963
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .22.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 2 1 26 10 2 41
35-44 years old 1 0 8 2 0 11
45-54 years old 0 0 5 2 0 7
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.467a 12 .941
Likelihood Ratio 6.377 12 .896
Linear-by-Linear Association .187 1 .665
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose)
Crosstab
Count
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 0 6 12 17 6 41
35-44 years old 1 0 3 7 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 0 6 0 7
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 16.267a 12 .179
Likelihood Ratio 19.578 12 .075
Linear-by-Linear Association .134 1 .714
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class?
Crosstab
Count
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 39 41
35-44 years old 1 10 11
45-54 years old 0 7 7
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .810a 3 .847
Likelihood Ratio 1.137 3 .768
Linear-by-Linear Association .027 1 .869
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance?
Crosstab
Count
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 4 8 15 13 1 41
35-44 years old 0 1 4 5 1 11
45-54 years old 1 1 2 3 0 7
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.512a 12 .744
Likelihood Ratio 8.292 12 .762
Linear-by-Linear Association .947 1 .330
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam)
Crosstab
Count
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 1 13 23 4 41
35-44 years old 1 5 3 2 11
45-54 years old 1 1 5 0 7
Total 3 19 32 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.644a 9 .570
Likelihood Ratio 8.588 9 .476
Linear-by-Linear Association .724 1 .395
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to?
Crosstab
Count
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 39 1 1 41
35-44 years old 8 0 3 11
45-54 years old 7 0 0 7
Total 55 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.646a 6 .140
Likelihood Ratio 7.778 6 .255
Linear-by-Linear Association .714 1 .398
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 9 20 6 6 41
35-44 years old 0 7 0 4 11
45-54 years old 0 4 2 1 7
Total 9 31 9 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.931a 9 .093
Likelihood Ratio 16.629 9 .055
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.383 1 .240
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 11 cells (68.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .15.
Which age category below do you belong to? * What type of yoga would you like?
Crosstab
Count
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 15 20 6 41
35-44 years old 3 6 2 11
45-54 years old 2 2 3 7
Total 20 29 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.625a 6 .593
Likelihood Ratio 4.500 6 .609
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.385 1 .239
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 1
25-34 years old 7 3 31 41
35-44 years old 2 0 9 11
45-54 years old 1 0 6 7
Total 10 3 47 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.764a 6 .940
Likelihood Ratio 2.820 6 .831
Linear-by-Linear Association .082 1 .775
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q28.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
25-34 years old 2 11 7 2 0 18 1 41
35-44 years old 1 6 3 0 0 1 0 11
45-54 years old 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 7
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 21.133a 18 .273
Likelihood Ratio 19.353 18 .370
Linear-by-Linear Association .854 1 .355
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 25 cells (89.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class?
Crosstab
Count
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 2 39 41
35-44 years old 0 11 11
45-54 years old 1 6 7
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.904a 3 .593
Likelihood Ratio 2.098 3 .552
Linear-by-Linear Association .436 1 .509
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender?
Crosstab
Count
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 2 3 5 25 4 2 41
35-44 years old 0 0 0 10 1 0 11
45-54 years old 0 0 1 5 1 0 7
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 13.549a 15 .560
Likelihood Ratio 13.232 15 .584
Linear-by-Linear Association .303 1 .582
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose?
Crosstab
Count
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 19 18 3 41
35-44 years old 0 6 5 0 11
45-54 years old 0 3 4 0 7
Total 1 29 27 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.262a 9 .953
Likelihood Ratio 4.753 9 .855
Linear-by-Linear Association .003 1 .954
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 0 1
25-34 years old 8 33 0 41
35-44 years old 2 8 1 11
45-54 years old 0 7 0 7
Total 10 49 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.446a 6 .375
Likelihood Ratio 6.689 6 .351
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.360 1 .244
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes?
Crosstab
Count
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 1 1
25-34 years old 8 33 41
35-44 years old 2 9 11
45-54 years old 0 7 7
Total 10 50 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.857a 3 .603
Likelihood Ratio 3.164 3 .367
Linear-by-Linear Association .932 1 .334
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .17.
Which age category below do you belong to? * Why? Please refer to Q34.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 1 3 4 32 0 1 41
35-44 years old 1 0 1 8 1 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 0 6 0 0 7
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.739a 15 .891
Likelihood Ratio 9.202 15 .867
Linear-by-Linear Association .018 1 .895
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
Which age category below do you belong to? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of?
Crosstab
Count
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching Which age category below do you belong to? 18-24 years old 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
25-34 years old 5 3 13 15 4 1 41
35-44 years old 2 0 4 5 0 0 11
45-54 years old 0 1 2 4 0 0 7
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.021a 15 .957
Likelihood Ratio 10.083 15 .814
Linear-by-Linear Association .198 1 .656
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How long have you been practicing yogaCrosstab
Count
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 0 4 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 1 4 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 5 22 3 1 1 39
Master’s Degree 1 1 3 2 2 0 9
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 11.519a 15 .715
Likelihood Ratio 11.107 15 .745
Linear-by-Linear Association .841 1 .359
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What is your main reason of practice yoga?
Crosstab
Count
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 2 0 3 0 1 6
Associate Degree 1 1 0 2 0 2 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 6 2 18 1 9 39
Master’s Degree 0 1 1 4 0 3 9
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.847a 15 .982
Likelihood Ratio 7.121 15 .954
Linear-by-Linear Association .614 1 .433
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How did you find out about yoga?
Crosstab
Count
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 6 0 0 0 6
Associate Degree 5 1 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 28 7 4 0 39
Master’s Degree 7 1 0 1 9
Total 46 9 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.631a 9 .381
Likelihood Ratio 9.911 9 .358
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.064 1 .151
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 4 0 1 1 6
Associate Degree 5 1 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 30 7 0 2 39
Master’s Degree 7 1 0 1 9
Total 46 9 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.048a 9 .211
Likelihood Ratio 8.651 9 .470
Linear-by-Linear Association .491 1 .483
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 3 2 0 1 6
Associate Degree 4 1 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 21 12 5 0 38
Master’s Degree 5 3 1 0 9
Total 33 18 7 1 59
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.315a 9 .326
Likelihood Ratio 6.818 9 .656
Linear-by-Linear Association .319 1 .572
N of Valid Cases 59 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What time can you practice?
Crosstab
Count
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 0 6
Associate Degree 0 6 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 5 34 0 39
Master’s Degree 1 7 1 9
Total 6 53 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.492a 6 .278
Likelihood Ratio 6.791 6 .341
Linear-by-Linear Association .479 1 .489
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly?
Crosstab
Count
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 5 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 4 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 15 14 9 1 39
Master’s Degree 3 5 0 1 9
Total 27 21 9 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 13.390a 9 .146
Likelihood Ratio 15.580 9 .076
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.909 1 .088
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 6
Associate Degree 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 17 10 3 5 2 1 1 0 39
Master’s Degree 5 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 9
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 22.014a 21 .399
Likelihood Ratio 24.193 21 .284
Linear-by-Linear Association .139 1 .709
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 30 cells (93.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity?
Crosstab
Count
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 0 1 4 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 7 6 22 3 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 2 5 0 9
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.978a 12 .705
Likelihood Ratio 9.759 12 .637
Linear-by-Linear Association .195 1 .659
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .20.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 10 2 6 3 8 4 4 39
Master’s Degree 0 4 2 2 0 1 0 0 9
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.909a 21 .527
Likelihood Ratio 24.408 21 .274
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.717 1 .190
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 29 cells (90.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful?
Crosstab
Count
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 3 2 0 6
Associate Degree 2 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 8 12 17 2 39
Master’s Degree 2 3 4 0 9
Total 13 20 25 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.377a 9 .984
Likelihood Ratio 2.924 9 .967
Linear-by-Linear Association .216 1 .642
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (81.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .20.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports?
Crosstab
Count
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 6
Associate Degree 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 14 9 3 0 8 2 3 39
Master’s Degree 1 2 0 2 0 2 2 9
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 21.157a 18 .272
Likelihood Ratio 22.304 18 .219
Linear-by-Linear Association .169 1 .681
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 25 cells (89.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 3 0 0 1 2 6
Associate Degree 0 3 1 1 0 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 12 11 2 4 7 39
Master’s Degree 0 3 4 0 2 0 9
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.197a 15 .664
Likelihood Ratio 16.440 15 .353
Linear-by-Linear Association .521 1 .470
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 3 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 0 16 11 10 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 4 4 1 0 9
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.292a 12 .423
Likelihood Ratio 8.565 12 .740
Linear-by-Linear Association .234 1 .628
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor?
Crosstab
Count
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 4 1 6
Associate Degree 2 3 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 17 12 10 39
Master’s Degree 5 3 1 9
Total 25 22 13 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.498a 6 .610
Likelihood Ratio 4.532 6 .605
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.014 1 .314
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 6 0 0 6
Associate Degree 1 0 3 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 1 25 9 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 5 4 0 9
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 8.552a 12 .741
Likelihood Ratio 10.737 12 .552
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.569 1 .210
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose)
Crosstab
Count
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 1 3 2 0 6
Associate Degree 1 1 2 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 0 4 10 19 6 39
Master’s Degree 0 1 1 7 0 9
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 16.782a 12 .158
Likelihood Ratio 14.157 12 .291
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.311 1 .069
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 18 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class?
Crosstab
Count
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 6
Associate Degree 0 6 6
Bachelor’s Degree 3 36 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.700a 3 .637
Likelihood Ratio 2.669 3 .446
Linear-by-Linear Association .111 1 .739
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance?
Crosstab
Count
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 1 4 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 3 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 4 6 12 16 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 2 4 1 9
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 11.064a 12 .523
Likelihood Ratio 13.693 12 .321
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.530 1 .060
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .20.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam)
Crosstab
Count
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 1 3 2 6
Associate Degree 1 4 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 12 23 3 39
Master’s Degree 1 2 5 1 9
Total 3 19 32 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 11.931a 9 .217
Likelihood Ratio 11.006 9 .275
Linear-by-Linear Association .173 1 .677
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 14 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to?
Crosstab
Count
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 4 1 1 6
Associate Degree 6 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 37 0 2 39
Master’s Degree 8 0 1 9
Total 55 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 11.211a 6 .082
Likelihood Ratio 6.957 6 .325
Linear-by-Linear Association .703 1 .402
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 6
Associate Degree 0 4 1 1 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 19 6 7 39
Master’s Degree 1 6 0 2 9
Total 9 31 9 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.142a 9 .822
Likelihood Ratio 7.035 9 .633
Linear-by-Linear Association .212 1 .645
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .90.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * What type of yoga would you like?
Crosstab
Count
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 3 2 6
Associate Degree 1 3 2 6
Bachelor’s Degree 18 17 4 39
Master’s Degree 0 6 3 9
Total 20 29 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.702a 6 .098
Likelihood Ratio 13.419 6 .037
Linear-by-Linear Association .096 1 .756
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 6 6
Associate Degree 1 0 5 6
Bachelor’s Degree 8 3 28 39
Master’s Degree 1 0 8 9
Total 10 3 47 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.848a 6 .697
Likelihood Ratio 5.787 6 .447
Linear-by-Linear Association .546 1 .460
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q28.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 6
Associate Degree 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 15 8 2 0 12 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 2 1 0 1 5 0 9
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 20.824a 18 .288
Likelihood Ratio 19.199 18 .380
Linear-by-Linear Association .725 1 .394
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 25 cells (89.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class?
Crosstab
Count
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 6 6
Associate Degree 1 5 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 37 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.510a 3 .473
Likelihood Ratio 2.638 3 .451
Linear-by-Linear Association .166 1 .683
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender?
Crosstab
Count
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 0 5 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 0 0 5 1 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 3 3 24 5 2 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 3 6 0 0 9
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.082a 15 .673
Likelihood Ratio 14.671 15 .475
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.552 1 .213
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .20.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose?
Crosstab
Count
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 1 0 6
Associate Degree 0 2 4 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 1 17 18 3 39
Master’s Degree 0 5 4 0 9
Total 1 29 27 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.941a 9 .746
Likelihood Ratio 7.258 9 .610
Linear-by-Linear Association .536 1 .464
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 14 cells (87.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 5 1 6
Associate Degree 1 5 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 7 32 0 39
Master’s Degree 2 7 0 9
Total 10 49 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.227a 6 .115
Likelihood Ratio 6.815 6 .338
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.073 1 .080
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes?
Crosstab
Count
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 5 6
Associate Degree 0 6 6
Bachelor’s Degree 9 30 39
Master’s Degree 0 9 9
Total 10 50 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.154a 3 .245
Likelihood Ratio 6.525 3 .089
Linear-by-Linear Association .047 1 .828
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 3 cells (37.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.00.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * Why? Please refer to Q34.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 0 0 1 5 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 1 0 5 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 2 3 4 28 1 1 39
Master’s Degree 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 6.829a 15 .962
Likelihood Ratio 9.937 15 .824
Linear-by-Linear Association .101 1 .751
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is the highest level of education you have completed? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of?
Crosstab
Count
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is the highest level of education you have completed? Secondary School 1 2 2 1 0 0 6
Associate Degree 0 0 1 5 0 0 6
Bachelor’s Degree 4 1 15 14 4 1 39
Master’s Degree 2 1 1 5 0 0 9
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 18.827a 15 .222
Likelihood Ratio 18.578 15 .234
Linear-by-Linear Association .310 1 .578
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (91.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .10.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How long have you been practicing yogaCrosstab
Count
How long have you been practicing yoga Total
Less than 6 months 7-12 months 13-36 months 37-72 months More than 73 months 5 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 5 21 5 0 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 3 2 8 0 1 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 2 0 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 10 7 33 6 3 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 33.042a 20 .033
Likelihood Ratio 23.905 20 .247
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.503 1 .114
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 27 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What is your main reason of practice yoga?
Crosstab
Count
What is your main reason of practice yoga? Total
Yoga has evidence-based benefits Yoga makes students calmer Yoga improves students’ performance overall Yoga provides mental health benefits I do not know why Yoga is a good alternative fitness program What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 9 1 16 0 10 39
$30,001 – $50,000 1 0 1 9 0 3 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 1 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Total 4 10 3 27 1 15 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 29.874a 20 .072
Likelihood Ratio 21.915 20 .345
Linear-by-Linear Association .063 1 .801
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 26 cells (86.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How did you find out about yoga?
Crosstab
Count
How did you find out about yoga? Total
Friend/ Parents / Relatives Online Media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Google search, Website) Paper Media (e.g. Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer) Other Media (e.g. Advertising light box) What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 30 5 4 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 11 2 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 46 9 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.883a 12 .794
Likelihood Ratio 8.306 12 .761
Linear-by-Linear Association .225 1 .635
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many times a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 Less than 1 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 30 5 1 3 39
$30,001 – $50,000 10 3 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 46 9 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.562a 12 .998
Likelihood Ratio 3.697 12 .988
Linear-by-Linear Association .055 1 .814
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own?
Crosstab
Count
How many hours a week do you practice yoga on your own? Total
1-2 3-4 5-7 More than 7 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 25 8 4 1 38
$30,001 – $50,000 5 7 2 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 33 18 7 1 59
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.064a 12 .297
Likelihood Ratio 15.650 12 .208
Linear-by-Linear Association .338 1 .561
N of Valid Cases 59 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What time can you practice?
Crosstab
Count
What time can you practice? Total
Morning Night Weekend What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 13 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 6 53 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 15.709a 8 .047
Likelihood Ratio 12.294 8 .139
Linear-by-Linear Association .024 1 .877
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (86.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly?
Crosstab
Count
How much do you spend on yoga classes on average monthly? Total
HK$ 100-400 HK$ 401-800 HK$ 801-1200 HK$ 1201-1600 What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 20 14 3 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 4 5 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 2 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 27 21 9 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.260a 12 .425
Likelihood Ratio 12.728 12 .389
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.236 1 .072
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 16 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
In your opinion, in Hong Kong, which gender participate more in yoga? Total
Female Female Reason: Keep fit Female Reason: Advertising Female Reason: Flexibility Female Reason: Static I don’t know Female Reason: The public thinks it is a female sport Female Reason:Men are so shy What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 16 11 3 6 1 1 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 6 4 0 0 2 1 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 26 17 4 6 3 2 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.112a 28 .895
Likelihood Ratio 21.626 28 .798
Linear-by-Linear Association .000 1 .986
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 37 cells (92.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity?
Crosstab
Count
Would you think the yoga is a feminine activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 4 8 24 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 7 1 5 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 2 11 11 33 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 30.018a 16 .018
Likelihood Ratio 20.729 16 .189
Linear-by-Linear Association .010 1 .920
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (84.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why would get you excited about doing yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Why would get you excited about doing yoga? Total
Yoga increases my personal well-being Yoga helps me find my inner peace Yoga fits my lifestyle well Yoga is more than just exercise to me Yoga perfectly meets my personal needs I see great results from yoga that no other type of exercise could provide I prefer yoga over other sports Yoga is just a fad that will end quickly What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 16 3 5 2 5 4 3 39
$30,001 – $50,000 1 2 2 4 0 4 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 3 22 5 9 3 10 4 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 25.473a 28 .602
Likelihood Ratio 23.197 28 .723
Linear-by-Linear Association .004 1 .951
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 36 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * How do you think that yoga may be helpful?
Crosstab
Count
How do you think that yoga may be helpful? Total
Became happier Felt less stressed and slept better Became more flexible and agile Found it easier to meditate What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 11 19 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 7 5 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 2 1 1 0 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 0 1
Total 13 20 25 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.892a 12 .538
Likelihood Ratio 11.113 12 .519
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.598 1 .107
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 16 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports?
Crosstab
Count
In addition to yoga, do you still participate in other sports? Total
Gym Running Cycling Ball Game Water Game Other outdoor activities No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 13 10 3 1 6 2 4 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 2 1 2 4 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 18 14 4 3 10 4 7 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 28.517a 24 .239
Likelihood Ratio 20.215 24 .684
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.037 1 .308
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 32 cells (91.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for female? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Weight lost Mindfulness What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 14 10 3 4 5 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 5 3 0 2 4 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Total 3 21 16 3 7 10 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 15.030a 20 .775
Likelihood Ratio 17.144 20 .644
Linear-by-Linear Association .375 1 .540
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 27 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male?
Crosstab
Count
What do you think are the benefits of yoga for male? Total
Social Interaction Strengthening stabilizers Improving mobility Reducing chance of injury Mindfulness What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 14 13 10 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 6 4 3 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 1
Total 1 24 20 13 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 5.423a 16 .993
Likelihood Ratio 7.332 16 .966
Linear-by-Linear Association .466 1 .495
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 21 cells (84.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor?
Crosstab
Count
Would you prefer a female instructor or a male instructor? Total
Female Male No opinion What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 17 16 6 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 4 6 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 25 22 13 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.520a 8 .300
Likelihood Ratio 10.995 8 .202
Linear-by-Linear Association .623 1 .430
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 10 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .22.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think an opposite sex instructor ever make you more difficult or easier to participate in yoga? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 0 26 9 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 1 8 4 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 3 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 3 1 39 15 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.930a 16 .870
Likelihood Ratio 10.732 16 .826
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.758 1 .185
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose)
Crosstab
Count
Do you think that doing some poses look like coquettish? (e.g. Wheel pose, Dancer pose, Cat pose) Total
Unwelcoming Uncomfortable Indifferent Comfortable Welcoming What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 4 15 15 4 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 3 1 8 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 0 4 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 1 7 16 30 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.109a 16 .591
Likelihood Ratio 17.430 16 .358
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.103 1 .294
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class?
Crosstab
Count
Would you be comfortable with having opposite sex learners in the same class? Total
A bit embarrassing Comfortable What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 14 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.700a 4 .791
Likelihood Ratio 2.669 4 .615
Linear-by-Linear Association .776 1 .378
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance?
Crosstab
Count
Will you go to a yoga class because of the coach’s appearance? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 0 9 16 13 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 2 4 4 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 5 11 21 21 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 26.394a 16 .049
Likelihood Ratio 24.224 16 .085
Linear-by-Linear Association .750 1 .386
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam)
Crosstab
Count
Will you sign up a yoga class because of the celebrity teacher? (e.g. Alex Lam, Coffee Lam) Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 16 19 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 3 9 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 0 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 0 1
Total 3 19 32 6 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.084a 12 .295
Likelihood Ratio 13.862 12 .310
Linear-by-Linear Association .643 1 .423
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 17 cells (85.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to?
Crosstab
Count
Which gender do you think that yoga advertising is targeting to? Total
Female Male I dont know What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 36 1 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 13 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 3 0 1 4
More than $100,000 1 0 0 1
Total 55 1 4 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.046a 8 .931
Likelihood Ratio 2.749 8 .949
Linear-by-Linear Association .565 1 .452
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 13 cells (86.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think yoga is a difficult activity?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think yoga is a difficult activity? Total
Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 17 7 8 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 10 1 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 1 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 9 31 9 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 7.237a 12 .842
Likelihood Ratio 8.729 12 .726
Linear-by-Linear Association .411 1 .521
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 15 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .15.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * What type of yoga would you like?
Crosstab
Count
What type of yoga would you like? Total
Static (e.g. Yin, Therapy, Warm & Relaxing Stretch) Dynamic (e.g. Hatha, Ashtanga, Vinyasa) De-Stressing (e.g. Pranayama & Meditation, Restorative) What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 14 17 8 39
$30,001 – $50,000 5 7 2 14
$50,001 – $80,000 1 2 1 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 20 29 11 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.906a 8 .866
Likelihood Ratio 5.070 8 .750
Linear-by-Linear Association .019 1 .891
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 11 cells (73.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga?
Crosstab
Count
Do you like the opposite sex instructor to teach yoga? Total
Yes No No opinion What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 2 30 39
$30,001 – $50,000 3 1 10 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 0 1 1
Total 10 3 47 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.390a 8 .967
Likelihood Ratio 3.843 8 .871
Linear-by-Linear Association .218 1 .641
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q28.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q28. Total
Oral instructions are more detailed Emphasis on pose guide details Like the opposite sex adjustment pose Do not like the opposite sex adjustment pose Others:The quality of the teacher is the most important No opinion Others:Male strong than female can protect students What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 4 10 10 2 0 12 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 4 19 11 2 1 22 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 28.712a 24 .231
Likelihood Ratio 26.158 24 .345
Linear-by-Linear Association .190 1 .663
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 31 cells (88.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class?
Crosstab
Count
Do you go to yoga class because you know that there is much opposite sex in yoga class? Total
Yes No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 2
$10,001 – $30,000 3 36 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 14 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 3 57 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.700a 4 .791
Likelihood Ratio 2.669 4 .615
Linear-by-Linear Association .776 1 .378
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 8 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .05.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender?
Crosstab
Count
Do you prefer yoga classes of your same gender? Total
Dislike Dislike Reason:Don’t like too many men in class Like No opinion Others:Gender equality Dislike Reason:Gender equality What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 3 3 23 6 2 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 0 2 12 0 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 1 2 1 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 2 3 6 40 7 2 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 10.264a 20 .963
Likelihood Ratio 14.234 20 .818
Linear-by-Linear Association .020 1 .889
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 28 cells (93.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .03.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose?
Crosstab
Count
Would you feel uncomfortable if the opposite sex instructor help you adjust the pose? Total
Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 1 20 18 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 4 7 3 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 2 2 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 0 1
Total 1 29 27 3 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.718a 12 .257
Likelihood Ratio 15.062 12 .238
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.182 1 .277
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 16 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose?
Crosstab
Count
Do you think the opposite sex students will look at your yoga pose? Total
Yes No I dont know What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 2 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 6 32 1 39
$30,001 – $50,000 4 10 0 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 0 4
More than $100,000 0 1 0 1
Total 10 49 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.403a 8 .907
Likelihood Ratio 4.670 8 .792
Linear-by-Linear Association .025 1 .873
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 12 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes?
Crosstab
Count
Have you had some negative experiences in yoga classes? Total
Yes No What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 1 1 2
$10,001 – $30,000 7 32 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 12 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 4 4
More than $100,000 0 1 1
Total 10 50 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.703a 4 .609
Likelihood Ratio 3.104 4 .541
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.659 1 .198
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 7 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .17.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * Why? Please refer to Q34.
Crosstab
Count
Why? Please refer to Q34. Total
An important part of the body is being watched Your actions are being teased You cannot do the pose of the instructor’s demo No opinion Others:be injured Others:Unnecessary touch What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 1 0 1 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 2 3 4 29 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 0 0 1 12 0 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 2 4 5 47 1 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 13.323a 20 .863
Likelihood Ratio 12.422 20 .901
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.417 1 .065
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 28 cells (93.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.
What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? * When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of?
Crosstab
Count
When you participate in a yoga class, what do you expect the most of? Total
Physical exercise Meditation/Mindfulness Relaxation Muscular stretching Spiritual guidance Life coaching What is your average monthly income (HK$) during the past 12 months? Less than $10,000 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
$10,001 – $30,000 5 3 15 15 1 0 39
$30,001 – $50,000 2 0 3 5 3 1 14
$50,001 – $80,000 0 1 1 2 0 0 4
More than $100,000 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 7 4 19 25 4 1 60
Chi-Square Tests
Value dfAsymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 18.238a 20 .572
Likelihood Ratio 18.316 20 .567
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.188 1 .276
N of Valid Cases 60 a. 27 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.

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