Free Energy Audit of Saudi Mosque Final Dissertation Example
Building and Existing System Description
The level 1 energy audit requires the careful consideration of the vicinity and local environmental conditions of the region in which the mosque is situated. In this regard, the weather condition of Jeddah plays a pivotal rule in examining the energy requirement and consumption associated with the mosque. Apart from that, a general description will also be facilitated for the determination of capacity, type, brand name, operation schedule and year of manufacture of the equipment. The Al Noor mosque for the purpose of conducting energy audit is a mid-sized mosque having moderately contemporary build. Also, the Al Noor mosque has quite a similar infrastructure as compared to the traditional mosques in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia thereby making the study to be used for further research in mosques having the similar infrastructure in the region. This chapter will look into the very infrastructure of the Al Noor Mosque together with the climatic condition of Jeddah.
Weather Conditions and Local Environment
Saudi Arabia is situated within the Arabian Peninsula in the Middle Eastern region that is on the West of the Persian Gulf and due East of the Red Sea. Saudi Arabia also has subtropical and tropical areas of desert. The wind conditions are relatively dry and most of the land of the region is arid. Mainly because of the absence of clouds and prevalent dryness, a major difference in observed between the regions and seasons surrounding the country. Apart from that, extreme weather conditions also prevail within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two major extremities exist between the coasts and interior regions. During the summer, the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is quite overwhelmingly hot and is mostly dry during the months from May to October having maximum temperatures more than 50oC. The heat intensity becomes quite significant shortly after the sunrise and that lasts until the sunset that is followed by the relatively cooler weather at nights. Most of the winters in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is cool and dry having overnight temperature closer to the freezing point. Apart from that, the region can also face severe frost and weeks of the snow in the mountainous region. Along the coastline of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, the temperature is mostly moderated due to the presence of the huge water bodies in nearby regions. Temperature also seldom rise more than 38oC; however, the relative humidity is around 85% for most of the times during the year thereby having a warm fog during the night and hot mist during the daytime (MCIA, n.d., 15-18).
Figure 1: Map of Saudi Arabia (Google Maps, 2018)
Google MapsThe Al Noor mosque is located in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia. Jeddah is located in the vicinity of coastal plains of the Red Sea that is quite commonly called Tihamah. Hence, the Jeddah is located within Hijazi Tihama that is towards the lower Hijaz mountain range. The summertime span in Jeddah ranges from May to October having temperature variation ranging from 27oC to 40oC. The winter season prevails from November till April having the temperature ranges between 16oC to 30oC. The below-mentioned figure shows the average temperature profile for the Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as observed during the year 2017:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Average Temperature Profile of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Weatherspark.com, 2018).
Jeddah is also featured as having a tropical and arid climate considering the Koppen-Gieger’s Climate classification as shown in the figure below:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification (Weatherbase, 2017).
As compared to most of the other cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Jeddah region quite commonly retains its warm temperatures during the winters as well that can be as low as 15oC at dawn and usually is around 28oC during the afternoon. Following is the wind speed profile of Jeddah:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Wind Speed Profile (Windfinder.com, 2018).
The area of the selected mosque is 758 m2 and it is called An Noor mosque it is built in 1986 the mosque managed and controlled by Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Da’wah and Guidance (MIAEDG). Figure 5 depicts an exterior photo of the mosques whereas figure 6 shows its architectural layout.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Picture of the Al-Noor Mosque Exterior, Jeddah, KSA.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Architectural Layout of the Al-Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
The following section describes the building based on information that collected during the walk-through energy audit.
Following is a brief account of the different features of Al Noor Mosque:
Walls and Roof (Building Envelop)
The building is including five external walls without interior walls or partitions. Walls are built from a normal block work without any type of wall insulation. Apart from that, the exterior and interior finish possesses normal cement plaster and both are painted with white color. Figure 7 shows thermal imaging of south wall. Wall height is 7 meter high; however, the building is covered by a concrete roof. The roof does not have thermal insulation as shown in thermal imaging figure 8.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Thermal Imaging of South Wall for Al-Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Thermal Imaging of Roof for Al-Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA.
The mosque comprises of 11 windows that are clear glass and single glaze type Below-mentioned figure shows the thermal imaging of windows as observed during the noon time.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Thermal Imaging of Window in Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
There are a total of three wooden doors having dimensions of (H 9ft x W 8ft) (H 2.7 X W 2.5 M). Doors are manually operated and closed automatically by using door arrester mechanism.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Door of Al Noor Mosque
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Thermal Imaging of Al Noor Mosque Door
The following table is summarizing all data that collected for building envelope:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Building Envelope of Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Item Qty. Dimension Finishing material
H ft (m) W ft (m) Exterior walls 4 Normal plaster, white paint from inside and outside
1.East Wall 23(7) 45(13.7) 2.North Wall 23(7) 45.9(14) 3.West Wall 23(7) 32.9(10) 4.South Wall 23(7) 46(14) Windows 11 13 (4) 6 (2) Clear glass, single layer, no exterior or interior shade
Doors 3 9 (2.7) 8(2.4) wood, brown paint
The Al Noor mosque employs conventional lighting lamp. They are a mix of T12 lamps and compact fluorescent type for pendant lighting fixtures. The below-mentioned figures depict the different type of luminaries:
Wall Mounted 2x 36 Luminaire
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Interior Lighting of Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah
Big Pendant Chandelier at the center
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11: Interior Lighting Pendant Chandelier at the Centre of Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Table 1 summarizes the quantity and power wattage of different lighting arrangements inside the Al Noor Mosque:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Interior Lighting Arrangement at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Description Quantity Watts
2x 36 W Fluorescent lighting fixture 79 36
Pendant Chandelier with 10×26 w compact fluorescent lamp 10 26
Pendant fixtures with 1×26 w compact fluorescent lamp 35 26
Big pendant chandelier at center with 40x 26 W compact fluorescent lamp 1 26×40
Indoor Lighting Operation Schedule
The lighting control is done by manual On/OFF switches as depicted during the level 1 energy audit in figure 12.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: Manual Switching and Controlling of Lighting at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah
The wall-mounted fixtures are always on even at daytime i.e. during Duhr and Asr prayer and during night time all lighting turns on the following table is showing the lighting operation schedule during different prayer time.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Lighting Operations Schedule at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Pray Name Time Lighting Status
FajrSunrise All Lighting ON
DuhurNoon The only wall Mounted
AsrAfternoon The only wall Mounted
Magrebsunset All Lighting ON
IshaNight All Lighting ON
Friday ( Jumaa) Noon All Lighting ON
The Al Noor Mosque has a total of 15 metal halide (1x250w) lighting fixture to light the façade of the building. The operation of outdoor lighting is also manual and are turned on at the sunset time (Maghreb prayer time) and subsequently, turned off after Ishaa prayer. It implies that the outdoor lights are kept on for a duration of around two hours and thirty minutes.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13: Exterior Walls of Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
The kept on from Maghreb time till Fajar prayer time which is around twelve hours. three entrances and exits as shown in the above figure are lit by fluorescent lighting fixtures and are
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
The existing HVAC system in the mosque is direct expansion system (DX). Apart from that, the air conditioning units are floor standing type. The facility is ventilated with 15 air conditioning units. 13 of these air conditioning units are deployed in the mean prayer hall; whereas, the 2 units are dedicated to women prayer hall. During the audit, it has been observed that 12 of the air conditioning units possess similar operation time, brand name, air conditioning capacity and Energy Efficiency Rating (EER). However, only one unit is different in having LG as the brand with a lower air conditioning capacity as described in audit evidence pictures:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14: Carrier Air Conditioning Units Tag
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15: LG Air Conditioning Unit Tag
The following table is summarizing the specification of the existing air conditioning units
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Air Conditioning Units Summary
Type Capacity BTU/hr Quantity EER
Floor standing split unite, Carrier 60000 14 8.5
Floor standing split unite, LG 55000 1 8.5
Most of the times, it has been observed that all the 13 units are turned ON before the pray time by one hour in order to keep the place cooled and comfortable before the arrival of worshipers. It also has been noticed that all units are kept ON between Maghreb and Ishaa as there is around one hour difference in both these prayer timings. The thermostat of all units is set at 18oC as depicted in the evidence picture:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 16: Air Conditioning Set Point Audit Evidence.
For effective ventilation, there are ten ceiling fans and four walls mounted fans they all usually being ON during the prayer time in addition to HVAC system.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 17: Ceiling Fans Evidence
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 18: Wall Mounted Fans Evidence
Other than lighting and HVAC units there is water cooler units along with two refrigerators are used inside the mosque that usually remains in ON condition at all the time.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 19: Refrigeration Unit
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 20: Water Coolers
Following is a brief account of the electricity consumption of different types of equipment:
Equipment Qty Watts operating hour/day kWhrCeiling fan 10 100 3 0.3
Wall mounted fan 4 50 3 0.15
Watercooler 3 100 24 2.4
Water bottle refrigerator 2 500 24 12
Building operation schedule
Since this building is worship place (Mosque), it has an intermittent operation schedule. The mosque is used for five times a day. Appendix A is showing different pray time during the different month of 2017. Moreover, during the month of Ramadan, there is about one hour to the hour and a half extension of operation schedule of air conditioning and ventilation units together with lighting systems after Isha prayers for performing Taraweeh prayers.
Site Measurement and Benchmarking
Site measurements and benchmarking is the most common procedure for the initial energy audit that requires the identification and subsequent identification of the exact benchmarking protocols pertaining to Al-Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA. In this regards, the description of the mosque considering the electrical distribution system of the Al-Noor Mosque is quite commonly utilized. Apart from that, the core considerations regarding the tools required for gauging and measuring the energy consumption will be discussed in further details. The metering and careful energy measurement in the Al Noor mosque is the most vital tool for the very understanding and subsequently, the energy analysis trend considering energy usage and wastage within the Al Noor mosque. Apart from that, the energy profile identification pertaining to the Al Noor Mosque for the variable load is also conducted for analyzing possible energy waste and poor utilization as part of the study. Also, it is one of the core steps for auditing the energy utilization that can be readily used for analyzing the potential for new infrastructural developments along with energy saving measures. The energy utilization and waste can also help in the provisioning of the vital data and information for economic analysis.
Air Conditioning Units – Consumption and Measurement
As part of the energy audit, the measurement for the consumption of energy for air conditioning units has been conducted on site. The energy consumption for the air conditioning units has been conducted by the installation of sub-meters for each branch circuit that is on an input to the air conditioning units. The sub-meters are quite commonly used for the facilitation of the air conditioning load profile and subsequently, it’s operational scenario for each and every air conditioning unit. Air conditioning units are provided electricity via separate panel board as compared to the reaming systems that include the fan and lighting loads. Figure 21 shows the pictorial representation of the electrical distribution network for the Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA.
Utility meter 400 Amp
10 Ways PanelboardFor HVAC Load with 400Amp Circuit Breaker
Utility meter 200 Amp
42 Ways PanelboardFor Lighting and Fans with 200Amp Circuit Breaker
Figure 22: Pictorial Representation of Electrical Distribution Network at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA.
Following are some of the evidence picture depicting separate meters and panel meters for the air conditioning units:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 23: Utility Meters for the Al-Noor Mosque
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 24: Electric Panels at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Numbering and tags have been added to each A/C units that numbers are matching the circuit number of A/C units this is very important to identify and know each circuit belong to which A/C unit.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 25: Installation of Sub-Meters at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
The efergy submeters can provide wireless energy monitoring system (Efergy, 2018). Apart from that, the sub-meters are connected via wireless connection to a central data hub that was used to facilitate a connection between the source of electricity and sub-meters and it can also collect data at an interval of 10 seconds. The data hub is responsible for sending the electrical impulses’ readings via a wi-fi connection that can facilitate remote monitoring of energy thereby checking the very operations of the individual unit as collected on different time intervals during the time span of the energy audit. The below-mentioned figure depicts a graphical representation of the energy measurement and monitoring of different nodes together with the mode and mechanism of data collection and monitoring.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 26: Energy Measurement and Monitoring System Schematic Diagram
The data is collected online through an energy monitoring portal that can facilitate the collection of electricity data for the Al Noor Mosque as shown in the figure below:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 27: Screenshot of the Electricity Monitoring Portal at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Electricity measurement has been conducted on different days in the month of November 2017 in order to facilitate the load profile at all the five prayers time in the normal days as well as on Fridays. The electrical measurements provide a vivid depiction of the operation schedule of the air conditioning system considering regular weekdays which usually have a less occupancy as compared to Friday.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 28: Consumption of Electricity via Air Conditioning System of different prayer timings as observed on Friday at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSA
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 29: Electricity Consumption via Air Conditioning System of different prayer timings as observed on Weekdays at Al Noor Mosque, Jeddah, KSAThe collected data depicts that most of the electricity is consumed by the air conditioning system is on Friday noontime having the time coinciding with the Friday prayer (Jumma) time. The all air conditioning units are turned ON starting from 10:00 am while the occupancy rate at this time is very minimal; however, the units are functional till around 1:40 pm that stays on for about 4 hours. However, for the normal weekdays, this interval is merely about 3 hours as the air conditioning units start operation from 11:00 am till about 1:00 pm. For the other prayer times, it can be observed that the duration is almost identical considering the normal weekdays and Friday with an exception of the high peak values observed during the Friday prayers. It is mainly because of the increase in the occupancy level for the mosque on Friday prayers mainly because of the weekly holiday in most of the GCC countries.
Occupancy Time Period (OTP)
Occupancy level also plays a contributing role in the energy demand and consumption of the mosque. The data pertaining to occupancy level is estimated and subsequently, calculated during the month of November. The core reason behind the selection of November for calculation is to make the analysis consistent with the energy demand calculations as done in the previous section. For the energy analysis, it is quite useful to take the start and end of the times for the calling of prayers. Hence, the call timing for prayers was taken considering the month of November 2017 for Jeddah. It is also quite important to note that the prayers call times changes every year based on the lunar calendar. Additionally, expected OTP varies considering the “Iqama” time that can be defined as the actual start time for performing prayer. This leads towards the variation in timings of one prayer to another during the 24 hours cycle. The Iqama time span for different prayers is assumed to be 30 (Fajr), 20 (Dhuhr), 20 (Asr), 10 (Maghrib), and 20 (Isha) minutes.The expected period during which the worshippers stay in the mosque for prayers is around 15 minutes.
Hence, with the help of above-mentioned assumptions, it is quite vital to estimate the beginning and end period limits of the mosque considering the daily expected OTP over the complete month of November 2017. The below-mentioned table shows the Azan call times for the month of November 2017 both at the start (Nov 1) and at the end (Nov 30) “Iqama” time after Azan and the expected occupancy periods from “Iqama” period.
Table 6: Occupancy Time Period
Prayer Prayer Call Timing OTP OTP End Time (Hrs: Mins) OTP Time End Limits over the month(Hrs: Mins)
Start of Nov End ofNov IQAMAthe period after Azan (Mins) Stay timeafterIQAMA(Mins) OTPfrom Azan (Mins) Start of Nov End ofNov Start Limit End Limit Difference Over the month (Mins)
Fajr5:10 5:24 30 15 45 6:05 6:09 5:10 6:09 0:59
Dhuhr12:07 12:12 20 15 35 12:42 12:47 12:07 12:47 0:40
Asr15:22 15:19 20 15 35 15:57 15:54 15:19 15:57 0:38
Maghrib17:47 17:40 10 15 25 18:12 18:05 17:40 18:12 0:32
Isha19:17 19:10 20 15 35 19:52 19:45 19:10 19:52 0:42
Mainly because of the limitations pertaining to the meters that are used for measuring the consumption of electricity of lighting circuits along with the potential difficulty of sub-meter fixation in the lighting panel, the different approach has been followed to figure out the estimation of the consumption of lighting load. This method includes the measurement of luminous intensity via Lux Meter. In this regard, the log of lighting equipment is collected for assessment different fixtures of lightings along with electricity demand of each fixture. Apart from that, the monitoring of the operation schedule of the lighting as observed during various prayer times and number of occupants in the mosque during the Fridays and regular weekdays were also assessed. The information obtained is entered into lighting simulation calculation software called Dialux for estimation of the consumption of electricity from the lighting equipment. During the audit, Lux meter having model number LX-1010B has been used and different readings were recorded. The average lux of the praying hall was 480 W/m2. However, as per the calculation output, the mosque consumes around 11.53 W/m2 in full operation considering all lighting fixtures. The wall mounted lighting fixture are usually turned ON during the noon and afternoon time on the regular weekday and all of the lighting fixtures turned ON at Friday prayers. The following figure depicts the output of Dialux software that shows the lighting arrangement of the mosque and watt/per meter square of lighting load:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 29: Dialux Simulation Output
U value measurement
As mentioned in earlier limitation due to the difficulty of measurement of U-value, it has been manually calculated based on collected information from the site. Starting by external walls starting from the outside to inside the layer are cement plaster, normal block, cement plaster the following table is summarizing the calculation of external wall layers in below simulations.
Building simulation and Baseline Development
In order to introduce the maximum energy saving that can be achieved through simulation, most of the applicable energy reducing measures that require major changes in the basic infrastructure of the building thereby facilitating with an extensive control over the energy demand. The aspects of the extensive repair and equipment replacement can also be achieved; however, these initiatives would require significant direct investment. The modeling of the Al Noor mosque has been conducted by using the eQuest software.
By the utilization of eQuest for energy demand and reduction offers several advantages over manual calculations. These include:
Precise estimation considering the schedule of building parameters,
Accurate determination of potential weather impact and variation,
Specification of load performance of equipment and components, and
Consideration of interactions of the different parameter that includes lighting load on air conditioning consumption.
In order to assess the energy performance, the building model and baseline need to be further developed that requires analysis of data and information.
As mentioned earlier eQuest has been selected for hourly analysis process, the eQuest is a simple to use tool for analysis of building energy usage and can provide highly reliable and high-quality results via building creation wizard together with geographical display module and EEM (Energy Efficiency Measure) wizard. The program is also equipped with an enhanced version of DOE-2.2 that is derived from a similar building simulation program. The building simulation program can be helpful for creation of a building model. The DOE-2.2 wizard in eQuest can perform an hourly-based simulation on building that dependent on the types of windows, walls, glass, plug loads, occupancy level and most importantly, ventilation. The DOE-2.2 can also be used for simulation of pumps, fans, boilers, and chillers together with similar energy consuming devices. eQuest can also be helpful as it can run multiple simulations and display result through side-by-side graphical representation. Hence, a highly detailed simulation is constructed to gain the better understanding of the building energy behavior and potential losses.
eQuest Simulation Requirements
The basic step involved in the formulation of a model includes the feeding of basic information into the eQuest software as shown in Appendix B1.
The next step involves the formulation of the basic information that requires weather conditions in the vicinity of the building that can include the Jeddah weather conditions. The details about the utility power are also incorporated based on the type of supply and electricity unit charges as shown in Appendix B2.
Subsequently, the frequency of the potential usage of the building will be discussed and assessed. As the intended building is a mosque located in Jeddah in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it is quite essential to include the usage of building throughout the year as shown in Appendix B3.
The details pertaining to the electric utility charges are also of great importance considering the energy audit domain. The mosques are quite commonly considered as governmental buildings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia having charged with the rate of 0.32 SAR per kWh that is equivalent to $0.085/kWh is used for the calculations and simulation (Saudi Electric Company, 2018) as depicted in Appendix B4.
Building Shell Components
Building shell components and loads allocation is the second step as part of calculations and simulation. This step contains inclusion of various details related to the building structures that includes building layout, height and carbon footprint. Apart from that, the building envelope construction elements details, operation schedule, lighting loads interior and exterior and a load of other electrical equipment are also considered as part of the simulation. Appendix B5 includes the building type and area screen together with the information about daylighting control and baseline model. Also, there is no significant control that has been considered as part of the condition of the mosque during the audit. Appendix B6 includes the input of the architectural CAD design for the Al Noor mosque that includes the air conditioning zones to be identified as part of the simulation inputs.
The following figures are showing screenshots for the resulted 3D model of the mosque
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 30: 3D View of Al Noor Mosque
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 31: Aerial 3D View of Al Noor Mosque
As per the current architecture of the mosque together with the data collected from the site audit, the mosque can be considered as a single zone. Building footprint can be depicted in Appendix B6.
The assessment of the construction layers of different construction element as part of the mosque is of major importance that includes collection and input of data as evident from the site audit. The calculation of U value of exterior walls and roof has also been assessed during this phase. This step requires the thickness of each individual layer component on the walls and roof for the calculation of R-value of that specific component. The results for the R-value for roof and walls have been found to be 1.323 hr-ft2-oF/BTU and 2.899 hr-ft2-oF/BTU respectively. The roof has a layer by layer construction of a concrete and cement plaster. However, the walls have layers of cement mortar, common bricks, and cement plaster. The type of finishing material of ceiling of Al Noor mosque on the roof is normal cement plaster finish. The details are further elaborated in Appendix B7-B11.
Another important step is to assess the information about doors and windows of the building. This aspect includes the details about the number of windows and doors together with its, direction of egress, dimensions, type of material and most importantly, windows shading type. During the onsite audit of Al Noor mosque, this information has been gathered and utilized as discussed in the previous chapter. The data has been fed into the simulation software eQuest as mentioned in appendix B12-B14 that includes doors, windows, and shading system.
As part of building operation schedule, eQuest requires basic information about building operation schedules. The information obtained from the wired mode does not facilitate a wide range of scheduling but it provides a very fixable operation scheduling in detailed mode. Hence, it can facilitate a massively wide range scheduling thereby providing the simulation of operation schedule of lighting and HVAC system. Additionally, it can also provide occupancy rate in different prayer time as part of the baseline model. A pre-cooling period has been considered and simulated thereby depicting the HVAC and lighting system that are turned ON for one hour prior to the prayer time. Considering the Friday, the HVAC system starts operating from 10:00 are which about two hours before the full occupancy of the mosque. The input of schedule properties and hourly values are evident in Appendix B15-B20 the following figures are showing an eQuest screenshot showing the occupancy scheduling and operation schedule of lighting and HVAC system on weekdays and Friday.
Pertaining to the lighting system information about the interior and exterior lighting system, the basic model for the data has been fed based on the current conditions of the Al Noor mosque that uses 1.2 W/ft2 of the lighting density. Space properties are mentioned in Appendix B21.
For exterior lighting, the energy flux can be calculated as follow:
Number of External Metal Halide Fixtures = 15
Energy Requirement = 250 W
Total Energy Requirement = 15×250 = 3750 W
Energy per Unit Area = 3750/758 = 4.9 W/m2 = 0.39 W/ft2
This value can also be calculated as shown in below-mentioned figure:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 32: External Lighting Information
HVAC System Simulation
The simulated system for baseline model (existing condition) comprises of un-ducted direct expansion air conditioning system having floor mounted type with cooling mode only. Since the heating mode is not used in Jeddah, the air conditioning system in the mosque is serving a single zone (prayer hall area only) without any partition inside the mosque hall.
For the simulation of the mosque in eQuest for single zone package type, the following figure is the depiction of the eQuest window for air conditioning simulation:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 33: Air Conditioning Basic Information
Fans are of major importance considering the air conditioning design of the facility. The type of fan and its ventilation plays a significant role in heat transfer. As part of the energy audit, the fan is draw type having default control system without night ventilation mode. The night ventilation mode is not used in the mosque as shown in the below figure:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 34: Fan and Control Information
The total cooling capacity of the system is 984000 BTU/h (288.38 kW). This value calculated by eQuest based on provided information of the system as observed during the energy audit. The energy efficiency ratio of the existing system is 8.5 EER which is the similar value used in simulation stage.
Baseline Building Simulation Result and Energy Use Breakdown
As part of the modeling data input, the model for the Al Noor mosque is formulated thereby resulting in different outcomes.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 35: Baseline Energy Consumption (kWh) from eQuest Simulation
As depicted in the above figure, it is quite evident that most of the energy is utilized as part of the air conditioning system. Apart from that, the cooling load increases significantly during the summer season that usually starts from May thereby resulting in the maximum value of more than 20(000) kWh during the months of July and August that are quite commonly the hottest recorded months in the region of Jeddah. Also, it is illustrated that the energy requirement for space cooling is somewhat at the reduced level during the winter seasons that encompass the months of December, January, and February. The other significant energy utilization aspect encompasses the utilization of miscellaneous equipment. It refers to the external lighting together with power consumption of water coolers and refrigeration units. As evident from the figure, the energy consumption by miscellaneous pieces of equipment is quite identical in a year. The third major energy utilization factor is that of the interior lighting that consumes around 7380 kWh on an annual basis. However, for the exterior lighting the monthly energy consumption is around 2400 kWh as evident in below simulation result:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 36: Energy consumption in KWHR – Breakdown (eQuest)
By analysis of the above data, it is quite evident that the space cooling represents around 89% of electricity consumption of the Al Noor mosque; however, lighting consumes about 3% of the total energy utilized by the mosque. The breakdown of the energy utilization can be represented by the following pie-chart:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 37: Electricity Consumption Breakdown by End-Use
Benchmarking facilitate the comparison of the energy usage of Al Noor mosque with other peers. It also facilitates a vivid depiction of different aspects that are required to be controlled. Apart from that, the percentages of different energy streams need to be reduced in order to reduce the consumption. Benchmarking is one of the most essential to measure the energy performance of a building over time, relative to other similar buildings.
Since the benchmarking data of energy used in mosques is not available in Saudi Arabia, Energy Star Portfolio Energy Manager has been utilized as part of benchmarking. The tool is simple to use, readily available online and quite useful in tracking the energy performance of the building. Energy star portfolio manager has been used here to estimate the energy use index for the mosque based on a current condition and compare it with EUI (Energy Use Intensity) of relative buildings in same area and weather condition.
The information requested by Portfolio energy manager includes the location, weather station base of the location together with the total area of the building that is quite important for the calculation of EUI. Moreover, it is also quite necessary to assess the number of electricity metering units that are used at the input to the mosque along with the energy consumption for a year. Considering the Al Noor mosque energy audit, one meter has been used as provided by the Saudi Electric Corporation. Hence, the input data for the Al Noor mosque has been considering to be facilitated by one meter for assessing the total consumption of the electricity. Appendix B22 provides an outlook considering data input for the energy star portfolio manager that includes an address of the address of the building, the primary function of the building, construction status, year of construction, occupancy level, and gross floor area. Appendix B23 illustrates the building detail window as depicted in the Energy Star Portfolio Manager.
The data requested by a Portfolio manager for the energy consumption of the year 2017 uses the monthly energy consumption (in kWh) as extracted from the hourly energy report for the baseline eQuest simulation. Appendix B24 depicts the monthly consumptions that have been utilized for benchmarking process. Following is the pictorial representation of the energy utilization during the year 2017
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 38: Energy Usage from Dec 2016 to Dec 2017.
By the incorporation of the data into the Energy Star Portfolio Manager, the Energy Use Index will be calculated for the Al Noor mosque. Following summarized table can be obtained from the Portfolio Manager:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 39: Energy Star Portfolio Manager Calculation Summary
As evident from the above table, the site EUI is around 77% greater than the median EUI of the similar buildings. The similar worship buildings site EUI is around 0.26 GJ/m2 (72 kWh/m2); however, the EUI of the Al Noor mosque is around 1.03 GJ/m2 (286 kWh/m2). However, as advised by the Energy Star, source EUI is quite commonly preferred as it provided the equitable unit for the analysis of energy that represents the amount of the fuel required for the operations of the building (Energy Star, 2018). As evident the source energy usage is quite significant as compared to the different religious facilities. Also, the total Green House Gases (GHG) emissions are also significantly higher thereby making the operation of the facility having severe issues pertaining to environmental sustainability.
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Appendix A: To be submitted to TA separately.
Appendix B: eQuest and Energy Star Simulations
Appendix B1: Basic Project Information
Appendix B2: General Information
Appendix B3: Weather Cycles
Appendix B4: Electricity Utility Charges
Appendix B5: General Shell Information
Appendix B6: Building Footprint
Appendix B7: Building Envelope Construction
Appendix B8: Layer by Layer Construction of Roof
Appendix B9: Layer by Layer Construction of Walls
Appendix B10: Building Interior Finish
Appendix B11: Exterior Door Data
Appendix B12: Exterior Windows Data Input
Appendix B13: Exterior Shade Information
Appendix B14: Week days Occupancy hourly value
Appendix B15: Friday Occupancy hourly value
Appendix B16: Weekdays Interior Hourly Values
Appendix B17: Friday Interior Lighting Values
Appendix B18: Weekdays HVAC Hourly Values
Appendix B19: Friday HVAC Hourly Values
Appendix B20: Space properties – Interior Lighting Load Information
Appendix B21: Energy Star Portfolio Manager Input
Appendix B22: Building Details as Depicted in Energy Star Portfolio Manager
Appendix B23: Portfolio Energy Manager Energy Consumption in kWh
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