Free Development of Low Fat Fried Fish by using a protein based Edible Coating and Batter Modifiction X Dissertation Example

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Development of Low Fat Fried Fish by using a protein based Edible Coating and Batter Modifiction X

Category: Art

Subcategory: Business

Level: Masters

Pages: 3

Words: 825

AbstractThe unprecedented rise of obesity is augmented by the unique and sensory characteristics imbibed in the food due to the process of deep fat frying. Deep fat frying is a cooking method that involves the submerging of food products into burning hot oil in a deep fryer until the minimum internal temperature of the product is considered safe. Incredibly fast and efficient, this procedure is associated by public health researchers and practitioners as a root cause for coronary diseases, attributable to the increased uptake of fat and loss of moisture content by the respective food sample.
The use of the deep frying method as a means of cooking certain kinds of food especially fish increases the level of fat content in this food after frying since more fat is absorbed by the food after frying them. In this study, the primary objective is to develop a technique that will reduce this level of fat intake by the food during frying. This will be achieved by the coating fish with a protein-based solution which will aid in reducing the level of fat intake.
Firstly, the samples of fish (whiting fillets) will be immersed in protein-based solutions. These solutions would be based on a different concentration of protein of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. The fish will be breaded and battered. After this procedure, the fish samples will then be deep fried and then allowed to cool down for a minimum of 10 minutes. It is crucial that we deep fry the fish samples for the same duration of time so as to maintain uniformity in the study. Finally, after the cooling down of the fish samples, they will have to be examined by the panelists in the order of appearance, texture, and odor as these qualities are the ones that can be easily recognized by anyone. Also, the texture of the fish which refers to the level of hardness will be assessed visually.
Although this procedure is lengthy, the main aim is to reduce the amount of fat intake in people’s food. As a result, there will be decreasing cases of deaths and diseases related to increased food intake. Ultimately, this will reduce people’s mortality.

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Background
Obesity is a preventable chronic disease defined by the characteristic accumulation of excessive adipose tissue within the body CITATION Hub00 l 1033 (Hubbard, 2000). Obesity is expressed in body mass index (BMI), an index used to quantify body weight according to height, of thirty or more resulting from an excessively higher calorie consumption than the body can burn. According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2017), the prevalence of obesity and overweight has continually increased over the past two decades with the non-Hispanic Black female demographic having the highest rates of obesity (56.5%). Flegal, Carroll, and Kit, (2012) observe that age-adjusted obesity was prevalent among approximately 58.5% of African American women and 38.8% of the African American male population. Obesity prevalence is also higher among women than men in the African American (54.8%) and the Hispanic (50.6%) demographic compared to the non-Hispanic white (38.0%) and the Asian American (14.8%) population CITATION Hal17 l 1033 (Hales, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2017).
The Slave Era is believed to have contributed significantly to the current dietary patterns among African Americans CITATION Hor18 l 1033 (Horton, 2018). The food that they consumed during the slave era consisted mostly of chicken, meat, pork feet and pig intestines, which was spare food from their slave owners. In a study conducted to investigate the dietary patterns of African American population in the rural parts of the Southern States, Bovell-Benjamin, Dawkins, Pace, and Shikany (2010) determined that more than a third of the participants consumed grit prepared using the addition of fat and salt. Several studies have linked deep-fried foods to African American families more than any other race. African American describes deep-fried food such as fried poultry, bacon, and processed luncheon meat as ‘Soul Food’ that has been associated with historical cooking practices among early African American families in Tuskegee (Bovell-Benjamin et al., 2010). In modern African American dietary patterns, a high proportion of the population (77-79%) continually consumes primarily fried fish and poultry while 59% of the female African American and 38% of the African American male population consumed fast food comprised of fried chicken nuggets and French fries (Bovell-Benjamin et al., 2010). The observed ethnic disparity in the obesity indices in America may be attributed to a complex interaction of socio-economic factors, dietary patterns, and levels of physical activity CITATION Wan07 l 1033 (Wang et al., 2007).
Deep-frying is a commonly used food preparation mechanism where fat or oil is used as a medium for heat transfer directly into the food at a higher temperature than the boiling point of water (Ananey-Obiri, Matthews, Azahrani, Ibrahim, Galanakis, & Tahergorabi, 2018). Domestic households and industries alike commonly use frying as a cooking method since it enhances the texture, color, and palatability of food CITATION Por12 l 1033 (Porta et al., 2012). The process of deep-frying also allows for fat uptake by food as food lies in direct contact with the oil, increasing its total lipid content. The type of oil used for deep-frying varies depending on factors such as cost, stability, and the susceptibility to oxidation CITATION Gad15 l 1033 (Gadiraju, Patel, Gaziano, & Djoussé, 2015). For instance, highly unsaturated fats such as corn oil have short frying periods at 150˚C to 200˚C and a short shelf life since they are easily oxidized. On the other hand, oils with high saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palm oil and partially hydrogenated oils such as sunflower oil have longer frying periods and higher stability profiles which increase the shelf life for food (Gadiraju et al., 2015). The deep-fried foods industry in America is the highest earning in the world and constitutes a large percentage of the dietary intake of the American population CITATION Jah10 l 1033 (Jahren & Schubert, 2010). Food industries around the world have largely adopted frying in making processed food as it increases the food’s durability.
Consumption of deep-fried foods has serious health implications since the method of cooking increases the overall food lipid/fat content. The Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990 that require food manufacturers to provide the ingredient and nutrient content information exclude restaurants from this requirement CITATION Jah10 l 1033 (Jahren & Schubert, 2010). The American population that largely consume fried foods from restaurants have an increased risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Thus, health experts have sought out means to reduce the fat uptake by foods during deep-frying. Past studies indicate that the use of a suitable food coating prior to frying can reduce oil imbibition by the food CITATION AlA11 l 1033 (Al-Abdullah, Angor, Al-Abdullah, & Ajo, 2011). An edible film is applied to the food prior to frying, acting as a barrier to moisture content loss in the food, and reducing fat uptake.
Reduction of Fat Uptake using the Process of Edible Coating and Battering
Food scientists have linked oil absorption during the deep frying process to water loss through the capillary mechanism where the water vapor escapes through the food pores resulting in oil uptake in the food CITATION Mel03 l 1033 (Mellema, 2003). During deep-frying, water vapor migrates from the core of the food to the surface as more water escapes from the surface leaving a void for oil to be absorbed by the food CITATION Mel03 l 1033 (Mellema, 2003). Thus, oil uptake is largely determined by the moisture content of the food. According to Mellema (2003), thin edible films or thick coating (batter) low the moisture content and permeability of the food. A thin coating is thought to reduce the size and number of pores through which moisture can escape from the food and subsequently reducing the amount of fat inflow. The low-moisture level edible coating may be effective in reducing the moisture level on the food surface. Additionally, since fat-uptake also depends on the contact angle, coating and batters serve to alter the surface structure and reduce the surface area in contact with oil upon frying.
Edible coatings and battering may also work in reducing surface level evaporation by thermo-gelling or cross-linking (Mellema, 2003). Thermo-gelling films such as cellulose derivatives (cornstarch) lower the capillary pressures and the evaporation damage since the thermogel film lower water diffusivity. Cross-linking and thermo-gelling increase the cohesive forces on the surface of the food making it more brittle thereby increasing the water-retaining capacity of the food during deep-frying CITATION Ana18 l 1033 (Ananey-Obiri et al., 2018). Thick coating or battering may be more effective for the process of thermo-gelling since they are less susceptible to puncturing than thin films (Mellema, 2003). Battering involves dipping food in a liquid mixture of flour, water, and seasoning that forms a crust during deep-frying CITATION Alt04 l 1033 (Altunakar, Sahin, & Sumnu, 2004) . Crusts formed from batter coatings enhance the texture, color, and flavor of the food while reducing moisture loss and oil uptake. Sweet potato starch used in battering was less effective in reducing oil uptake than cornstarch. Oil uptake in starch battering depends on the amylose content. The higher the amylose content as in cornstarch releases more amylose during deep-frying which forms a mechanically stable edible film coating that inhibits oil uptake during deep frying CITATION Zha14 l 1033 (Zhanga, Yanga, Jib, & Ma, 2014).
According to Ananey-Obiri et al. (2018), myofibrillar (muscle) proteins can serve as a better edible coating during deep-frying than polysaccharide-based edible coatings. Myofibrillar protein coating solutions may be prepared from the washed meat of low-cost fish or chicken or filleting of trimmed meat. The process of forming edible coatings during deep-frying is induced by heat and pH changes or addition of impurities that initiate protein denaturation revealing the myosin and actin within their structure. Myosin and actin then form a renewable and abundant continuous matrix with closely knitted structures that serves as an edible film. The matrix is capable of forming numerous bonds within its structure, which increases the mechanical and physical barrier properties required of edible film coatings. Muscle protein edible films increase the nutritional value of the food while performing the function of oil-uptake reduction CITATION Ana18 l 1033 (Ananey-Obiri et al., 2018).
Objectives and Hypotheses
The primary objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of muscle protein (fish protein) as an edible coating on fat uptake reduction during deep-frying. Secondly, the study assesses the difference between fish protein edible coating and cornstarch and sweet potato starch battering on the reduction of oil uptake during deep-frying. Lastly, the study evaluates the difference between cornstarch and sweet potato starch-prepared batter on the total fat content of fried foods.
Hypothesis 1 (H1): Application of fish protein edible coating to food prior to frying reduces oil absorption during the deep frying process.
Hypothesis 2 (H2): There is a significant difference between fish protein edible coating and starch-based battering on the total fat content of the fried foods.
Hypothesis 3 (H3): There is a significant difference between cornstarch and sweet potato starch-based battering on the total fat content of the fried foods.

CHAPTER 4ResultsThis study has two main objectives;
a) To reduce fat uptake in deep fat fried food using protein from fish muscles
There is a significant decrease in fat uptake by the fried fish about the protein content applied to the fish. Fish fried without any protein content will absorb more fat during frying compared to the ones with protein coating since this protein content absorbs more fat on behalf of the fish. Importantly, an increase in fish protein coating decreases fat uptake. Conversely, a decrease in protein coating will have the effect of increased fast uptake.
b) Compare fat uptake reduction between cornstarch and potato batter
This study will take into consideration a comparison of the fat absorption by the fish when we compare a coating of cornstarch and potato batter applied on the fish. In this study, there is a significant reduction of fat uptake when we use potato batter compared coat compared to cornstarch. Also, the fish moisture content is still high for fish with potato batter while that for cornstarch reduced hugely. Finally, the use of potato results to a higher frying yield compared to potato batter.
4.1 Physicochemical properties
The results pertaining to the efficacy of varying concentrations of the isolated protein edible film for the cornstarch and sweet potato batter preparations are highlighted according to varying physicochemical properties of the samples in the following paragraphs; namely fat content, moisture loss, changes in pH, texture profile analysis, color change, and frying yield.
Table 1 and Table 2 illustrate the concentration and constituents for each type of treatments utilized for both the cornstarch and sweet potato batter preparations for the sake of justifying the viability of isolated protein film coating. This edible film is incorporated from Treatment 4 to Treatment 6 in each type of batter preparation at varying concentrations; 5%, 10%, and 15% respectively.
Table 1
Treatment for Battering Contains Corn Starch
Treatment Code Battering Contains Corn Starch Battering Contains Sweet Potato Starch Edible Coating Breading
T1 No No No No
T2 No No No Yes
T3 Yes No No Yes
T4 Yes No 5% Yes
T5 Yes No 10% Yes
T6 Yes No 15% Yes
Table 2
Treatment for Battering Contains Sweet Potato Starch
Treatment Code Battering Contains Corn Starch Battering Contains Sweet Potato Starch Edible Coating Breading
T1 No No No No
T2 No No No Yes
T3 No Yes No Yes
T4 No Yes 5% Yes
T5 No Yes 10% Yes
T6 No Yes 15% Yes
4.1 Results – Deep fat fried fish Corn Starch Batter and edible eating
4.1.1 Fat Content
Figure 1 depicts the uptake of fat within each sample of fried and raw fish for each of the respective cornstarch batter preparations.
The commercial batter (i.e., Treatment 2) reduced the level of fat absorption significantly when compared with Treatment 1 (i.e., control sample). Even lower fat absorption percentages were seen when edible protein coatings were incorporated as a constituent (i.e., treatment 4 – treatment 6).

Figure 1. Fat Content (%) of Raw Fish and Deep-Fried Fish for samples with edible coating and batter containing some starch
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.1.2 Moisture Content
Figure 2 exhibits the moisture content for the cornstarch batter preparations. Application of the protein film coating treatment was successful in reducing moisture from the tried samples. These results concur with the original hypothesis regarding the viability of the fish-based edible protein film.

Figure 2. Moisture Content (%) of Raw Fish and Deep-Fried Fish for sample with treatment
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.1.3 Changes in pH
Figure 3 illustrates the changes in pH determined for the cornstarch batter preparations. The pH value for the control samples (i.e., Treatment 1) started as neutral. Then proceeded to gradual decline due to the addition of commercial batter in the following control sample (i.e., Treatment 2). Treatment 3 which continuously cornstarch and breading, yielded a slight but significantly (p<0.05) decrease in pH when compared with the Treatment 1. Treatments 4 until Treatment 6, utilizing the isolated edible protein film at varying concentrations, showed similar pH values of the samples compared to treatment 2. However, the minimal disparity is seen amongst the different concentrations in terms of pH scale.

Figure 3. Changes in pH values for fried fish samples
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.1.4 Texture Profile Analysis
The texture profile analysis (TPA) change of deep-fried fish samples were determined and the results shown in table 3: Texture was evaluated by measuring hardness of the edible coating.
The results of texture measurements are summarized in Table 3, six different treatments yielded varying results according to the changing concentration and constituency of the preparations. The recorded pH value for the control sample was noted to be between 8.94 and 9.35 before application of the edible coatings. The pH values were noted to increase on application of the edible coating SPS at different levels of TEO. The findings were attributed to the phosphate ions in the food samples. In addition, constituents of the EOs are capable of gaining access to the periplasm of bacteria through the proteins of the outer membrane of the food. Indeed, the report showed that the level of pH and accumulation of bacteria were directly correlated.
Six textural properties of fried fish sample were analyzed, namely hardness, resilience, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. Hardness is defined as the peak load of compression. Within the varying treatments (Treatments 1 – 6), the Hardness score increased significantly with the progression of treatments due to the addition of various constituents (i.e., breading, battering, and coating). There was much difference between the findings at various concentrations with the highest score exhibited at 15% isolated protein film with cornstarch batter and breading (i.e., Treatment 6). The second textural property was resilience that calculated the ability of the fried samples to absorb energy until elastic deformation. The Texture Profile Analysis for Cornstarch treatments yielded a gradually increasing score of resilience from Treatment 1 to Treatment 6. Though the resilience score of Treatment 2 deviated from the incremental pattern demonstrated at other concentrations, the addition of the isolated edible protein film (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6) illustrated later withdrawal times as opposed to the control samples (i.e., Treatment 1 and Treatment 2).
The third textural property measured and analyzed was cohesiveness. A decline of cohesion was seen in the second control sample (i.e., Treatment) when compared with Treatment 1 due to the addition of commercial battering and breading. However, this is no significant (p>0.05) among the treatments.
The fourth textural property evaluated was springiness, which calculates the rate by at the respective sample returns back from its undeformed state after the application of a deforming force. This measure of elastic recovery was seen to either increase or decrease with each consecutive treatment, attributable to the extra layer of breading, batter, and coating. Higher protein concentrations in edible coating exhibited do not have a significant effect on springiness rating (i.e., 10% and 15%).
Gumminess constituted the fifth analyzed textural property, calculated by formula hardness * cohesiveness. As expected, an incremental pattern of gumminess scores was seen for varying treatment (i.e., Treatment 1 – 6) was seen that denoted higher total work of the second chew compression following the first.
The Final textural property to be analyzed was chewiness, categorized as the first significant break of the compression cycle. A product of gumminess and springiness, the score of chewiness for varying preparations yielded a progressively increasing rate for each consecutive treatment. This can be correlated to the factors that supplement gumminess and springiness (i.e., battering, coating and breading). The edible protein coating, together with breading and cornstarch batter, augment the energy required to masticate the fried fish samples.
Table 3
Texture Profile Analysis for deep fried fat sample with batter cornstarch and edible coating
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Hardness (N)
3.04±0.82f 11.88±1.15e 15.04±3.16d 33.55±2.90c 66.68±3.21b 76.21±0.84a
Resilience
0.25±0.05c 0.16±0.02c 0.22±0.02b 0.22±0.04a 29.32±2.98a 26.55±1.58a
Cohesiveness
0.61±0.08a 0.40±0.05b 0.54±0.03ba 0.61±0.05ba 0.61±0.04ba 0.57±0.01ba
Springiness
0.88±0.03b 0.73±0.05c 0.82±0.02a 0.85±0.03a 86.44±1.98b 88.45±2.44b
Gumminess
1.88±0.68cb 3.26±2.10cb 8.06±1.48c 22.46±2.93a 37.25±1.01cb 51.10±7.03b
Chewiness
1.53±0.60c 2.71±0.92cb 6.52±1.12c 19.15±3.02a 36.86±3.65b 42.52±4.78b
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters within the same row indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. bExperimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.1.5 Color Determination
The Tristimulus color values (L*, a* and b*) were evaluated for the various treatments constituted under the cornstarch batter preparations. L* values range from black (i.e., 0) to white (i.e., 100) with an increase the index signifying luminosity. The a* is another scale that measures redness (+60) to greenness (-60) values. The b* scale is a measure of the yellowness (positive values) to blueness (negative values).
The L* value ranged from 43.82 – 56.09, signifying divergence of coloration to a darker due to the incorporation of commercial batter. The L* value continued to significantly p(<0.05) decrease in each consecutive treatment utilizing varying concentration (5%, 10%, and 15%) of edible protein film.
Table 4 also illustrates how a* and b* values of the fired fish changed after coating. The a* values increased with higher concentrations of coating and cornstarch battering. The tendency of coloration to favor the blue color was observed with slightly decreasing scores at higher concentrations of edible protein film. However, not much difference was seen in b* values with different treatment, as the coloration minimally changed over the passage of time. Therefore, not much difference was found in the b* values between the control and coated treatments.
Table 4
Color Properties simple to protein sample
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
L*(lightness 56.09±0.22a 44.38±0.33d 50.88±0.44b 49.73±1.19cb 47.11±1.40cd 43.82±2.75d
a* (redness- reenness) -0.15±0.01c 10.56±0.78a 9.93±0.97a 9.74±0.61a 8.83±0.99ba 6.98±0.90b
b*(yellowness-blueness) 11.37±0.04b 15.18±0.01a 16.75±0.56a 11.89±1.15b 12.24±0.45b 11.71±1.08b
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters within the same
row indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. bExperimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.1.6 Frying Yield
The frying yield calculated for corn starch for the various treatments are depicted in Table 5. The weight of the sample after frying increased significantly in treatment 2 (i.e., commercial batter). A significant decrease in the frying yield is seen once the corn-starch batter in Treatment 3 replaces the commercial batter with the corn-starch. However, the addition of the edible protein films in the treatments (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6), resulted in a significant rise with the increased concentration of protein film incorporated (i.e., 5%, 10%, 15% respectively).
1107520-333375a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
c
c
c
d
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
T1
T2
T3 (control)
T4
T5
T6
Fat content (%)
Treatments
raw fish
Fried fish
00a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
c
c
c
d
0
2
4
6
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12
T1
T2
T3 (control)
T4
T5
T6
Fat content (%)
Treatments
raw fish
Fried fish

Figure 5 Frying yield
Table 5
Frying Yield for Cornstarch
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Frying Yield% 60.5 76.51 60.59 69.05 79 80.69
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters within the same row indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. bExperimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2 Results – Results for fried fish with starch batter and edible coating in Sweet Potato
4.2.1 Fat Content
Figure 4 shows the fat uptake of the deep-fat fried fish with a batter containing sweet potato starch. Fat accounted for more than 10.5% of the fried fish in the control sample for treatment 1. Incorporation of the commercial batter in treatment 2 reduced the level of fat absorption significantly when compared with Treatment 1. Even lower absorption percentages were seen when edible protein coatings (i.e., Treatments 4 – 6) were incorporated as a constituent.
Figure 4. Fat Content (%) of Raw Fish and Deep-Fried Fish for Sweet Potato Starch
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2.2 Moisture Content
Figure 5 demonstrates the moisture content for the sweet potato batter preparations. With the incorporation of the commercial batter (Treatment 2) when compared with the first control sample (i.e., Treatment 1) moisture loss significantly low (p>0.05). Incorporation of the sweet potato batter in Treatment 3 further reduced moisture loss when compared with the previous two treatments. However, significantly greater reduction in moisture loss levels were achieved by the incorporation of greater percentages of edible protein film (i.e., Treatments 4, Treatment 5 and Treatment 6). Application of the protein film coating treatments was successful in reducing moisture loss in the fried samples. These results concur with the original hypothesis regarding the viability of the fish – based edible protein film in even sweet potato preparations.
Figure 5. Moisture Content (%) of Raw Fish and Deep-Fried Fish for sample to prepare
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2.3 Changes in pH
Figure 6 illustrates the changes in pH determined for the sweet potato batter preparations. The pH value for the first control samples (i.e., Treatment 1) started as neutral. Then proceeded to gradual decline due to the addition of commercial batter in the following control sample (i.e., Treatment 2). Treatment 3 had a battering system containing sweet potato and breading, yielded a slight increase in alkalinity when compared with the Treatment 1. The following concentrations (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6) utilized the edible protein coatings at varying concentrations (i.e., 5%, 10%, and 15%), denoting a slightly lower pH value. The application of coating treatments exhibited a slight increase in acidity within the results yet failed to indicate any significant difference (p>0.05) between treatments. Therefore, the disparity that was seen amongst the different concentrations in terms of the pH scale was minimal.
Aerobic plate counts is a measure of the muscle protein in the fried foods. In particular, the results were aimed at determining the count of bacteria population by comparing both coated and uncoated food samples. At lower aerobic plate counts, there were no detectable bacteria, for instance, at 4g/100g and 6/100g of thyme oil, there were no counts made in the food sample. In essence, it can be concluded that SPS coating incorporated with thyme oil has a significant advantage in inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

Figure 6. Changing pH of Corn Starch
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2.4. Texture Profile Analysis
As evident from Table 6, the Texture Profile Analysis for the sweet potato starch batter preparations produces varying results according to the changing concentration of treatments. Hardness, had the tendency to increase in different treatments. The significant disparity was cemented by the findings determined by treatment 1 to treatment 6, exhibiting similar patterns but a much lower rating of hardness due to the replacement of corn with potato starch.
The second textural property was resilience that calculated the ability of the samples to absorb energy until elastic deformation. The Texture Profile Analysis for sweet potato treatments yielded a gradually increasing score of resilience from Treatment 1 to Treatment 6. Though the resilience score of Treatment 2 deviated from the incremental pattern demonstrated at other concentrations, the addition of the edible protein film (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6) illustrated later withdrawal times as opposed to the two control samples (i.e., Treatment 1 and Treatment 2).
The third textural property measured and analyzed was cohesiveness. A decline of cohesiveness was seen in the second control sample (i.e., Treatment) when compared with Treatment 1 due to the addition of commercial battering and breading. However, the addition of edible protein coating in the following treatments resulted in an increase in the cohesiveness score. The scores of treatments 3 to treatment 6 were slightly lower than the cohesive scores of the first control sample (i.e., Treatment 1).
Springiness, being the fourth textural property, gauges the rate by which the respective sample of returns back from its undeformed state after the application of a deforming force. This measure of elastic recovery was seen to significantly increase with each consecutive treatment, attributable to the extra coating of bread, batter, and coating. With the protein coating used to create the edible film, higher percentages exhibited a drastically decrease the springiness rating (i.e., 10% and 15%) but at a lower score than corn starch treatments.
Gumminess constituted the fifth analyzed the textural property, calculated by formula hardness * cohesiveness. The incremental configuration of results for varying concentration of treatments was seen that denoted higher total work chew compression but much lower than the comparative results from the cornstarch treatments (i.e., Table 5)
The Final textural property to be analyzed was chewiness. The score of chewiness for varying concentrations of sweet potato batter preparations yielded a progressively increasing rating for each consecutive treatment but much lower compared to the results disseminated by the cornstarch battering experiments. This can be correlated to the replacement of a much softer battering material.
Table 6
Texture Profile Analysis for Sweet Potatoes Starch
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Hardness (N) 3.04±0.82f 11.88±1.15e 20.09±1.09d 31.93±1.18c 41.15±0.07b 54.71±2.98a
Resilience 0.25±0.05c 0.16±0.02c 6.59±0.42b 23.62±3.35a 23.27±1.88a 22.33±0.88a
Cohesiveness 0.61±0.08a 0.4±0.05b 0.5±0.03ba 0.57±0.05a 0.57±0.06a 0.56±0.05a
Springiness 0.88±0.03c 0.73±0.04c 77.29±1.15a 81.68±2.97a 70.97±0.45b 70.52±3.22b
Gumminess 1.88±0.68cb 3.26±2.1cb 1.73±1.47c 17.32±1.86a 2.47±0.38cb 5.48±0.29b
Chewiness 1.53±0.6b 2.71±0.92cd 1.34±1.14d 19.15±3.02a 6.13±1.01cb 6.68±0.19cb
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2.5. Color Properties
The L* value ranged from 44.38 – 56.09 (i.e., control sample). The control sample (i.e., Treatment 1 and Treatment 2) signified divergence of coloration to a slightly darker due to the incorporation of commercial batter. However, the L* value significantly increased with each consecutive treatment utilizing varying concentration (5%, 10%, and 15%) of edible protein film as opposed to the decrease seen in the cornstarch batter preparations.
Table 6 illustrates how a* and b* values of the fried fish changed after coating. The a* values increased with higher concentrations of breading, coating and cornstarch battering (Treatment 1 – 3) but slightly decreases as the protein films were incorporated into the preparations (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6). However, much like the cornstarch batter, there was minimal disparity observed in b* values for all for the 6 sweet potato treatments.
Table 7
Color Properties for corns-Starch
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
L*(lightness) 56.09±0.22a 44.38±0.33d 50.26±0.15cb 48.89±1.08c 51.29±0.51b 55.74±0.57a
a* (redness-greenness) -0.15±0.01d 10.56±0.78a 10.19±0.74a 6.46±0.24b 6.35±0.18b 4.73±0.48c
b* (yellowness-blueness) 11.37±0.04c 15.18±0.01a 13.6±0.96b 7.66±0.59d 14.3±0.33ba 6.44±0.38d
aData are given as mean values ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters on the top of data bars indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Test, p<0.05) between mean values. Experimental Treatment codes are shown in Table 1.
4.2.6 Frying Yield
The frying yield calculated for sweet potato treatments are depicted in Table 8. The weight after the process of frying the sample increased significantly in Treatment 2 (i.e., Commercial Batter). However, in contrast to the corn-starch, it rose significantly once replaced by the sweet potato batter in Treatment 3. This incremental rise in the frying yield continued to sharply surge as the edible protein film is incorporated in the treatments (i.e., Treatment 4 – 6).
Table 8
Frying Yield percentages for Sweet Potato Starch
Experimental Treatment Codesb
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Frying Yield% 60.59 76.51 78.90 80.09 81.07 82.70
CHAPTER 5Discussion and Future Research
This chapter encompasses various discussions pertaining to the evaluation of the results for both types of batter (i.e., sweet potato starch & corn starch) including the percentage of fat content analysis, the percentage of moisture content analysis, pH levels, texture profile analysis, and color properties. This is supplemented by comparisons of the results of this study with similar research in the same discipline to figure out the best evidence-based mechanism to derive a way forward.
The low-fat content of fried fish is essential as consumption of fried fish regularly has been associated with a 48% higher risk of heart failure (Schor, 2011). Fried fish exhibited decreasing uptake of fat with the use of protein film in treatments pertaining to both types of batter preparations. This is primarily attributed to the utilization of edible protein film thereby successfully approving part of the hypothesis that fat uptake is reduced by its usage. The percentage of fat content was seen to be decreasing with each consecutive treatment in both of the aforementioned batter preparations. The lowest fat content percentage difference was found in treatment 6 (15% protein content) for both battering systems containing either corn-starch or sweet potato. The final treatment yielded the lowest percentage in terms of fat content. This is attributed to the thermo-gelling properties of hydrocolloid constituents (Kurek et al., 2017). Such a characteristic allows a low percentage of fat content after the process of frying while being invisible to the eye and void of any adverse effects to the sensory taste of the food (Kurek et al., 2017). Furthermore, research has identified such foods as having greater palatability, higher nutritional value and superior crispiness (Kurek et al., 2017). The formative design of the edible coating is imperative to determine the efficacy of its action mechanism (Kurek et al., 2017). The findings supplement the viability of edible protein coatings to be used to devise strategies for the development of health and higher quality fried products.
Dr. Susanne Albert together with Dr. Mittal published a research in the Food Research International pertaining to the evaluation of various edible coatings specifically to reduce the uptake of fat in deep-fried cereal products (Albert & Mittal, 2002). The comparison was conducted on 11 hydrocolloid materials to evaluate fat and water transfer properties (Albert & Mittal, 2002). The highest valuation, in terms of heat stability and fat uptake effectiveness, was Soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate ad methylcellulose (Albert & Mittal, 2002). Mixed coatings were seen to be even more effective in terms of reduction of moisture loss and fat uptake, however, they did increase the thickness of the coating (Albert & Mittal, 2002). The 2006 publication in the Journal of Food Sciences also highlights the efficacy of edible protein-based coatings in reducing the uptake of fat during the process of deep-frying (Williams & Mittal, 2006). The result of the study correlated with the findings of this research elicited through the aid of a mathematical model that assessed the transfer of heat, fat, and moisture in both the food and the film (Williams & Mittal, 2006). The results proved the practicability of the edible film in all three research tributaries.
The moisture level loss in both of the cases is seen to be reduced with the increasing percentage of edible protein film. Edible protein film was successful in mitigating moisture loss, fulfilling the hypothesis of the study. Moisture content percentages were seen to also be parallel in both of the studies with T6 of both sweet potato and corn starch having higher moisture content than the previous treatments procedures (i.e., Treatment 1 – 5). It is important to have a balanced moisture as either the loss or excess of moisture can alter food properties (Pomerahz & Meloan, 2000). The findings of this study supplement the ability of edible protein films to reduce moisture loss, even more at even higher percentages. This can be attributed ability of the edible protein films to provide moisture barrier on the surface of the food that mitigates the changes of texture, appearance, and flavour that are correlated with moisture loss (Lin & Zhao, 2007). The hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings have been found to produce varying results (Lin & Zhao, 2007). Protein-based coatings, generally hydrophilic are known to yield unsatisfactory results in some use cases (Lin & Zhao, 2007). However, the protein coating was a success in keeping the required moisture content percentages for the fish samples used in the study.
A research published in the Journal of Food Processing Engineering further supports the capability of edible protein film to reduce moisture loss (Balasubramaniam et al., 2007). The experiment evaluated the edible film made of hydroxyl-propyl methyl-cellulose in retaining moisture and reducing fact during the act of deep – fat frying (Balasubramaniam et al., 2007). Moisture Retention was seen to increase by nearly 16.4 % whereas a 33.7 percent fat reduction was achieved (Balasubramaniam et al., 2007).
Similar results for moisture content can be seen in multifarious researches, with a recent publication demonstrating the effectiveness of whey protein based edible coating in preserving the quality of fresh mutton (Balgheisi et al., 2016). A significant difference was seen in both coated and uncoated samples, where coated samples exhibited greater resilience to moisture loss and had more colored values and juiciness (Balgheisi et al., 2016).
This is further supplemented by correlating pH levels for the treatments associated with both of the batter preparations. Loss of moisture content loss and low pH are critical in catalyzing microbial growth (Bell & Labuza, 1994). Therefore, the results concluding a neutral or almost neutral PH (i.e. 6.5 – 7) for all of the treatments indicate the healthy presence of natural fats, starches, and sugars (Tadros, 2011). It provides a balanced meal in both sweet potato and cornstarch that are aligned with slightly alkaline nature of human blood (Malarkey & McMorrow, 2011).
The Texture profile analysis attributes of hardness, resilience, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness for the corn starch batter preparation is significantly greater that of the sweet potato batter for all of the treatments excluding the control samples (Sinha, 2007); signifying the T6 of corn-starch batter to be harder and requiring much more chewing cycles than the sweet potato batter. This is primarily because of the nature of sweet potato starches to slowly retrograde as opposed to corn starch batter (Chen, 2003). The amylose present in sweet potato becomes much more rapidly with frying than that of corn starch due to the high presence of it in the latter (Chen, 2003). However, both the batter preparations did not show any signs of hedonic textural parameters.Studies gauging the texture profile analysis of various protein-based edible coatings are multifarious. A 2015 research paper explored the various applications of soy protein coatings the assessed the resultant quality and shelf life of patties made out of beef. The Texture profile analysis yielded commendable and similar results with no intensity or negative effects observed by the consumers (Guerrero et al., 2015). Another study conducted by a team of Chinese researchers at the Henan Institute of Science and Technology found similar results on the evaluation of TPA. It found corn starch samples to have higher Instrumental texture parameters, such as Peak force (N), Distance (mm) and Gradient (N / sec) (Zhang et al., 2013).
Much disparity is seen in the results depicted by the treatments of the aforementioned batter samples. For the sweet potato batter, the color got darker by T3 and then lighter again at T6 whereas, for corn starch batter, the color progressively got lighter by the end of the test results of treatment 6. The color went from yellow-green to orange-red for sweet potato. In contrast, cornstarch batter ended up with a brighter and darker shade of bright orange and dark red by the end of treatment 6. This can be attributed to the cornstarch being primarily a grain starch (Eliasson, 2004) and sweet potato is a root starch (Loebenstein & Thottappilly, 2009). Both starches have varying physiognomies though can be used in many of the same applications. Cornstarch can handle high temperatures comparatively better than sweet potato starch, though sweet potatoes tend to be made clearer solutions and batters. The results of the tristimulus color values signify the difference where sweet potato tends to produce brighter colorations earlier than cornstarch.
Conclusion
It is imperative that the public is made aware of the dangers associated with the consumption of food with high-fat content to minimize the risk of contracting coronary diseases. In conclusion, the use of edible protein films leads to a lower fat uptake by the fish while maintaining the right moisture content. Also, we should use more protein film as illustrated in our findings as the fat content in fish is lowered while at the same time there is no alteration in the taste of fish. Finally, the results obtained in this study show that the edible protein coating can promote healthy living due to its ability to lower the level of fat intake significantly while maintaining the nutritional value of food.
Future recommendations
More research needs to be done concerning the moisture content disparity in the samples. There is a vast variance of results when it comes to moisture contents particularly when we consider the coated and the uncoated samples. Additionally, the same is observed in the texture profile analysis when we use coatings of starch and sweet potato. A disparity in the change of color and texture is found. Finally, different types of protein coatings affect the fried different; more studies need to be done on the kind of protein that will yield better results.
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