Free Can dogs predict epileptic Seizures? Dissertation Example

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Can dogs predict epileptic Seizures?

Category: Communication

Subcategory: Diabetes

Level: University

Pages: 20

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October 2014
Can Dogs Predict Epileptic Seizures?
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc515442150 h 1I.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515442151 h 2II.Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc515442152 h 3a.Theoretical Review PAGEREF _Toc515442153 h 3b.Critique of the existing literature relevant to the study PAGEREF _Toc515442154 h 4c.Training Seizure-Detection Dogs PAGEREF _Toc515442155 h 6d.Research Gaps PAGEREF _Toc515442156 h 7III.Meta-analysis of Seizure Alert Dogs Research PAGEREF _Toc515442157 h 9a.Obtaining Seizure Dogs PAGEREF _Toc515442158 h 11b.Training Protocol PAGEREF _Toc515442159 h 14c.Training Program PAGEREF _Toc515442160 h 16d.Alert Behavior PAGEREF _Toc515442161 h 18IV.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc515442162 h 18Works Cited PAGEREF _Toc515442163 h 20
Introduction
Two types of dogs are trained to offer services to epileptic individuals that experience seizures. Seizure Response Dog (SRD) (Brown and Strong 40): This kind is prepared to perform particular practices amid a seizure. These practices could incorporate actuating an alert/crisis call framework, yapping for help, or conveying a telephone to the individual.
Seizure Alert Dog (SAD): This kind of canine shows particular practices preceding a seizure. It is subsequently suggested that a SAD can foresee seizures. As opposed to prevalent thinking, seizure alert dogs can’t be prepared to distinguish approaching seizures (Brown and Strong 41). In reality, a few dogs appear to lack capacity to detect their master’s seizures previously at the start, this is uncommon.
A seizure alert dog can caution a man of approaching seizure minutes or hours before the individual has clinical indications of a seizure. At the point when prepared to have sheltered, solid conduct out in the open, seizure alert dogs can be benefit dogs for individuals with incapacities (Sachs-Ericsson, 251). All the proof about alert dogs has been assembled in this discussion systematically. There is by all accounts no less than two particular periods of modifying conduct. In the first place, the dog perceives that a seizure will happen. At that point, the canine physically responds to that recognition. A few theories have been proposed in the matter of what a dog perceives when a seizure will happen. A few people imagine that the canine sees minor changes in a man’s non-verbal communication or conduct seizure and acts as influencer (Pinikahana, and Dono, 515). Caroline Knapp indicates “fall in love with a dog, and in many ways you enter a new orbit, a universe that features not just new colors but new rituals, new rules, a new way of experiencing attachment” (Knapp, n.pag). Dogs are extremely keen on examining human non-verbal communication. Another speculation pertains dog identifies extremely inconspicuous outcomes in a man’s stench preceding a seizure. Whatever the component, this is a capacity which dog shows promptly or creates after some time when having association with man having seizure (Sachs-Ericsson, 251). The capacity in canines to recognize seizures is by all accounts genuinely normal, but various individuals with seizures are cautioned by their dogs. Lacking logical confirmation, it gives the idea that a dog’s impression of approaching seizures is not conducted that can be “prepared” in conventional sense; rather, it must be distinguished and empowered.
Literature ReviewThe chapter contains among others the theoretical framework drawn from the theories adopted for the study. Discussion of concepts outlined in the conceptual framework citing the views of different scholars in articles, journals, and books and was organized according to the research questions. A brief explanation of the concepts and variables involved in the study as understood by the researcher and summary of the key issues were highlighted.
Theoretical ReviewA theoretical framework regarding animal-assisted interventions guides the study. Animal-assisted interventions or therapy means that health professionals use animals to assist them in their work. Animal Assisted Therapy is a goal-directed intervention where an animal that satisfies certain criteria is interactively used for treatment (Pinikahana, and Dono, 519). Animal-assisted therapy is associated with four theories that include, cognitive theory, learning theory, attachment theory and the biophilia hypothesis. The cognitive theory focuses more on self-efficacy that is a belief in one’s ability to form behaviors that result in expected and desirable outcomes. Attachment theory focuses on the social bonds that are formed for instance between a patient and an animal. Biophilia hypothesis involves the genetic ability of humans to be attracted to other animals and attend to them (Pinikahana, and Dono 519). A few theories have been proposed in the matter of what a dog perceives when a seizure will happen. A few people imagine that the canine sees slight changes in a man’s non-verbal communication or conduct before a seizure and this is the trigger. Dogs are extremely keen on perusing human non-verbal communication. Another speculation is that the dog identifies extremely inconspicuous changes in a man’s stench preceding a seizure. Whatever the component, this is a capacity that the dog shows promptly or creates after some time while in contact with a man who has seizures. The cognitive theory focuses more on self-efficacy that is a belief in one’s ability to form behaviors that result in expected and desirable outcomes. Attachment theory focuses on the social bonds that are formed for instance between a patient and an animal. Biophilia hypothesis involves the genetic ability of humans to be attracted to other animals and attend to them. Historically, human contact with dogs and animals has led to a symbiotic relationship that favors genes and behaviors that leads to positive attitude towards such animals (Pinikahana, and Dono, 519). Learning theory is used to explain the decrease in arousal and anxiety during animal-assisted therapy. Learning to divert attention from pain or mental problems during assisted therapy results to a feeling of control. The four theories relating to animal-assisted intervention are relevant for this study since they seek to examine how dogs detect and respond to seizure before and after attack.
Critique of the existing literature relevant to the studySeizures are the main known characteristic of epilepsy a neurological condition caused by brain trauma, brain malformation and other diseases that cause brain lesion (Sevcencu and Struijk 726). The seizures can cause a person to have arm jerks, blank stares and stiffened muscles that lead fall down look like a plank and being hurt. An epileptic person can be helped to control seizures by implanting a vagal nerve stimulator on the chest that helps in blocking the seizures using the electrical pulses produced by the device. However, some seizures may be difficult to prevent and call for manual intervention like swiping a magnet over the implant hence the essence of the seizure control dogs. Animal-assisted therapy is associated with four theories that include, cognitive theory, learning theory, attachment theory and the biophilia hypothesis (Sevcencu and Struijk 733). The cognitive theory focuses more on self-efficacy that is a belief in one’s ability to form behaviors that result in expected and desirable outcomes. Attachment theory focuses on the social bonds that are formed for instance between a patient and an animal.
According to studies, the two types of dogs used in epileptic individuals perform the tasks of warning the patient about the coming of seizures and the second one helps the epileptic individuals during the time of seizures. The seizure alert dog senses and warns their masters of upcoming seizure. The masters of seizure alert dogs confirm that the dogs become their friends during training and can warn them of an incoming attack thirty seconds to forty-five minutes before it happens. The dogs have different ways of alerting their owners (Ortiz and Liporace 620). The dogs that respond to seizure provide help by lying next to a person who has chance of experiencing seizure or on top of them to give them comfort and prevent any unintentional injury. The dogs have specially trained behaviors like licking and barking at their owners to warn them of engaging in risky activities such as driving a car, taking baths or climbing stairs. The dog’s warnings signs can also help stave off a seizure for patients with vagal nerve stimulator by running a small magnet over it. It is impossible to determine the number of seizure dogs worldwide as they don’t reflect their age, gender or a specific breed (Ortiz and Liporace 620).
It is noted that only seizure-alert dogs can detect seizure and give indication to patients. Animals are more sensitive to slight biological and physical changes that humans miss. The most common theory on the dog’s ability to detect seizure is their superior ability with a sense of smell. Additionally, dogs are considered sensitive to body movements of their masters and also the overall body language when compared to humans hence their ability to detect minor changes in movement and behavior that occurs before the seizure.
Training Seizure-Detection DogsThe demand for seizure alert dog is high, and hence a few organizations have opened up to train them. An example of such an organization is 4 Paws for Ability. The organization places a hundred dogs with their children every year for training. Forty percent of the dogs are trained to become seizure alert dogs. Most trainers base their training on the knowledge that dogs can detect seizure using their strong sense of smell. Some dogs are born with the ability to pick signals whereas others require training. The Canine Partners for life organization believes that only specific dogs match up for the task. Susann Guy, the head of the organization claims that the ability to detect seizures is innate and cannot be trained (Mossello et al. 891). The organization receives over two thousand applications requesting for a service dog. When trainers identify a puppy endorsed with a powerful sense of smell which they help it to be chosen by epileptic persons who take it home and if it changes its behaviors before a seizure, it is considered as a special candidate for training. The dogs are usually matched with their future owners before they graduate from seizure alert school. Training seizure alert dogs are quite expensive, and the cost ranges from twenty thousand dollars and above (Mossello et al. 894). Canine for life charges between one thousand dollars to three thousand dollars for a dog that has passed through the foster home and qualified for the specialized training. An epileptic person can be helped to control seizures by implanting a vagal nerve stimulator on the chest that helps in blocking the seizures using the electrical pulses produced by the device. However, some seizures may be difficult to prevent and call for manual intervention like swiping a magnet over the implant hence the essence of the seizure control dogs. Animal-assisted therapy is associated with four theories that include, cognitive theory, learning theory, attachment theory and the biophilia hypothesis (Mossello et al. 893). The cognitive theory focuses more on self-efficacy that is a belief in one’s ability to form behaviors that result in expected and desirable outcomes. However, the organization does not sell it dogs everyone especially children aged below twelve years. The reasoning behind that decision is that young children are likely to turn the dogs into pests and hence degrade its skills and motivation as seizure alert dog. Notably, not all organization have such rules and, 4 Paws For Ability trains dogs for young children (Mossello et al. 895). The organization’s trains’ dog for the specific problem and temperament situation of every kid. The organizations currently own over a hundred in different locations that they are taken care of as their homes as well as institutional facilities. The service fee for training each dog is fifteen thousand, and it takes eighteen months for the dog to graduate.
A new study by Emily Singer indicates that some dogs can predict the condition of epileptic seizure from a child. These type of dogs don’t only protect children from injuries but also can protect the child from falling thus further helping a child deal with daily struggles with epilepsy. From the study, about nine dogs that were used in the experiment indicates that they could detect seizures through licking, standing close to child and whimpering. These type of dogs are remarkably accurate as the can predict seizure with a minimal case of false reports. However, individuals interested in owning such type of dogs requires skills in handling them. These type of dogs are often not trained but begins predicting seizures within a few months after moving to their owner’s premises. Emily indicates that “No one is really training such dogs yet” (Singer, n.pag). She thus focuses on setting training camps that incorporates various programs for dogs that can predict seizures. The study further indicates that children who are exposed to risks of chocking and falling due to eliplesy require special treatment in managing the condition. The study further indicates that “But the worst part of the disease isn’t a seizure, it’s fear of the next seizure, by knowing when a seizure might happen, it could liberate them and free them to do what they want to do.” Says Emily. The study by Emily provides detailed research to ascertain if the dogs can predict seizures. The study is based on minutes to hour’s model developed by Emily. The model indicates that dogs that can predict seizures are usually anecdotal. This study is based on systematic assessment of different dog’s behaviors by asking families and owners of dog’s questions regarding the behavior of the dogs. From the research, about 42% of families that each had an epileptic child and dog reported the existence of seizures (Singer, n.pag). About nine dogs anticipated in alerting families in minutes to hours whenever the condition of seizure happened. From the study, families that owned dogs reported as the significantly higher quality of life since the dogs could give an alert on the possible occurrence of a seizure. Some researchers are however based on speculations about visual subtle as well as olfactory cues which occur before seizures. Various neurologists indicate that dogs have the ability in detecting changes in smell as people process automatic changes caused by sweating and thus dogs can pick upon signals that imply certain condition. Reports from the department of managing eliplesy in children indicate that external changes results to electrical discharges that are triggered by the brain and thus these charges contribute to signals within the body that aids in detecting a particular condition.
Research by Maryann Mott focuses on examining how dogs have been used in saving people’s lives. However, dogs can detect seizures during early warnings as seizures come in a few minutes and sometimes a few hours. This allows individuals in taking seizure in blocking any form of medications or call for assistance. However, the condition of seizure has been managed as dogs can detect oncoming seizures among human beings. According to research, some trainers usually perceive that subtle changes in behavior among humans as well as scent happen thus creating an effective way of detecting seizures. The research is based on scientific studies that explore various changes in human functioning due to seizures. According to Mott, she perceives that seizure dogs are usually born with remarkable abilities that differentiate them from other animals (Mott, n.pag). Mott perceives that dogs can be trained easily as they can be trained to fetch, sit, and lay. However, it’s hard to train a dog to alert on various indications. In regards to seizures, dogs can exhibit exceptional behaviors such as pawing, whining, and anxious barking. Also, dogs come in a variety source, some come from sheltered animals and breeders. This makes alert behaviors in dogs for varying greatly as some dogs can be rained to have distinct features from other. Mott indicates that it’s possible to train a dog to stay with a person having seizures and also can be trained to press emergency lines whenever the condition emerges. However, selection of potential seizure alert dogs requires performing of various trainability tests as every dog which has been chosen reliably alerts to various pre-seizure activities. The research indicates that about 2 million Americans ails from epileptic seizure that can last differently based on variation of time and the severe of the condition. Epileptic condition inhibits some normal activities, and this expands the consequences of the seizure. Mott supports her research by use of 29 dogs in experimenting with seizures in a particular month. Out of the 29 dogs, only nine dogs responded to seizure among humans ((Mott, n.pag)). Dogs remain close champion by either standing alongside people in specific situations the dogs licks the faces or body parts that are affected by epilepsy. The nine dogs demonstrated that seizure is a condition that can be identified among people. Mott research doesn’t determine the actual number of dogs that show such abilities to detect seizures. This is caused by insufficient standardized certification and training means among dogs. However, individuals have trained their dogs differently, and thus few dogs can respond to different alerts. Mott research implies that dogs can be used in providing second life chance to people by giving specific alerts to seizure condition.
Research GapsThe dogs training regimens are not supported satisfactorily by research. Studies between 1990 and 200 do not give any supporting evidence of the dog’s ability to detect a seizure. According to Moretti, the dogs are not very accurate, and the proper randomized trial has not been tested on them (Moretti et.al. 125). According to a study published in 2004, two patients were put under continuous monitoring of their brain using electroencephalogram and their trained dogs put beside them (Moretti et al. 126). The dogs were unable to give the correct prediction of the seizure. However, the study sample was very small hence failure to give a definite conclusion. Some studies indicate that the dogs can notify owners of an impending seizure few minutes before it occurs. However, the claims are based on a patient report that lacks reliability and reports from dog training organization that show interest in the matter. The preciseness of dog’s ability to detect seizure minutes or hours in advance has stumped the researchers. The director of “Canine Olfaction Research and Education Laboratory,” Nathaniel Hall, at “Texas Tech University” states that there is no research lack significance on the idea of dog’s preciseness in detecting seizure (Moretti et al. 128). Some trainers state that their dogs can pick up electrical signals like irregular brain waves and other small movements that humans fail to notice. Majority of the dog trainers claim that dogs can follow the scent naturally released by people epileptic individuals. The claim would be true if the olfactory hypothesis states that biochemical changes produce an odor that dogs smell but there is no such biological sense making the report a guess. Hall states that if the odor was identified, researchers could have something to measure in their scientific study. Scanty evidence support the dog’s ability to amazing sense of smell. The CEO of Paws with a Cause, a Michigan located dog organization, presents claim arguing dogs can the let one of seizure before it occurs. He approximates the number of dogs that have such an ability in the U.S slightly lesser than hundred. It could be life-threatening and give them false hopes that a dog can precisely detect an oncoming seizure is unethical. Sapp organization does not claim to avail any seizure alert dogs. Sometimes the dogs can cause harm as reported by researchers on patient case alerted before seizure turned to be psychosomatic episodes triggered by alerts (Mellers 499).
Some trainers indicate that a dog can acquire signals triggered by chemicals in the brain and other small movements that humans fail to notice. Majority of the dog trainers argues that dogs can sense chemical signal traces released by individuals about to have a seizure. The claim would be true if the olfactory hypothesis states that biochemical changes produce an odor that dogs smell but there is no such biological sense making the report a guess (Mellers 903). Research states that despite adequate evidence and potential for harm, the demand for seizure alert dogs has highly increased. However, the industry has minimal regulation with one accrediting agency. It is a non-profit organization that sets standard ethical practices of training dogs, and it is a non-regulatory body. Desperate patients and families can end up taking their dogs to organizations that have not met the standards of ADI and still claims to produce high-quality service dogs.
When a dog demonstrates, demonstrate particular behaviors towards a particular individual who have a seizure condition they can be referred to as seizure response dogs, seizure assistance or seizure alert dogs. This research is based on ascertaining the ability of dogs in detecting seizure and ability to alert owners to take precautions such as lying down to avoid harm. The research ascertains that dogs have the ability in detecting chemicals from individuals and thus predicting seizure that can occur naturally or seizure that occurs in exceptional circumstances. In a particular case, dogs are usually trained in responding when a seizure occurs. Dogs mat lick owners and also lying down beside their owners. Some dogs have the ability in retrieving medications as well as triggering certain alerts to enhance owners responding to seizures. Researchers have spent much time in reviewing specific subtitles regarding human behaviors such as communication and companion of dogs. A prospective observational regarding new-onset seizures study examines most common seizures that can be identified by dogs. The clinical overview based on diagnosed seizures reflect the objectives of this research that prospectively investigates possible causes for seizure detection among a cohort of dogs. The on-set of untreated seizures can be diagnosed through investigation of seizures as well as possible risks that contribute to seizure. In situations where an individual is not treated for seizures, the chemical composition increases in the body thus increasing the detection rate of seizure by dogs.
The research is based on 100 people and six dogs which were included in the study. The study indicated that dogs could detect about 75% of those diagnosed with epilepsy. Natural course in idiopathic seizures can be illustrated by fluctuating the patterns of seizure through a long remission period. However, a cluster seizure can be identified by frequent diagnosis of the condition among individuals with seizures. From the research, descriptive statistics among patients with seizure indicates that dogs could identify seizure among 54 people and nine dogs responded by alerting the owners. However, the study is based on the variation of demographic characteristics that accesses the health condition of individuals diagnosed by the seizure. From the study, some dogs were reported to respond to seizure based on the connection between the dogs and the owners. The study indicates that 29% of dog’s detected seizure form their owners. Also, the research indicated a various form of seizures based on complexity, migraines as well as reporting various auras which potentially offer dogs with auditory, visual and cues to scents for imposing seizures. The research incorporated seizure-assist dogs that identify various training mechanisms in responding and alerting to seizure. The research provided an opportunity in observation of various training mechanism of dogs such as speaking to dogs by individuals whom they have been attached to assist-seizure. Trained assistance includes assisting individuals as well as offering a companion to people to find secure places and positioning them event prior to and after a seizure. Also, assistance training enhances activation of alarms that enhance caregiving among individuals during emergency situations. The research indicates that the response of dogs depends on the various selection process for alerting seizure disorders among people. Recipients owning dogs can, however, use different criteria in examining positive effects of seizure-assist dogs. From the research, behavioral problems are most common as dogs are vulnerable to prone-stress illnesses. However, alerting behaviors for dogs are not based on specific breed, age or gender. Thus alerting behavior depends on the level at which a dog is trained to respond to various situations. In some situations dogs can respond to various incidences through detection of chemical substances. The research examines possible benefits accrued to seizure alerts by dogs. Seizure detecting dogs can activate emergency responses through special devices that notify members of the members of the family as well as care-givers. The dogs can receive additional assistance skills that create huge advantages towards seizure prediction. With consent that seizure can occur. People can control what happens in their lives. The dogs prevent various incidences of injury among people as well as providing help in seeking medicine. Also, the research provides some independence effects of using dogs to detect seizures. The research is supported by various scholars who examine the effect of training dogs. One of the most common effects is that some people are not friendly to dogs and this inhibits the ability of dogs in detecting seizures. However, the research applies different criteria in the selection of individual in the study. Some of the factors considered include motivation, school environment, and occupational factors.
The research indicates that about 1% of world population are victims of seizure and this has set a global burden towards the management of seizure. Some individuals have challenges in controlling their condition. Also, the research indicates that seizure results to particular effects that affect cognitive ability of individuals. Multiple lines support various investigations conducted in demonstrating the significance of dogs in managing the condition of seizure. Some implantable devices have been acquired in achieving a high-quality mechanism that helps in controlling seizures. Surgical protocols among dogs which were anesthetized by use of standard intracranial surgery procedures indicated that the brain of dogs comprises of Seizure Advisory System (SAS) that helps in detecting a seizure.
Meta-analysis of Seizure Alert Dogs Research
Dogs show an extensive variety of cautioning practices. Some portion of the test of working with a potential seizure alert canine is distinguishing the particular alert conduct. Dogs have been seen to lick patient’s hands, bark at the patients’ face, or act eager and pace preceding the individual’s seizure. The measure of time from when the dog alerts to the actual beginning of the seizure fluctuates from canine to dog. One dog would reliably assemble all his toys and dump them before the proprietor a few hours that precede a seizure. To distinguish reliable cautioning conduct in a canine that alerts some on possible occurrence of seizure needs adroit and cautious eyewitness because the pass time among caution and the occasion vary (Dalziel et al. 116). A few dogs alert just for their proprietors. Different canines, gives presentation time to other individuals having seizure, can build up the capacity to caution for multiple individuals. No less than one dog has figured out how to caution from a sharper canine. In England, an administration dog preparing association (Bolster Canines) has several seizure sensing dogs with individuals and is recording dogs performing work. In the Unified States for Epilepsy Establishment, endeavors put to think about the wonder utilizing EEG alongside simultaneous recording (Doherty and Haltiner 309). An absence of financing has made it difficult to find such research sufficiently long in having mandate to make logical determinations. It is trusted that with additionally explore, the subject of how dogs caution can be replied. This may prompt the improvement of canine choice and training strategies that could expand the quantity of seizure alert dogs accessible for individuals with seizure issue.
A file perception where a canine was prepared to alert to and react to, to seizures in human beings prompted research regarding the mode of training that the dogs undergo before being certified to perform the task (Doherty and Haltiner 309). The reports involved the trailing of pet dogs and their ability to foresee epileptic seizures in humans. Since the research form different experts, evidences concerning Seizure-Alert Dogs (SADs) have been on the rise globally. The trained dogs offer alerts of their seizures especially when they are close. The alerts from the trained canines help in the stances whereby the seizure recur. According to reports from studies conducted from health practitioners, SADs training process should be done alongside the individuals with epilepsy so that the dog can gain the necessary skills and adopt the specified behaviors (Dalziel et al. 119). Sometimes the training can be done independently. Currently done studies on non-epileptic seizures in a few people that have SADs as their assistants, have given occasion to feel doubts about dogs’ capacity to envision genuine epileptic seizures. Therefore, in this case, a reflection on the choice of the criteria for preparing programs and preparing strategies utilized yet does not show that SADs will not have the capacity to anticipate epileptic seizures. Regardless of whether an individual experiences either epileptic seizures or seizures that are non-epileptic, it is speculated that trained dogs presumably cognizant of unobtrusive behavior in humans’ changes. Nonetheless, the signs might be noted through the heart rate or in some cases signs considered to be olfactory (Dalziel et al. 118). Nonetheless, no thorough information exists concerning whether the condition of seizure forecast by trained dogs is superior to risk, and the possible positive and negatives of using the trained canines to offer seizure prediction and response services to humans.
The restorative utilization of assistant creatures in helping determination, treatment, and administration of different human health conditions, has pulled in specific practices amid or promptly after a seizure occurs in a human. The practices involve the use of Seizure Alert Dogs (SADs) who show particular practices preceding any valuation for a looming seizure occasion by the individual with epilepsy or eyewitness (Dalziel et al. 120). Clinicians gaining practical experience in epilepsy in future will be comfortable leaving the seizure patients to cares within homes because they can recommend the use of seizure alert dogs to identify changes in the individual’s appearance. The introduction and behavior considered disturbing due to seizure action even before the affected person understands the circumstance can be detected by using trained dog pets. In some cases, researchers uncover claim pets that belong to families (as a rule, yet not generally a dog) may show particular practices preceding the individual having a seizure. In this case, it is considered that no notice or sign exists to show the cares of the individual’s (Doherty and Haltiner 309).
Research by Nicole examines how dogs can detect seizure among people. Hunter a 3-year-old was diagnosed with epilepsy back in 2013. The condition resulted in multiple episodes that comprised 95% and uninterrupted sleep during the daytime that was marked by mixed seizures that gave him blank stares. However, a stimulator was imported into the chest of Hunter to monitor incoming seizures. The vagal stimulator to the nerves resulted to blockage of electrical pulses on the device that monitors the extent of seizure. This caused a seizure to occur in tracks and were made less severe through the intervention of magnet swiped implanted on Hunter’s chest. Dogs easily monitor multiple cases of epilepsy in patients. Angel, a dog, trained and attached to Hunter, started barking a few minutes after the nerve stimulators identified possible seizure. The barking of the dog represented a form of an alert about the emergence of seizure on Hunter (Lou, n.pag). Upon detection of the seizure, Angel is trained to adopt various behaviors such as licking and barking which are an apparent warning on the risky activities that an individual should not engage into. For instance, the research indicates that the barking of the dog was to prevent Hunter from climbing stairs and taking a bath. According to Nicole, “Any good detector has positive value, but as a physician, a key unanswered question is whether the dogs work” (Lou, n.pag). This implies how physicians don’t recognize different methods by which dogs work after detecting seizure condition among patients (Lou, n.pag). Nicole further argues that offering extensive training for the dogs provides answers on how to detect seizure condition among individuals (Lou, n.pag). The ability of dogs in detecting seizures has increased their demand as they are effective in alerting and warning individuals who manifest seizure condition. Puppies are however referred to as effective in providing a low-tech test regarding a man having a seizure. In the comfort of home, the dogs observe the behavior on an individual in certain time frame and responds appropriately upon detection of seizure. The dogs are usually trained to detect seizures through matching potential owners with their dogs. The process of matching can be mailed on clothing to help dogs detect seizures upon their owners. According to Nicole, detecting seizure by dogs is attached to individuals to achieve an effective way of alerting and responding to seizures (Lou, n.pag).
While working with dogs in the detection of a seizure, some behaviors such as the abnormal firing of the brain during seizures can change the attention towards behavior. In many incidences, seizures can be uncontrolled, convulsions and cause rapid shaking. According to Nicole findings seizures, many cause various conditions based on individual experiences (Lou, n.pag). However, individuals taking medication in managing their condition can still pose certain limits in their life. According to this research, since the 1990s, dogs have been trained in supporting individuals with seizures based on two important methods, first is responding to different crises that jeopardize the safety of individuals to limit the harm that can be caused to the person. Secondly, dogs are used to warn owners regarding impending seizures that can create possible dangers if they are not addressed accordingly (Lou, n.pag). The research examines the controversies that surround various capabilities of dogs in responding to seizures by providing sufficient evidence that supports the invaluable nature of dogs to individuals who experiences seizures. In further discussion of the importance of dogs in responding and warning to seizures, researches have been done in finding out different tasks that can be performed by dogs through certification and training.
Obtaining Seizure DogsDistinctive projects and coaches may have diverse admission particulars. The Seizure Response Dog Guide program from the Lions Foundation of Canada expresses that a man must:
– Be 14 years or more established
– Have at least one seizure for every month
– Be physically and psychologically equipped for taking an interest in the continuous preparing process
– Be ready to charge and handle their Seizure Response Dog Guide autonomously
– Be ready to meet the passionate, physical, and monetary necessities of their Seizure Response Dog Guide
– Be in a steady home condition
– Have no other canine in the home (different kinds of pets may likewise not be permitted)
Having a dog is a legitimate, moral, and budgetary responsibility for the life of the dogs (Hastings et al. 875). Watchful thought must be given to these duties previously tolerating the obligations of having a seizure alert dog. Having a seizure alert dog is unique about having a pet. Seizure alert dogs must take after strict orders, and this conduct should likewise be rehearsed by the individuals who live with or are in close contact with the individual. Continuous preparing and conduct fortification is essential. The introduction and behavior considered disturbing due to seizure action even before the affected person understands the circumstance can be detected by using trained dog pets (Hastings et al. 876). In some cases, researchers uncover claim pets that belong to families (as a rule, yet not generally a dog) may show particular practices preceding the individual having a seizure.
The dogs that help in administering seizures can be gotten from a few unique sources: a seizure alert dog training program, a private mentor, or through proprietor training. Training dogs for individuals with seizure issue are moderately new and need training rules and credentialing for coaches. Finding a reasonably trained service dog, particularly one dependably seizure alert such as testing. A portion of the service canine training programs will prepare dogs for individuals with seizure issue. The buyer supposed to consult specific program, and completely examine every one preceding settling on the choice for a dog. The choice to acquire a dog from a specific program requires exploration as precisely as real selection based on end goals which concerns maintaining strategic length from issues later either for purchaser and the trained service dog. The shopper need to be alerted for possible extortion and cases that seem great to be valid because they most likely are (Haut et al. 263). One association asserts that it can prepare seizure alert dogs via telephone. The shopper ought to be extremely careful about any coach who ensures that a canine she or he has raised or prepared will alert to someone else’s seizures.
Since such a large amount of seizure alerting conduct is ineffectively comprehended and changes from dog to dogs, victories rely on a decent and precisely arranged match between the canine and the individual for whom it will alert. Seizure alerting is conduct that a dog may have yet that cannot be ensured in the way that regular training can (Haut et al. 265). A good training program works to empower the alerting conduct after conducting seizure by dogs or when sense is put home with individual. This approach limits implausible desires, high expenses, and dissatisfactions for the candidate and conceivable damage to the canine. Another technique for getting dog by use of private coach (Goldstein and Mellers 617). Discover a coach with some learning of dog training. It is vital that the buyer researches and affirms of the mentor’s techniques. A mentor might have the capacity to choose a fitting canine with alert for seizure possible for buyer. Through living with individual, the canine may have the capacity to create unmistakable seizure alert conduct supported at whatever point the individual acquires seizure. A private coach is likewise a decent alternative for a person owning seizure alert dog which senses seizures yet who needs to use the dog out in the open as a canine (Goldstein and Mellers 620). The mentor can help the proprietor and dog to secure the important submission abilities required for free. Proprietor training of the seizure alert dog is another alternative. However, this requires a vast time duty, prior dog training knowledge, and the eagerness in working in close collaboration with a canine mentor or submission aggregate for ideal achievement (Kirton et al., 2304). Notwithstanding where the canine is acquired, or how well it alerts, it should be best as possible propelled compliance aptitudes with a specific with particular goal out for places as a seizure alert dog. The handler likewise needs to comprehend rights of canine client
Training ProtocolThis presents a strategy utilized by Help of Sheffield dogs in UK which is that utilized as segment of different examinations (Solid et al., 1999, 2002). It contrasts from methods utilized as a part of different nations in the accentuation on mingling and preparing each dog for every person with epilepsy from starting point. Individuals with epilepsy regularly self-allude to the philanthropy.
Apparently, in UK, dog trainers, mostly in health sector, use the method of Support Dogs. The method differs from any other technique used in US and some countries of the world that use dogs in the prediction and the overall responding to seizure affected individuals. Apparently, in the UK, the Support Dogs group in Sheffield receives orders from many clients as compared to any other facility for seizure alert dogs. However, in other nations of the world, the method of emphasis is based on the training of doings through socialization whereby the epileptic individual accompanies his dog assistant. The dog is trained alongside the patient so that they can familiarize with one another for easy delivery of services form the seizure alert dog.
In the protocol, the aspect of inclusion and exclusion are highly explored. Primarily, individuals applying to train their pet dogs for the services of alerting for seizures must be epileptic patients. The rule indicates that the inclusion criterion is strict (Kirton et al. 500). In this case, the protocol requires that the individual has had a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy. In the epileptic condition of the patient, it should be noted that the patient should have had epileptic seizures amounting to 10 within a month. There is no specific type of epileptic seizures are recommended in this case, but the patient can either be in the tonic-clonic seizure, the complex as well as the atonic seizure category (Strong 402). However, the protocol identified for patients that need a seizure alert dog excludes patients that have common seizures while they sleep. The focus on the number of times an individual has had seizures within a month, and the exclusion of patients that have seizures while asleep is a concern of the inclusion criterion. The dogs must be able to have trained alongside the patients for them to notice and alert for any seizures in future. Therefore, the criterion allows adequate training for the dogs.
Using the inclusion-exclusion criteria, previous studies indicate that the patients that have tonic-clonic seizures between 4 and ten times in a month were legible to be involved in the training of their seizure alert dogs (Strong 404). In this report, the authors argue that the inclusion and exclusion criteria should advocate the supply of enough food, healthy and a safe environment for the dog pets under training to perform their alert tasks effectively (Brown and Goldstein 236). To obtain certification for the training of seizure alert dogs, there is a necessity of a medical report from the general practitioner as well as a specialist in hospitals under the epileptic disorder department. In this case, the applicant is expected to have a diary that indicates his or her epileptic stances. Considering the nature of the epileptic seizures, most government healthcare practitioners strictly consider recommending individuals over the age of 16 because they can handle themselves well than those below this age. Additionally, the observation of the prescription of drugs and administering the anti-epileptic medication should be paramount to the patient (Litt and Krieger 21). In the case of individuals that attend anti-epileptic sessions with their therapists, the classes should continue as normal. Evidently, in the case of anti-epileptic therapy, there is a strict recommendation of a six-month enrollment within the therapy classes so that the seizure frequencies can be noted for the easy training of the canines. Within the therapy classes, there is a permission to enroll with a dog which can be retrained alongside the patient at this time before the actual classes with a dog trainer (Brown and Goldstein 238). Considering that dog pets are the best in offering the training, it is prohibited to have an individual whose does not have seizure experiences send her or his dog for training. The family though can recommend the training of a dog pet that enjoys a good companionship with the epileptic individual. It does not end a strong companionship but extends to the readiness of the individual to work closely with the dog and take care of it adequately.
Training ProgramConsidering that the above-outlined criteria have been met, especially form the affected individual’s point of view, it significant to admit the individual with his or her dog to the training facility. Before, admission, an interview is conducted with the patient so that the interviewing committee which comprises of the training staff and dog-training coaches. The interview focuses on the commitment that the individual has towards the training exercise and the ability in maintain a dog. If the individual offers the right information which matches that in reports from the medical practitioners, they are offered a two-day admission assessment. The two-day assessment is aimed at recording the general reaction and response the individual ill have regarding the seizure sensing dogs (Kirton et al. 501). Therefore, the staff determine specific dog type that best suits the individual. The successful passage of this stage enables the individual to be listed among other individuals on a waiting list so that a suitable dog can be identified. Therefore, the availability of the suitable seizure alert dog also determines the eligibility of the epileptic individual being enrolled in training with a dog in the training facilities (Kirton et al. 503). After the identification of a dog, the trainer takes a further two-day assessment of the compatibility of the dog with the patient. If the two bond well and fast, then the training begins. Discover a coach with some learning of dog training or seizure alert work. It is vital that the buyer researches and affirms of the mentor’s techniques (Krauss 309). A mentor might have the capacity to choose a fitting canine with seizure alerting potential for the buyer. By living with the individual, the canine may have the capacity to create unmistakable seizure alert conduct which can be supported at whatever point the individual has a seizure.
During the training, the first aspects the trainers consider are the conditioning of the dog to focus on the patient’s face. Whenever a seizure occurs in the individual, and it happens that the dog had already looked in the face and alerted the trainer the coming of a seizure, the dog is rewarded (Maiwald et al. 185). This process involves the use of the classical conditioning as noted in Pavlov’s experiments. According to Maiwald, the training procedures and rules, the pattern of seizure prediction might not be constant over the next three weeks but, after the fourth week, it is expected that the dog can predict the seizures in a more even pattern (Maiwald et al. 185).
Various foundations established in support of certification and seizure alert form dogs provides various results regarding the effectiveness of dogs in detecting a seizure. The researches indicate that ability of dogs in performing various observable tasks based on command depends on the ability of dogs in detecting alerts. Researches have categorized dogs into different classes such as working dogs, therapy dog, and emotional support. The tasks for every category of dog ranges based on the ability to support and balance specific tasks trained to conduct. According to researches, they indicate that services dogs are usually trained to provide full-time protection among individuals with disabilities (Dalziel et al., 118) n the other hand, emotional supporting dogs are trained to assist individuals in their daily tasks on how to overcome and respond to extreme conditions that pose threats to them. The ability of dogs to respond to seizure is based on the responsive nature of a dog. Researches indicate that service dogs are usually trained with specific expectations that trainers provide constant need to respond to particular situations. There are many hypotheses based on conclusive researches regarding the ability of dogs in responding to seizures (Freds et al. 54). Most researchers find out that PAW dogs are used as seizure responding dogs, and thus they report any possible outcome of seizure among people they protect. Another research indicates that dogs can accurately provide alerts on hypoglycemic episodes for diabetes patients. This research verifies that inmate seizure-alerting capabilities of dogs obtained through inclusive experiments. Researchers in England experimented and ascertained specific changes towards seizures by providing a mechanism for overt an enabling condition for dogs in warning on harmful activities. Therefore, the researches indicate that dogs ate used in communication through body language as well as facial expressions. This is achieved through the use of plausible seizure-alerting activities that cue various gestures on patients. However, various researches indicate that when dogs are out of sight of handlers, they can suddenly approach through alerting mechanism as well as considerations of various independent visual cues. However, it seems impossible in merging of different combinations which is essential in creating sense towards important methods of alerting behaviors.
Alert BehaviorIt is significant to note that the alert behaviors are considered to be erratic from one person to another. However, during the monitoring of the presence of seizures in the individuals, the trained dogs will engage its attention on the field of vision (Maiwald et al., 187). The dog will stare at the individual and in case of a seizure coming; it will bark constantly. In the case of response dos, the focus of the training will be on responding to individuals that have convulsions and fall. The dog is trained used to cues by starting to bark similar to the other seizure alert dog.
From researches conducted over many decades, they support the use of dogs in assisting individuals who have various conditions. The recent studies have been popular as they indicates that dogs act as close companion to individuals who have particular conditions as well as provides support to people. Particularly, individuals with developmental disorders and mental illness, dogs can be used in boosting neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and serotonin which are necessary for improving individual senses. Trained dogs can provide different services to individuals. Extensive researches indicate the effectiveness of dogs in helping individuals with various disabilities in managing their condition as well as improving their well-being. Dogs are, therefore, perceived of greater assistance to individuals in improving functioning in various areas such as social and emotional. Seizure dogs provides fascinating results from researches carried out by different researchers (Dalziel et al., 116). This because detection mechanisms are not easily understood and thus creating further debates regarding the effectiveness of dogs in detecting seizures among individuals. The researches indicate that the effectiveness of dogs in detecting seizures is aided by the existence of particular indicators that help dogs in detecting changes in behaviors. The Epilepsy Foundation has however warned that claims by various researchers produce different behaviors that are often overlooked and thus requires keen training to ascertain the effectiveness of dogs in detecting seizures. Also, researches establish a more understanding of the capabilities and limitations of dogs towards detecting seizures.
Conclusion
Identifiably, some domestic dogs portray behaviors which can be applied during training them to become guardians of epileptic individuals. In this case, the epileptic individuals are characterized by having seizures which are the subject of discussion in this paper. However, a small number of these dogs can be able to determine the seizure alerts in individuals for individuals who have epilepsy. Although the scientific research on the ability of dogs to predict and respond to seizures in humans is limited, there is evidence that some specific dogs can be trained to serve the function. There are benefit dogs particularly prepared to help somebody who has seizures. These are frequently called seizure reaction dogs, seizure help dogs, seizure alert dogs, or seizure dogs. Some of the times these terms are utilized reciprocally. The training helps in the monitoring of signs and the responding to important sources to help the epileptic individuals. The alerts are useful in creating a safe environment for the epileptic individual. Additionally, the individuals can be helped to have their anti-epileptic drugs in any case they are within populations that do not know their epileptic state. Therefore, there is proof that seizure alert dogs can be trained alongside their patients so that they can help entirely with the prediction and the responding to the seizures both in public and at homes. The training is usually thorough because it follows the inclusion, exclusion criterion as outlined by health practitioners.
Domestic dogs are used in identifying different behaviors in regards to epileptic seizures among humans. Different researches conducted displays premonitory behaviors toward seizures. Despite limited scientific literature and research towards the ability of dogs responding to seizure, the researches provides evidences that support effectiveness of dogs in responding to seizures. The dogs are used in providing useful warning regarding impending seizures as well as providing safe environment for individuals diagnosed with seizure condition. The reliability of warning about seizure helps in establishing mechanisms in protecting individuals from possible dangers caused by seizures. Some dogs can indicate different stereotypes in responding to different patterns of seizure. Therefore, dogs are perceived to have special capabilities that help in detecting and responding to seizure condition. Dog’s uses alerts as typical responses that helps victims averting possible harm.
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