Dissertation Chapter#2 Literature Review
The Relationship between Retention Rates for College Freshmen and High School Preparation Programs
According to Venezia & Jaeger (2013), university retention was for a long time the focus of educational research (Venezia & Jaeger, 2013). The relationships that exist between the retention rates for first-year college students and high school preparation programs were also a topic of discussion for several kinds of literature (Wright, Perrone-McGovern, Boo & White, 2014). When the students completed their educations goals, it was seen as a success to both the university and the students themselves (Young‐Jones, Burt, Dixon, Hawthorne, 2013). Two of the most frequently cited statistics on the student’s success is on the ability of the university to retain the freshmen and have the first year’s returns (Tierney & Sablan, 2014).
According to Urdan & Herr (2017), in case these rates were high, then the schools were to be successful. Venezia & Jaeger (2013) stated that when defining the cohort rates of graduation, there were percentages that the scholars took in considerations such as the percentage at which the students enter their class with and the rate in which the graduates get out of the college school (Venezia & Jaeger, 2013). Walsh & Kurpius (2015) also agreed with this comment. Once their courses were complete, whether they went through the associate degree or through the six-year period of the baccalaureate degree their ability to retain the students was crucial to the university (Huerta & Watt, 2015). From the annual rates of the student returns, there were efforts by the students to have the implementation of the programs that the schools geared towards the academic performance (Venezia & Jaeger, 2013). The schools also found it difficult to retain the students who were not performing (Walsh & Kurpius, 2015). These programs were directly related to the courses that were completed. The retention was considered to be a crucial part of the student development in college (Huerta, Watt & Reyes, 2013). As a key concern for many universities, retention saw factors looked at in quite a detailed manner (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). Many kinds of literature were written, recommended for high school programs that promote college retention (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015). Many scholars also showed the importance of college retention to the students (Huerta & Watt, 2015). There were statistics that showed how the new students admitted to the university were feeling since they had connections with the system (Kanno & Kangas, 2014).
Programs for the Ethnic Minority
Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab (2015) states that in the last few decades, the ethnic minority have been the most affected students when it comes to school dropout. The lack of sense of fitting into the university contributes to the high rate of college dropouts (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015). The students from the ethical minority face the challenge of having to face the others of different ethnicity (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet (2015) proved that the chances of the university to retain the students were associated with numerous factors and ethnicity is the main one (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). It was shown that the variations were also notable in public and private universities (Martinez & Bain, 2014). This influenced the impact that the institution had on the students (Moss, 2014). The institutional effect was also related to the cases of dropouts and premature dropping of the learners (Newman & Newman, 2017). Núñez, Crisp & Elizondo (2015) found that institutions had put their focus on the ways that could be used to add the students; the main impact was also felt on graduation (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). Findings published online on the behaviors of students at the university that suggested fostering the connections between the students and their history (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). The students were facing the period of transition between high school and the university (Petty, 2014). The summer transitions that they faced from the time were in school to the time that they became freshmen was one of the issues that could determine the success and the ability of the school to retain them (Pruett & Absher, 2015).
Statistics carried out by Ryan, (2013) showed that only sixty-eight percent of the students who are admitted into the universities are retained until completion (Ryan, 2013). This means that out of ten students admitted; only six of them have been seen to complete their courses as required (Wilson, 2016). Stewart, Lim & Kim (2015) states that this is about ninety percent have been dropping from school after the second year of admission (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). For the schools, there was the need to allow the students to develop that feeling of belonging and provide a condition where the students felt they fit into the system (An, 2013). This made the students know that the academic skills that they had were enough to see them through (Anderson, 2017). The fact that they felt at home with the learning institution meant that they stick in that surrounding for as long as they were appreciated (Ballón, 2015). On the psychological terms, the students could not want to live in denial and try to fit into an academic system where they did not belong (Brown, 2014). In case they felt like they did not belong to a system, they left even if the other conditions were met (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). The universities also looked for the best ways and means of fostering the studies of the diverse students (Cabrera, 2014). This was done through the process of developing a sense of belonging before the student came so that they could fit well into the system (California Charter Schools Association, 2016). According to the various research works that were done, the students who are from the ethical minority are less likely to feel the connections in the university with the others (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). This event was happening during the orientations that were conducted before the students were made part of the system (Dyce, Albold & Long, 2013).
The other fact the literature states on the ability of the schools to retain the students have been on the ethical minority of the students have faced in the past are getting into their mind in case they try to fit into the system (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Most of them feel that they were not part of the system because they were oppressed or their ancestors were oppressed in the past (Gaertner, Kim, DesJardins & McClarty, 2014). This sense of skepticism is predominant among the African American students when they were with the white university students (Brown, 2014). The ethnic minorities felt the connection during the orientation programs in case they were structured towards the student retention (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). These studies also measured the determinations students had and their abilities to face all the setbacks that they faced in solving their problems (Dyce, Albold & Long, 2013). Research has constantly shown that the high school teacher’s involvement in their education and experiences amazingly increases their chances of great educational achievement (Ryan, 2013). This engagement also strengthens the school programs (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). Knaggs, Sondergeld & Schardt (2015) found that most of these researchers have concentrated on elementary and primary levels of education (Huerta & Watt, 2015). This means that only little portion is known about the involvement of high school teachers in high and middle school levels (Christensen, Raynor & McDonald, 2016).
According to Gormley, Phillips & Anderson (2018), the high school teachers of children in the tenth grades attending low-income high schools in urban areas and southwestern parts of the United States who have diverse ethical population are the most affected. Their high school teachers who got low income and faced diverse cultural and personal beliefs had difficulty in participating in their children’s schooling lives (Ary, Jacobs, Irvine & Walker, 2018). They, however, ripped the rewards of their involvement in secondary-level schooling (Simon & Johnson, 2015). While describing the experiences that they had in the involvement in their children’s education, the high school teachers had very different opinions on the issue of their involvement in education (Lonn, Aguilar & Teasley, 2015). Analysis of regression also revealed that parent’s invitations for their involvement had positive and strong impacts on the school-based academic involvement (Dupéré, Leventhal, Dion, Crosnoe, Archambault & Janosz, 2015). It also had a slim positive outcome on the home-based behaviors of these children when they were not involved in the school activities (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015).
Pike, Hansen & Childress (2014) also found that outside life context had a positive impact on their home-based involvements. When the high school teachers are fully aware of their children performances, it has significant effects on their personal motivations which translate to a behavior which the high school teachers are part of (Nelson, Shell, Husman, Fishman & Soh, 2015). The results of this research support most of the prior findings (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond & Carver-Thomas, 2016). It, however, conflicted with other contrasting findings which emphasized that each school has different needs and approaches (Drysdale, Graham & Borup, 2014). The same issue was also stated by Westrick, Le, Robbins, Radunzel & Schmidt (2015).
Level of Education
Many administrators at secondary school level are not aware of the variety of benefits that results from the parent’s involvement in their children’s school lives (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). Consequently, they do not prefer devoting their resources and time to try and engage the high school teachers on the involvement of their education (Walsh & Kurpius, 2015). Wolber Abelson & Friedman (2015) also highlights that even though most parents’ involvement has a positive impact. Here, many activities remained that the high school teachers did not have a hand to improve the academic success of the child (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2015). Also, there were those children that having the parent’s dedication had very little or no impact on them (Clark, 2017). They could be extremely excellent academically and that the parents’ effort hardly counted (Hall, Kauffmann, Wuensch, Swart, DeUrquidi, Griffin & Duncan, 2015). They could not be extremely poor academically that even the effort of the parent did not change the outcome nor have an impact on their academics (Oreopoulos & Petronijevic, 2017). For a successful high school programs, there must be the ability to assess, utilize and access educational research ((Freeman & Simonsen, 2015). In addition to these, school leaders need to explain the implications and meaning of complex research to the other people (Oreopoulos, & Petronijevic, 2017).
Royster, Gross & Hochbein (2015) found that another important point to note following findings by the school is that the perception of the students that got influenced indirectly by the high school programs structures in the high school enabled them to transfer the same to the college level. In this sense, the students who were part of the high school programs in the high school easily fit into the system at the college and the university (Pike, Hansen & Childress, 2014). This means that they are likely to be retained in the school as a result of the program in the high school (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond & Carver-Thomas, 2016).
For instance, when the students were in the high school programs, and they were disillusioned in their approach, they were unlikely to hide the negative feelings that they got from the teachers and the family members (Junco, 2015). Different research highlights several types of student retention high school programs with each contributing to retention and happiness in the colleges (Sutcher et al., 2016). According to Brown, (2014), the following forms of programs were helpful in the long run high school programs. With turnover as an issue, the school administrators had the capacity to lead viably and give a workplace where student retention education was fulfilled and have a feeling of satisfaction in their endeavors (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Their representatives through building up and advancing maintenance systems and guaranteeing work (Gaertner, Kim, DesJardins & McClarty, 2014). This way, the students were prepared for the challenges presented by the university (Brown, 2014). An occurrence of student retention turnover in any given facility would, according to Cabrera, (2014) lead to filling the position by the existing students of the same programs. Such moves would result in less frustration and stress in the future of the students and would eventually lead to more retention (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013).
In the case of filling the vacant posts, turnover was expected as the current students spent more time training the new education while at the same time carrying on with their normal duties (Dyce, Albold & Long, 2013). High turnover in colleges was known for reducing the quality of student retention since the new students went through change process (Ryan, 2013). Turnover remained an issue for students, but for this review, the focus is on high school programs (Knaggs, Sondergeld & Schardt, 2015). The studies of high school programs appear in numerous disciplines, and education care is one of such (Christensen, Raynor & McDonald, 2016). Ballón, (2015) stated that education care in high school programs is quite similar to the other sectors with the same intensity on the training. They were the other research work that addressed the issues of leadership of the same breath as the ones that are based on the organizational success (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Different studies agreed that effective student retention thrives under strong high school programs skills from the professors or supervisors (Dyce, Albold & Long, 2013). Therefore, as observed by Huerta & Watt, (2015), a good management style boosted the overall education morale and reduced incidences of turnover (Wilson, 2016). The kind of high school programs style varied depending on the person in charge of the organization (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). Transformational high school programs, for example, were practiced by several student leaders (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Modern students practiced these high school programs and manifested them in intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015).
To the basic, transformational student leaders engaged the education with the aim of raising each other regarding development to higher levels (Pruett & Absher, 2015). As a profession, student retention practice required transformational high school programs to boost the morale of the practitioners which in return would impact education outcome (Ballón, 2015). Correct practice of transformational high school programs in student retention according to, Wolber, Abelson, & Friedman (2015) would modernize the sector.
High School Preparation
Cheon & Reeve (2015) states that numerous practices by researchers are ineffective and harmful, and thus these practices are demanded by the policymakers and members of the board since the administrators are not able to articulate the educational research results (Cheon & Reeve, 2015). The main reason why research reviews are being assigned is for the development of the candidate’s skills such as research understanding and knowledge (Freeman & Simonsen, 2015). The candidates also learn the skill of presentation of these researchers to others (Roybal, Thornton & Usinger, 2014). Ballón, (2015) stated that high school programs are designed in various ways in such a way that all students benefit. Certain factors listed by Cabrera, (2014), such as the structure of the school itself, class schedules, ways used to groups students and other programs also determine the kind of programs that are applicable and efficient in motivating the students (Fried, Petty, Faraone, Hyder, Day & Biederman, 2016). According to Castleman & Page, (2014), the efforts to increase students motivation and their chances to carry on with school are classified into three specific categories; programs tailored to students who are at ‘high’ risk of discontinuing school due to their personal or family reasons, programs that emphasize on the duty of teachers and other stakeholders in the school and platforms paying attention to the organization and procedures of the school itself (Christensen, Raynor & McDonald, 2016).
Targeted interventions are meant for specific sets of students such as those who are from low-income families, poor performers who easily lack motivation due to low grades, drug addicts and those students from minority races (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard, & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). The groups are created after close observation of the students while engaging the services of social workers and psychologist to enhance the accuracy of grouping. Furthermore, Freeman, & Simonsen, (2015) advised that students are picked without creating reasons for stigmatization or feelings of non-belonging (Westrick, Robbins, Radunzel & Schmidt, 2015). The targeted students certainly require such programs in order to avert dropping out before it comes to reality (Freeman, & Simonsen, 2015). Tierney & Sablan, (2014) identified indicators such as lateness, absenteeism, incomplete assignments plus indiscipline are used to identify potential drop-outs (French, Homer, Popovici, & Robins, 2015). Providing motivation early enabled the students to catch up with their school work sooner and then they could remain in the system for much longer (Venezia & Jaeger, 2013).
Drysdale, Graham, & Borup, (2014) emphasized that assigning ‘personal motivators’ who meet up the students regularly to offer encouragement and ensure they are at par with school work is one way in which the programs were applied (Dyce, Albold & Long, 2013). The students also earn some credit for every improvement marked by the motivator to increase the impact of the program (Drysdale, Graham & Borup, 2014). As Huerta & Watt, (2015) said, the lessons learned from the motivators mostly transform students into more productive people that even when they proceed to college (Brown, 2014). Junco, (2015) asserted that other alternative pathways such a Performance Learning Centers (PLCs) were created to help students with possibilities of dropping out of school (Hill, Bregman & Andrade, 2015). PLCs entails students using computers to carry out their studies and tests similar in duration and content as the conventional mode of studying using textbooks (Castleman & Page, 2014). The students take frequent tests after each lesson and module with a pass mark in order to progress to the subsequent lesson (Marchbanks III, Blake, Booth, Carmichael, Seibert & Fabelo, 2015).
Eventually, Moss, (2014) marked that the students would make an adequate practice to meet the mark required to progress and this translated to their final exams done by all students. Petty, (2014) explained how PLCs aim at students who are differently challenged; poor attendance, social issues, low motivation or academic difficulties (Walsh & Kurpius, 2015). The program of integrating technology enables identification of students who could have lost motivation and discontinued their studies if they maintained the conventional classes (Roybal, Thornton & Usinger, 2014). The program is more rewarding to the students as they get their results faster, it gives the students enough time to practice comfortably without anxiety or fear of humiliation by any other person (Ballón, 2015).
Martinez, & Bain, (2014) established the effects of small schools with not less than 1000 students were notably beneficial to students and the school management in terms of performance and resource utilization respectively (Gormley, Phillips & Anderson, 2018). According to Royster, Gross & Hochbein, (2015), small schools create a personal atmosphere in which students and their educators know each other and exchange ideas frequently creating a sense of relatedness and control. As Ryan, (2013) observed, in this kind of school, teachers easily track students who seem to be losing interest in school or engaging in deleterious behavior and they can engage them in motivating programs before they completely lose track (Stewart, Lim, & Kim, 2015). The programs impact the students’ lives up to and beyond college reducing dropouts of freshmen (Pruett & Absher, 2015).
Cheon & Reeve, (2015) indicated that teachers, on the other hand, increased the motivation and thus the retention of students by creating autonomous environments (Kelchen, & Goldrick-Rab, (2015). According to Huerta & Watt, (2015) students who learn how to thrive autonomously while in high school survive better in college where there is no close observation from lecturers or other professionals. The increase in the invitations for the high school teacher’s to get involved in their children’s secondary- level schooling programs as it increases both and the home-based and school-based involvement in their behaviors (Lonn, Aguilar & Teasley, 2015). Moreover, the use of these findings had positive impacts on the social change and increased the high school teacher’s involvement (Dupéré, Leventhal, Dion, Crosnoe, Archambault & Janosz, 2015). This ultimately led to the academic success of these students (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). Over the past decade, dramatic changes have taken place on the colleges (Pike, Hansen & Childress, 2014). This has been shown throughout the colleges in across the globe (Junco, 2015). Some of the notable changes include growing incidences of student shortages, retention of the new students and reduction of the number of the students who should be graduating from the schools among other issues (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond & Carver-Thomas, 2016).
In a bid to control the recent reduction in the number of students who are graduating from the colleges and the expenditure associated with such issues (Murray, Pole, Ciarlo & Holmes, 2016). The management in different high schools for the students has redesigned the traditional organization technique that improves efficiency (Fried, Petty, Faraone, Hyder, Day & Biederman, 2016). The function of high school students included the organizational direction of the programs that are specifically aimed at achieving the goals that have been put forward (Ary, Jacobs, Irvine & Walker, 2018). The way in which the high school teachers carried out their programs style over the necessary programs had a particular effect on the students while they joined the new colleges (Simon & Johnson, 2015). A personal style performed by different teachers affected different conditions (Lonn, Aguilar & Teasley, 2015). The teachers ’attrition, morale, turnover rates, productivity and teamwork among others were also the contributing factors (Dupéré, Leventhal, Dion, Crosnoe, Archambault & Janosz, 2015).
According to their findings, Wilson, (2016) highlighted some of the components of transformational high school programs in student retention which included intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, and inspirational motivation with idealized influence. College retention was crucial to the success of the students (Ballón, 2015). In support of intellectual stimulation are Wright, Perrone-McGovern, Boo & White (2014) who said that the students’ leaders achieved this by constantly asking for ideas from the student retention. The ideas varied depending on the situation, for example asking questions on how to handle a given case (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013.
The second aspect of student retention transformational high school programs was inspirational motivation (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). Under this concept, the focus is on the ability the leader holds that would inspire and motivate the education working under him or her (Pruett & Absher, 2015). The motivation should be visible and active geared towards nurturing the relationship with other practitioners within the facility (Wilson, 2016). To achieve this fete, a student leader should continually describe the vision and goals of the education sector (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). The leader also encourages his or her education to do their part in ensuring that the quality education care delivery by leading from the front (Pruett & Absher, 2015). In support of this form of high school programs, Roberts-Turner et al., (2014) discussed idealized influence as a third aspect of transformational high school programs. Idealized influence is characterized by (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015).
Idealized influence as a sub-concept encouraged the student retention leaders to keep effective and positive role models (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). Also, idealized influence dictates that the subordinate education should do what their bosses would undertake when confronted with the same situation (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). To achieve this kind of influence, the student leaders should remain consistent in word and actions considered professional and in line with the college’s facility’s policies and objectives (Pruett & Absher, 2015). The student leaders achieved this through the display of positive characteristics like enthusiasm, honesty, and dependability among the students and students (Cabrera, 2014). The final concept under this high school programs is an individualized consideration (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Under this concept, student leaders were required to recognize and express concern accordingly about the student retention education (Wilson, 2016).
To achieve this task, the leader performs the following functions, mentoring, supporting each other and professional encouragement (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). According to Walsh & Kurpius (2015), there is a massive relationship between the high school programs style and the ability of the students to be retained as well as their ability to feel satisfied with their work. The students, as well as the management, have to explore the style of high school programs that is practiced, whether they consider the one that is participatory or individualistic (Clark, 2017).
Choice of Courses
The other program that can prove to be successful is the development of the intervention programs in the high school level (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). This can also be implemented by the colleges so that they can retain the students (Wilson, 2016). Through the development of the intervention programs, the colleges have not been risking the loss of the students as they have to be aware that there is a possibility of living the school and that the university is aware of the consequences (Wilson, 2016). This can be backed through the implementation of the early alert programs (Ballón, 2015). The alert programs can help both parties (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). First, it helps the school to know the students dropping from the school and the potential students who drop from the school (Ballón, 2015). The program can also help the university to be aware of the students who are not able to pay their school fees so that they can help them if possible (Wilson, 2016). One of the most causes of concern has been the inability of the students to pay their fees in the colleges (Ballón, 2015). Even in the college have supportive programs; they have not been able to support themselves (Wilson, 2016). This has been even a concern for the minority races as most of them struggle with their fee payments (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The fact that they cannot pay their college fees means that they are likely to leave schools either in search of fees or drop out for good (Martinez & Bain, 2014). When the high school program can identify the students who may struggle in terms of their fee payments, it has helped them as they have been able to meet their requirements through writing to the colleges and they have been getting the necessary help (Newman & Newman, 2017).
Newman & Newman, 2017 also recommended that in case the fees can be paid, the students have been retained at the schools (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). Martinez & Bain (2014) states that students tend to face their personal problems. This can also be a massive issue as most of the students are unable to share what they are going through (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). The inability to share makes has been highlighted to even more difficult for the schools to know if the students have problems or not (Newman & Newman, 2017). It has been shown that, whether personal or family related, they do not like sharing them (Martinez & Bain, 2014). Because of this reason, Martinez & Bain, 2014 recommends that the students need someone who can listen to their problems so that they can be retained in the school (Martinez & Bain, 2014). Ness (2016) highlighted the academic problems is the other issue that makes the student drop from the schools. Most of the time, the students go through massive sessions that are unsolvable for them (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Pruett & Absher, (2015) also say that it has become difficult for them in making the decisions pertaining the decisions to stay at school. The sessions have proven to be a social problem that the schools can do better and save the students from (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016).
The type of high school programs had a major influence on these (Martinez & Bain, 2014). When the high school programs were considered to be participatory, the education members felt empowered and they were largely involved in all the decisions that affected their lives (Wilson, 2014). The decision-making process was a major factor in employee empowerment (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). These were determined whether they remained intact in their places or they resolved to move on (Newman & Newman, 2017). The turnover of the students was a major concern for the student retention profession (Freeman & Simonsen, 2015). The studies of Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, (2016) agreed with the impact that effective high school programs had on the same turnover (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). There were students who decided that their only hope was to drop out of the school before their official time to graduate reached (Newman & Newman, 2017). Retention was among the major issues in such kinds of institutions as the students thought of other things that are not part of the learning process (Newman & Newman, 2017). It was always adviced that the student should not be neglected even if they attempt to give up sometimes (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016).
Availability of Programs
One of the best places that the statistics of the students was found is in the use of support groups (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). Support groups helped the people who were concerned to know about the issues that were at hand and how they could help the students (Martinez & Bain, 2014). There was also data which without fair intervention, the students were likely to fall from these schools and eventually drop from the schools (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). There are schools that were only focusing on the issues such as time management and the ability of the students to take notes (Newman & Newman, 2017). Focusing on the other factors was quite crucial to all the schools (Newman & Newman, 2017). There were times when the students were educated about the cultures that are part of life so that they could feel that the school is supportive (Newman & Newman, 2017).
These programs helped in the decisions of the students and the reasons why they have to stay in schools (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). There are also groups that were focusing on the success of the university with the other issue send programs such as sports (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). The intention of the students expressing their intent and ability to turn over serves as the main opportunity in the initiation of a dialogue with the current education (Clark, 2017). This also presented an opportunity for the student manager for them to undergo a self-assessment test and find out the type of high school programs and the style that they use to rule (Clark, 2017). This way, they would find out whether the type of high school programs that they were using was one that enabled the students to feel safe, engaged and trusted (Read and Laschinger, 2015). The identification of high school programs, as well as the right attention, was to be given to strategies and the characteristics of the best high school programs styles (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The high school programs position was one with the trait as well as a concept that had been evolving for a long time (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). Whether the high school programs were transformational, leisure-fair or transactional, some factors favored the students and those that were not for the benefit of the students in each of them (Bawafaa, Wong and Laschinger, 2015). From time immemorial, the transformational high school programs style was known to be one that had the students and other subordinate members motivated as they appeal for the best and ideal moral ideas as well as the moral values (Cheng, Cheng, Bartram, Bartram, Karimi, Karimi, and Leggat, 2016).
There are management techniques that could help the student cope up with the pressure that is presented by the life of the college (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). The leaders in the school have to realize that the students have the weaknesses and strengths in different things (Newman & Newman, 2017). The vision of the school had to reflect the other aspect of the school (Newman & Newman, 2017), (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). It was not good to always focus on the academic aspects of the school as other things could be successful in the learning institution (Martin, 2014). There were well-known schools because of how they perform out in academics (Newman & Newman, 2017).
Therefore, the fact that the leaders recognized that the commitment of the organizational members is at the forefront of all its operational principle guarantees that the high school programs are the best (Laschinger, Wong, Cummings and Grau 2014). The aim components of the transactional, high school programs that are highly regarded include the following (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015), (Martinez & Bain, 2014). Inspiration and motivation of the members, the idealized member influence, intellectual member stimulation together with individual member consideration form the high school programs (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The transactional, high school programs also had the characteristics that are based on the compliance by the members (Kanno & Kangas, 2014).
Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab (2015) stated that rewards offered could determine whether someone stayed in school or they were out of school. The awards would also be offered for the other activities which the students perform better in (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). There were times when students came to school just because of the co-curriculum activities (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). If this was massively implemented, the school could be one of the most successful regarding the student retention (Brown, Fraser, Wong, Muise and Cummings, 2013). There were students who were not even having the thought of learning as they had their focus on the other activities (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015).
In most schools, the cost that would be felt from losing a single student was massively felt such that the whole community was affected (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). For this reason, the ability to retain a student at the institution should be the top priority of the organization (Roberts-Turner, Hinds, Nelson, Pryor, Robinson, and Wang, 2014). This issue could also be shared by the whole community, for they could retain the students (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). The cost which the school system used to replace a student was too much, making the school systems change their attention and effort to the retention of the students (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015).
Also, the fact that the human population is on the increase makes it difficult for school systems in case they lost a student (Kanno & Kangas, 2014).It was not easy to replace a student since the population of the students was on the increase, leaving very little time for the leaders to recruit new students (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015). The student manager is one of the most hired in all the sectors of the community (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). In hiring a leader in the student retention profession, it is most likely that the student had one time been in the high school programs position somewhere, has a student retention background and must have displayed the perfect high school expertise throughout their career (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). Moreover, the student manager must be favored and one that is highly respected by both the peers and leaders (Tillott, Walsh and Moxha, 2013).
Despite all these, there are times that the high school programs roles come by chance and is sometimes held on a temporary basis for a short period (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). High school programs in itself have its challenges that are associated with the position (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). Being that the turnover for the students has been a major concern, the management has to lead and use their positions effectively by providing the students with a working environment that has the people feeling satisfied (Coventry, Maslin Prothero, and Smith, 2015). The students must also feel that they are empowered, and their needs are fulfilled (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). The school management has to take most of the blame for their inability to retain the students (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). This is because they hold a massive part of the student lives (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). They are also the reasons as to why the school is operating in the first place (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). The policies that they set ensured that a student stayed in school or they were out of the school (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013).
The students were also looking at the conditions of the school in the determinations to success (Laschinger and Fida, 2014). Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar (2015) found that in case the students were satisfied with the administrative programs and focus, they have been staying in school for the longest time possible. It also determines whether the students can go on the turnover and the other events (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). This led to a significant burnout on the side of the remaining students (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). With time, the students felt exhausted, and they were also leaving as the number of student either increases or remains constant (Cabrera, 2014). There is no time that the number of students reduces to reflect on the massive turnover (Kuo, Lin, and Li, 2014). The stress and frustrations that the remaining students undergo is a massive factor in the decisions of the students to quit as the first group (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). The problem does not end even when there are vacancies that are filed (Cabrera, 2014).
Allocation of Resources
When there are new students that come into the organization, they have been trained in the operations of the organization as well as the responsibilities of dealing with the direct students (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013). There are situations that the student requires the intervention of an advisor (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). The advisors can state the importance that they have had in life aside from the academic excellence (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). The fact that they are getting the advice from someone else makes it intriguing for the students (Burrus, Elliott, Brenneman, Markle, Carney, Moore, Roberts, 2013), (Cabrera, 2014) (Crisp & Delgado, 2013), (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). The students who are next have to feel that they are part of the system (Kanno & Kangas, 2014), (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015) and (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015) states that the focus groups can help in the decision for the students as they have been willing to listen to them, which is also supported by Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet (2015). There are times that the education system has to come down to the treatment of the people who are the clients for the school operators (Cabrera, 2014). In this case, the students are the clients for the people who are in charge of the schools (Cabrera, 2014), (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). However, the clients have to be treated well so that they can be able to operate continuously with the people (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). These help in solving the possible conflicts that they may have (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). There are times that looking at the results may not be great for the universities (Cabrera, 2014). Looking at the grades can sometimes be quite misleading for the people who are part of the system (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Those who are likely to fail also have other issues that they are going to excel in (Cabrera, 2014). There are those students who are better on the other things better than the others (Pruett & Absher, 2015).
Apart from the fact that the recruits have to be trained, there are other challenges that come with the new students that come to replace the ones that have been there (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Since the ethics in the student retention profession advocated for quality that is maximum and one that is incomparable to any other, the principled have been compromised (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Since the students are new, they have not delivered the expected quality that was delivered by the previous students that have left (Pruett & Absher, 2015). This way, the quality of the delivery is much compromised (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). There are several reasons why there is an increase in the turnover of the student retention education (Pruett & Absher, 2015). The turnover may be one that can be controlled (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). However, in most cases, the turnover is instigated by high school programs and the style of high school programs (Nei, Snyder and Litwiller, 2015).
Factors that cannot be controlled include the age of the student, the economic and social standing, the issues that are personal and family related, the high level of maturity from the students among others (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). The turnout was also instigated by the high school programs behavior the professors who oversaw the student influence the issues that affect the students directly such as promotion and the working environment (Laschinger and Fida, 2014). The intention by the students to leave the organizations that they are working with is a true reflection of the type of high school programs used and the type of environment that the leader has implemented while on the power (Zwink, Dzialo, Fink, Oman, Shiskowsky, Waite, and Le-Lazar, 2013). When the high school programs are well curtailed, there has been a massive production of the negative downstream that impacts on the human intelligence as well as the capital intellectual (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015).This has had an impact on the education quality delivered and the impression that the public has on the education organization (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Therefore, most leaders have to understand themselves and the issues that are on the left of the students (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Therefore, the leaders have to understand the style of high school programs that they are used to rule their subordinate education (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015).
The changes at the high schools and the universities cannot be implemented at one go (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). It becomes crucial that all the aspects of change are handled (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). The programs have to take time for the people to know of the benefits of the changes (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). It also applies to the other professionals as well (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). Once a change has arrived, many people have to be asked about it especially those that have been affected (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015).
The employees are the most likely sufferer in any employment (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). They have to be aware of the possibilities that are there (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). They are also aware that they can lose their jobs if they do not meet the new requirements (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). All in all, all the changes are for the better of the employees (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015). When they settle, the rewards have been big sufferings that may have been part of it (Kanno & Kangas, 2014).
Availability of Programs
Recruitment can be key in the student retention in several ways (Martinez & Bain, 2014).when the colleges recruited the right people, it be has been the most certainly a success (Fallatah and Laschinger, 2016). This applies to the type of students that they recruit as well as the employees (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The better students have had always wanted to study and finish the school as required (Martinez & Bain, 2014). It is always a problem when trying to recruit the students (Newman & Newman, 2017). There is a difficulty in determining the type of students that have fit into the system (Martinez & Bain, 2014). It is even more difficult to realize the type of people they have become after some time in the college (Martinez & Bain, 2014). When the right ones can succeed, the college can succeed in getting a better number regarding the turnover (Martinez & Bain, 2014), (Newman & Newman, 2017) and (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). They also have ways of fitting into the system and influence the other that have come (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). The efforts that they put are also different from the others (Martinez & Bain, 2014). They put much more efforts that the others (Newman & Newman, 2017).
When the leaders implement the retention strategies, then the students have had to be able to remain at their posts and continued their provision of the best services to the students (Pruett & Absher, 2015), (Wilson, 2016). (Ballón, 2015). The other issue that the high school programs style has that is of massive influence on the new student recruitment and retention is the engagement and collaboration (Pruett & Absher, 2015), (Wilson, 2016). As the profession that is highly demanding regarding engagement and collaboration (Wilson, 2016). (Ballón, 2015). The student safety is the most important element of the student retention practice (Olson, 2016). In essence, this subject of the student retention has made many schools to rethink and re-evaluate their positions in dealing with the students (Knaggs, Sondergeld & Schardt, 2015). It has forced the high schools to re-evaluate the way they deal with the students and ensure that they have the right set up that has been promoting the ability of the university to retain the students (Turner & Thompson, 2014). It has also become an issue for the bodies of higher education which are often criticizing and questioning the mentality and the approaches that the universities use to ensure that they get hold of the students (Permzadian & Credé, 2016).
Aside from this, the other party that has been getting the fair share of the blame is the high school education (Castleman & Page, 2014). It is always the part of the student life that sticks with them forever (Wladis, Conway & Hachey, 2015). The students have to get the issues that are related to the future of their studies (Pruett & Absher, 2015). It is, therefore, a call that is worth as the university forms a crucial part of the student life (Kim, Kim, DesJardins & McCall, 2015). The high school programs also act as a platform for the students to perform in the later days (Pruett & Absher, 2015). When the teachers at high school can offer the ample opportunities for the students to succeed, it is likely to raise their need for more achievements (Hill, Bregman, and Andrade, 2015). They have been feeling that the life at high school is not a Sisyphean task that has been missing with the necessary opportunities (Westrick, Le, Robbins, Radunzel & Schmidt, 2015). If they start seeing the opportunities at the early stages of their lives, it has been easy for them to forget about what is ahead of them regarding success (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). This door to success should be open to everyone without discrimination as the students have been riding through. It also means that the setting of the expectations is sometimes not necessary (Marchbanks Blake, Booth, Carmichael, Seibert & Fabelo, 2015). The best thing to do to help the students have a better chance of staying in colleges is to inform them of the expectations that are quite achievable (Marchbanks Blake, Booth, Carmichael, Seibert & Fabelo, 2015).
There are numerous times that the schools set expectations that the students do not see as being real to them (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). The process of setting the goals that are realistic is one that can be beneficial as a step towards student retention (Hill, Bregman, and Andrade, 2015). The other program that can be quite crucial at the high school level is the poll program for the students (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). This is where the schools leave most of the issues for the students to solve them themselves (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). The school administrations can only act on the issues that are not yet fixed and those that are raised by the students through feedback (Hill, Bregman, and Andrade, 2015). This way, the students can feel that they have even in charge and it has been continuing to be like this in the best of time to come (Hill, Bregman, and Andrade, 2015). They can also tell that the life in college so one that is quite comfortable to them as they can solve their issues on their own (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). The focus on the community so something that can be able to benefit everyone (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). The community should be established out of the classroom to help the student find a better network between themselves and the others (Hill, Bregman, and Andrade, 2015). This sense of community has been helpful in the study habits that are higher for them (Royster, Gross & Hochbein, 2015). When the students collaborate knowing that the style of high school programs used is favoring them, there is a guarantee of quality service delivery (Pruett & Absher, 2015).
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high school programs styles on the recruitment and retention of students as well as the satisfaction of the students on the college session (Pruett & Absher, 2015). This is also related to the various ways that can be used to provide the necessary empowerment to the students to enable them to maintain their learning environment (Ballón, 2015). When the leaders create the best working environment, the school system has been retaining its students (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Also, the new recruits have had have an easier time and have been an integral part of the system as quick as possible (Ballón, 2015). One of the things that can be done in terms of the projects is to teach the students to have the habit of success at the high school level (Pruett & Absher, 2015).
Instilling a winner’s mentality is not the young adult is what has determined how they end up in the coming future (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). This is one of the best programs that the high school teachers can instill into the minds of the students (Pruett & Absher, 2015). There are several students who abandon the schools as they are not familiar with the materials that are provided by the system (Pruett & Absher, 2015). They do not know of the things that are expected of (Eagan, Stolzenberg, Bates, Aragon, Suchard & Rios-Aguilar, 2015). Because of this reason, the best thing to do is to make the materials that are used in the colleges available to the students at the earliest possible level (Pruett & Absher, 2015). When this occurs, the students have adjusted quickly (Cabrera, 2014). One of the most common programs that are used is allowing the high school students to visit the campus environments so that they can equip themselves with the best possible outcomes at their earliest possible years (Crisp & Delgado, 2013).
This program has proven to be a success for the schools that have been implementing it (Cabrera, 2014). This also means that they have been unfamiliar with the resources that are offered to them at the university (Cabrera, 2014). Some of the methods that can be used to implement these programs include the process of convocation, orientation as well as the provisional training that make them more comfortable to the later years as the students (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). Additionally, the high school teachers have to ensure that the students understand the programs such as the GPAs that can help them keep the perfect academic standings (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). They also have to know the type of activities as well as the opportunities that they participate in order to become more and more involved in the future programs in the university (Crisp & Delgado, 2013). When the students start becoming more involved in the university, there are high chances that they are going to stay at the university for a longer time (Cabrera, 2014). They have also be involved in the programs with ease in college as they have ones or twice been part of the programs at the high school level (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015) and (Lee, Jeong, Lee & Kang, 2015). The other program is the development of the smaller goals (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). It is not always easy or the universities to develop the goals as the students had not been part of the goal making on the high school level (Lee et al., 2015). The goals can start from the retention goals at the beginning (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). The students have to be made aware that they have the potential at the beginning of their high school journeys (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015).
The goals that the students have achieved in life is what has been able to motivate them so that they can be successful as they become better equipped for the future experiences in the college (Martinez & Bain, 2014). This can start by making the students writing about what they would want to achieve from education (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). This has proven to be the reason why they want to even go to the university so that they can achieve their aims in life (Martinez & Bain, 2014). They can be able to show the possibilities of success for the students. the high Scholl teachers can help with such programs and also help those that do not have the targets set so that they are well prepared for the future life (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015), (Martinez & Bain, 2014). Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet (2015) states that very few high schools have the programs that help the students set their goals in life. The life goals are one of the key motivators for the student’s entire event the primary level of education (Martinez & Bain, 2014). These goals can also include the importance that the students eventually get when they are able to get retained in the colleges (Martinez & Bain, 2014). There are times that the students fail to understand the reasons why they have to be retained in schools (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The goals can then be broken down into the courses that have been part of the choice making in the university and colleges (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). There are students who go to colleges without the well-laid foundations and goals (Newman & Newman, 2017). This makes it easier for them to drop out of the college (Newman & Newman, 2017). Making life easier involves the high schools contributing to the goals if the students (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016).
The colleges proved to be acting on the basis and foundations that had been formed at the high school level (Pruett & Absher, 2015). There can be departments in high schools which offered the advice and programs that are advising on the university life (Newman & Newman, 2017). This was crucial in the all-around effort by the students (Newman & Newman, 2017). Data collection and usage were the other programs that could be put into practice by the students (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). The data that could be helpful is about the student resources and how effective they could be (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016). The student achievement from the past was one of the motivational factors that the students could copy and base their future college success on (Núñez, Rios-Aguilar, Kanno & Flores, 2016).This could also include the resource allocation and the programs that highlight the past resources and success (Pruett & Absher, 2015). The student would benefit massively from these kinds of developments (Pruett & Absher, 2015). The student management system could help the high school teachers to keep the records that have been used by the same students (Newman & Newman, 2017). The student management system can hold the record for the period that is even more than a decade (Newman & Newman, 2017). When this is shown to the students who are about to join the universities, it has helped in making better decisions throughout the time (Wilson, 2016).
All in all, the academies, social and personal problems have proven to be issues that can be solved by the high school teachers and the caregivers of the students (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Martinez & Bain (2014) recommends that In case they are issues that can be solved; they can contribute to the students staying more in school (Martinez & Bain, 2014). This can also help them increase their chances of graduating (Newman & Newman, 2017). These have been proven to be the eventual terms to reduce the rate of college dropouts in the colleges (Martinez & Bain, 2014). The other methods that have been identified by the researcher have been based on the definition of what the student success means (Pruett & Absher, 2015). Not many high have been able to identify the meaning of success when it comes to dealing with the students (Martinez & Bain, 2014). This is one of the programs that have proven to help the students get the best out of the possible chances that they get (French, Homer, Popovici & Robins, 2015). There are times that the students do not know the meaning of success (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015). When the student realizes what success means, they are never going to drop out of the school (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015).
It was proven that in case the university schools can have the ability to build goals and share the same goals with the students at the high school level, it has helped in setting the minds of the same students (Kelchen & Goldrick-Rab, 2015). Kanno and Kanga also stated that the stating of the future success can help the students know of the available resources and that they are prepared for the future (Kanno & Kangas, 2014). This was proven by the research of Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet (2015) who stated that once they are mentally prepared, the students have been the same that all the colleges are looking for. They also stated that the goals of schools also help the students in sharing their experiences (Malubay, Mercado & Macasaet, 2015).
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