Investigation of staff perceptions regarding their work-life balance in a supermarket

4 / 5. 2

Investigation of staff perceptions regarding their work-life balance in a supermarket

Category: Business

Subcategory: Communication

Level: University

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Investigation of staff perceptions regarding their work-life balance in a supermarket

I would like to thank the Store Manager of Tesco for granting me the permission to execute my research and my colleagues who volunteered to complete my questionnaire and gave me an audience to interview them. I give thanks to God for his protection and strength during my hard times.
Furthermore, I would like to appreciate my family which is my mother and younger brother for their continuous encouragement and motivation throughout my degree. Finally, I would like to acknowledge my supervisor Dr. Jalil Ahmed for the inspiration and guidance throughout my dissertation.

DeclarationThis dissertation contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief this dissertation contains no material previously submitted or written by another person, except where due reference is made in the text of the dissertation.

Signature: ______________________________ Date: ___/___/_____
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgments PAGEREF _Toc512855799 h 2Declaration PAGEREF _Toc512855800 h 3Executive Summary PAGEREF _Toc512855801 h 6Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512855802 h 71.1Background PAGEREF _Toc512855803 h 71.2 Rationale for this study PAGEREF _Toc512855804 h 81.3Aims and Objectives PAGEREF _Toc512855805 h 91.4Background to Tesco PAGEREF _Toc512855806 h 91.5 Dissertation outline PAGEREF _Toc512855807 h 10Chapter Two: Literature Review (1500) PAGEREF _Toc512855808 h 112.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512855809 h 112.2Work-life balance PAGEREF _Toc512855810 h 112.3Issues that contribute to work-life conflict PAGEREF _Toc512855811 h 12I.Marital Status: PAGEREF _Toc512855812 h 12II.Parental Status PAGEREF _Toc512855813 h 12III.Life Demands PAGEREF _Toc512855814 h 12IV.Work requirements PAGEREF _Toc512855815 h 132.4 Coping Strategies of work-life balance PAGEREF _Toc512855816 h 13Outcomes of work-life balance PAGEREF _Toc512855817 h 132.4Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc512855818 h 162.5Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc512855819 h 18Chapter Three: Research methodology (1200) PAGEREF _Toc512855820 h 193.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512855821 h 193.2 Research Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc512855822 h 193.3 Research Design and Methods PAGEREF _Toc512855823 h 193.5 Sampling framework PAGEREF _Toc512855824 h 203.6Reliability, Validity and generalisation PAGEREF _Toc512855825 h 213.7 Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc512855826 h 21Chapter 4: Data analysis and discussion [2000 words] PAGEREF _Toc512855827 h 224.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512855828 h 224.2 Demographic Data on Participants and sampling method PAGEREF _Toc512855829 h 224.2Results PAGEREF _Toc512855830 h 23Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusions and recommendations 1000 words PAGEREF _Toc512855831 h 30Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc512855832 h 315.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc512855833 h 315.4 Research weaknesses PAGEREF _Toc512855834 h 325.5 Areas of further research PAGEREF _Toc512855835 h 32References PAGEREF _Toc512855837 h 34
Executive Summary
Many individuals struggle to have a balance between work and life. This research explores the staff perceptions of employees of work-life conflict. This research was conducted by evaluating the response of 40 employees working in Tesco.
The study employed mixed methods that used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For collecting the quantitative data, questionnaires were used while interviews were conducted with qualitative data. The data was randomly conducted. An excel software was used to perform the analysis and data was presented in percentages.
The study found that most of the participants strongly disagree (54%) that the amount of time their job takes up makes it is possible to fulfill their family responsibilities, 31% do not have to make changes to their plans for family activities. 27% strongly disagreed that the supervisor does not play a major role in getting them through hard times faced in work domain. 44% strongly agreed that the company provides flexible time, 69% strongly disagreed that it does not contribute to the needed childcare costs and 60% strongly disagreed to the availability of childcare at the location of the company. Further study revealed that the employees are greatly affected by the work-life conflict. They have expressed their concerns about how they cannot adequately attend to family issues while working.
From the findings, we can conclude that the staff agreed to find difficulties in balancing work-life activities. Their job does not give them adequate time to handle family activities including their childcare needs.
Keywords: Staff Perceptions Work – life balance, Tesco

Chapter 1: Introduction
In every organization work-life balance is one of the most important issues that employees have to deal with. In the 1970s, ‘work and family’ were treated as mainly distinct domains. However due to several reasons such as competitiveness, the changing demographics, the increase of women in the workplace, the new trends of technology and double income households work-life balance has gained importance (Dave & Purohit, 2016). It can be very difficult when trying to manage both work and life without facing demands from these two spheres (Dizaho et al, 2017).
Work-life balance is certainly not only about relatives or the ability to look after children neither is it about a person working fewer hours. It is about an individual being to manage their work and home without letting one affect the other. This is essential for everybody whatever phase of life they are at (Suzan, 2009). Naz et al (2017) define work-life balance as for how an individual can cope with work and other things of their life without struggling or without the obstruction of one sphere to the other; is significantly connected with employee’s efficiency, performance and job fulfillment.
When employees can find balance amongst work and life, they are likely to be more efficient as research has proven that when employees are happy they are more productive (Porter, 2010), because of these organizations have included flexibility, childcare support, emergency holiday, career break to their work-life policies. In 2012, the fourth Work-Life Balance was conducted. It reported that 90% of employees agreed that flexible working arrangement improves morale, while 35% stated that individuals who can work flexible hours generate additional work for other people (Tipping, 2012).
1.2 Rationale for this study
Work-life balance is becoming a significant topic which has led to many academics carrying out research to find how employees can balance work and life without affecting one another. Given that this is such an important issue which impact all organisations I will attempt to investigate how this balance can be obtained in the supermarket sector where the issue of work-balance is perhaps more important than other sectors due to a large number of females who often tend to be mums and therefore are faced with trying to have work-life balance. The focus of this research is Tesco where I am currently working. It is envisaged that this investigation will provide new insights for Tesco and enhance high productivity in the workplace. I have been working in Tesco at Streatham for 3years, and I see myself in a management role in the future. However, this research will give me an understanding of how work-life balance can be managed and how to get the best out of employees.
1.3Aims and Objectives
This research aims to investigate staff perceptions regarding their work-life balance in a supermarket by examining the case of Tesco.
The objectives of this investigation are:
To examine how employees are affected by work-life balance issues in Tesco.
Understand the causes of why employees are experiencing work-life balance issues.
To determine how managers can best support employees to perform in their job roles effectively.
To determine the satisfaction of the employee-assistance programs.
1.4Background to TescoTesco was set up in 1919. Today it has over 6,809 branches around the world, and it has about 460,000 employees as at 2015/2016 (Lewis, 2017). The turnover for Tesco as at 2015/2016 is £1,017million (John, 2017). In Tesco Streatham Extra where I currently work there are 235employees, 99 male, and 136 female, 55 employees work full time while 177 works part-time. There are also 16 managers 11 who are male while 6 are female.
1.5 Dissertation outline
This report is divided into five chapters. Chapter one includes an introduction which gives an insight into the topic of this research, the rationale for the research, aims and objectives and Tesco’s background. Chapter two is the literature review which will draw contributions from various authors around similar research. Chapter three is the research methodology which includes philosophical approach, Demographic data on participants including sampling method, instruments used, reliability, validity and what analysis was used and why? Chapter four is data analysis and discussion where data will be presented in tables and graphs, quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics, qualitative analysing used themes and how results relate to findings of previous research. Lastly, chapter five will draw conclusions from previously analysed discussion and link it to the research question, extract and emphasize the key issues discovered, recommendations to address the management issue which was identified in the introduction, reflecting on the appropriateness of adopted methods and suggestion for new or further work.

Chapter Two: Literature Review (1500) Introduction
This chapter will highlight contributions from various authors around common themes which have been identified from past and current literature reviews relating or similar to the research topic using the conceptual framework. The theoretical framework will be focusing on Herzberg’s motivation theory (motivators and hygiene factors).
The themes identified include work-life conflict, how work-life conflict can be managed and negative and positive outcomes of work-life balance.
Work-life balanceMany scholars have carried out different research to study the interaction between work and life. For instance, Dundas (2008) argues that work-life balance is about being able to efficiently manage the juggling act between a paid job and all another area which are very vital to an individual such as family. There are two consequences of the inability of having a balance between work and family are ‘work-family conflict’, which is the incapability to fulfill family duties because of work pressure and ‘family-work conflict’, which reflects reasons why obligations cannot be met due to family pressures (Fox & Dwyer, 2016). Another view suggested by Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) states that there are three main sources of work-family conflict: time- based conflict (spending more time in one domain which results to spending less time in the other domain), strain-based conflict (stress in one domain making it hard to accomplish duties in the other) and behaviour- based conflict (role behaviours essential in one sphere being inappropriate for role behaviour needed in another).
Issues that contribute to work-life conflict
Work and family are a very significant aspect of a person’s life. The ability to be able to manage both can be difficult and can lead to problems with work-life balance. Different personal characteristics that can contribute to an imbalance amongst work and life which are as follow:
Marital Status: People who are married are required to give more priority to their personal lives. Employees with families sometimes have the problem of separating work and home, which has a negative impact on both work and family life (Taylor, 2015). Reddy et al (2010) in their study indicated that the work-life balance among married employees affects job fulfillment and performance of employees.
Parental Status: Employees who have children also find it very difficult to balance work and life because they have so many responsibilities such as looking after the child, and sometimes childminders disappoint causing stress for the parents trying to find another alternative at a short period of time (Jennings, 2007).
Life Demands: A lot of people do not have time for family and other aspects of their life such as social activities just because of working long hours. Working long hours will cause emotional exhaustion. This will then cause a negative impact on work and family roles (Bekker, et al., 2010)
Work requirements: Drawing on different relevant literature has been published relating to work-life balance. Business needs to know that having to work long hours is not always advisable because it is not suitable for business or employees (Malik et al., 2010). In recent years stress levels have increased for employees because they find it difficult to balance work and life without one affecting the other. In Tesco, they provide training for new employees such as making moments matter session which involves how employees are to give customers the best experience possible. If employees are having problems with their life, this may have a negative impact on customers as the employee might provide awful customer service (manager).
2.4 Coping Strategies of work-life balanceBaral (2010), found out that businesses involvements to improve the work-life balance of employees like job characteristics, work-life welfares and procedures, manager support and work-family culture have a positive impact on job results like job contentment. Employees can cope with the stress of work and life by making use of the programmes the business offers, taking time off work, swapping shifts with colleagues. They can speak to the manager about their situations at work; the purpose of this is for the manager to come up with support plan to help the employee. Tesco has a business understands that the business is only one part of employee’s life and that they may have other commitments outside of work. To help them understand these commitments they have many people policies moving hours to help employees move their hours around the business and working flexibly to meet the business needs.
Outcomes of work-life balanceExtreme tiredness and stress can increase the level of sickness absence, and lower job satisfaction and employee well-being (Aryee et al., 2005). To address the situation, organizations are beginning to offer employees family-friendly programs to ease the stress caused by work.
For example, Tesco offers different programs which are there to help employees get the utmost out of their lives. The options available are for employees to take time off for those unanticipated events in life, such as personal or family emergencies. One of the breaks is called lifestyle break for students to take a break from work to focus on their education. However, this is a good thing, but that also means students will be losing money to help support personal needs (Davis, 2013).
Tesco is providing these programs; however, it is uncertain if these programs are helping to improve employee’s productivity in the workplace or assisting them to decrease work or family conflict (Thompson, 1998). The effectiveness of family-friendly programs has been questioned by academics. Hochschild (1997) argues that organizations promote friend family programs just to entice new employees so that they can think the company is the best amongst other companies. However, they are reluctant to suffer the trouble of actually executing them. A lot of programs are planned without thinking of the individual requirements of staffs and are operationally unproductive, as companies only offer family-friendly programs just because they are trying to address organisational needs such as increased absenteeism, however the purpose of these programs is to address the needs of workers such as making sure they are happy with their job roles, satisfaction with childcare.
A Study was conducted by Clark (2000), from his study he was able to establish the fact the organization that offers flexible working hours has a positive impact on employee’s health and work-life balance. Employees with flexible work attain better work-life balance, which the outcome is greater job fulfillment and lower role conflict.
Supervisors need to be familiar with work-life balance issues that can affect the quality of work. When employees are cannot cope with work-life balance it sometimes leads to employees leaving the company hence costing the business more money having to recruit another person, however, businesses can avoid this by listening to employee’s issues and coming up with a support plan to help improve their way of life.
Jiang (2012) specified that when employees can get support when they speak to their managers about personal issues, this creates trust and job satisfaction and high productivity. Hammer et al. (2011) also discovered that when employees have confidence that their managers care about their family needs, they may have positive perceptions of their work atmosphere which creates more fulfillment with their job role and more will to stay with the organization.
Employee-assistance programs
These are work-based interventions that are designed to identify and help employees solve their personal programs which may be adversely affecting the employee’s performance. The employer usually pays 100% of the assistance program. The services include legal assistance such as adoption. The assistance is also made available to the immediate family of the employer. These programs utilize specific technologies to enhance an employee’s productivity and effectiveness in the workplace by preventing, identifying and resolving personal or productivity issues affecting the employee.
Theoretical FrameworkThee work-family balance has been explained theories; these are Segmentation, Compensation, Spillover and the Border theory. The Segmentation theory presented the earliest view of work-life balance by analysing the relation between work and home. The theory stated that two are separate, independent and one doesn’t affect the other. This concept began with Blood and Wolfe (1960) drew the theory by examining the blue collar workers. They were of the view that workers in un-involving or unsatisfying jobs, their jobs and home activities were naturally segmented. They assumed that women worked at home while men worked away from home. However, studies conducted later challenged this perspective by revealing that work and family are related (Bruke and Greenglass, 1987).
In compensation theory, it was explained that employees compensate for lack of satisfaction in one sector and try to find the satisfaction in the other sector (Lambert, 1990). This is a compensation that is reactive in nature. For instance an employee with little autonomy in work will look for more autonomy outside the work.
The Spillover theory states that employees ‘Spill over” their emotions, behaviours and attitudes from work into their family life (Piotrkowski, 1979). The factors carried to the other domain may be positive or negative. In positive spill over, satisfaction at the workplace causes satisfaction in the family life whereas in negative spill over, dissatisfaction at the workplace leads to dissatisfaction in the family life. This research is inclined to the Spillover theory and represents the dissatisfaction in the family life that is caused by the dissatisfaction in the workplace.
The Border theory was introduced by Clark (2000) which describes the relationship work and life. According to the theory, the role of an individual occurs in a certain domain of life and borders separate these domains. There’s “crossing of borders” among the domains and this theory states that the “crossing” occurs between life and work. The permeability and flexibility of these borders determine the integration or conflict between these two domains. Flexible and permeable borders cause integration while inflexible borders cause conflicts. When the two domains are segmented, more effort is needed for transition (Boswell & Olson-Buchanan, 2007).
Theoretical Review
The demands and controls of a job predict the occurrence of strain to an employee. From empirical findings on the relationship between the features of a job and family strains is critical in a theoretical model. According to Karasek (1979), there is a wide range of demands and resources which cause more conflicts to an employee. Greenhaus and Parasurama (1999) point out that women are the most affected especially those with younger children. In cases of caring problems, they are more strained. The work-family conflict occurs when the demands at the work place and those in the family are competing for attention. More often, the workplace demands does not allow adequate time for taking care of family demands.
Greenhaus and Parasuraman (2002), states that when one gets highly involved in unpaid work, then there is a high level of conflict in the paid work. Further, the presence of children in the household induces a higher level of conflict. This is because they require much attention from the parent who at the same time needs to concentrate at the workplace. In the social setup, women are more responsible for childcare than men (Sayer 2010). Hence, women are the most affected in work-family conflicts.
The resources of one’s private life tend to be limited when one works for long hours (Chung 2011). On the other hand, shorter working hours reduce work-family conflict (Crompton and Lyonette, 2008). This implies that those who work for longer hours experience more strain and are likely to experience low productivity.
Conceptual Framework
22860259080Work-family conflict
Balancing work and family
Stress from life demands
Work requirements
00Work-family conflict
Balancing work and family
Stress from life demands
Work requirements

228601927860Employee Assistance programs
Childcare needs
0Employee Assistance programs
Childcare needs
36499804267202834640-784860Coping strategies
Social support
Managerial support
0Coping strategies
Social support
Managerial support
4549140830580Out comes
Job commitment
Attendance rate
00Out comes
Job commitment
Attendance rate
2834640100330Intervening variables
00Intervening variables

4610100310515Dependent variables
00Dependent variables

22860222250Independent variables
00Independent variables

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for work-life balance
Having reviewed the literature review, the conceptual framework that will be used for this research is as shown above. The dependent variable is the performance of the employees. Factors that affect the employee performance form the independent variables; these include balancing work and family, meeting work requirements and stress from handling life demands. Further, the availability and accessibility of employee assistance programs affect the performance of an employee. The coping strategies are the intervening factors that help the employees handle their issues. Social support, managerial support and time flexibility helps an employee to handle both work and family responsibilities.
The research question for this investigation is: How does Tesco support staff perceptions regarding work-life– balance?
Chapter Three: Research methodology (1200)3.1 IntroductionThis chapter examines the philosophical framework used, research methods, sampling method, the reliability, validity and generalization and also the ethical consideration.
3.2 Research PhilosophyThe philosophical framework for this investigation will be positivist and interpretive. The interpretive approach will allow us to understand employee’s views on work-life balance while positivist approach will allow us to concentrate on facts (Flick, 2015).
3.3 Research Design and Methods
The research technique implemented in this research is the descriptive design. It has specifically used closed-ended questionnaires. This has helped in defining an opinion or attitude of the particular group in a better way. The design is essential in measuring the significance of the results in addition to the changes in the respondents’ opinions.
This research anticipates in examining the case of Tesco, to answer the research question which was “How does Tesco support staff perceptions regarding work-life– balance?” A mixed methods research was conducted which involved using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The ideal data collection methods for this research were a questionnaire and interviews. The questionnaire will help me to understand the views of employees on work-life balance while the interviews allowed me to explore the topic in depth with one or two employees at a time (Clough & Nutbrown, 2012). The questionnaire was given to employees to complete on a tablet while the interview was conducted on the managers.
3.4 Target population
The study targeted the employees of Tesco supermarket. The total population of the employees was 94 which comprised customer assistants, team leaders, and managers. The questionnaire was distributed to Tesco’s employees and interviews were conducted for managers.
3.5 Sampling frameworkThe study employed a convenience sampling technique to obtain a sample from the employees who work at Tesco Streatham and individuals who voluntarily wanted to participate in the research. The Convenience sampling method was used for this research as it was made up of employees who were accessible (Bryman, 2008). The sampling method seems ideal for this research and every employee had an equal chance of being selected. A sample of 48 respondents
The sample size was calculated using the following formula by Yamane (1967):
Where S- is the sample size
N-is the population size
e-is the error margin
= 48
3.6Reliability, Validity and generalisation
William et al. (2001), reliability is the consistency of measurement and is achieved using the test-retest method. It is the extent to which results are consistent over time and also form an appropriate representation of the total population (Joppe, 2000). If the outcome of the study can be obtained through a similar methodology then the instrument of research is reliable. It is about the repeatability of results (Kirk and Miller, 1986). The test-retest method requires the researcher to include many similar items in a measure. This study tested different samples of individuals through a uniform testing method which is the questionnaire.
There are three kinds of reliability in quantitative research:
The degree that a measurement remains the same when performed repeatedly.
A measurement’s stability
The stability of measurements in a certain period of time.
The test-retest method can be used to assess the consistency of a questionnaire by checking if the items have been relatively the same. The procedure is performed at two different times. This ensures the stability of the instrument of measurement. When the results are similar, the measurement is stable hence reliable and repeatable. However the test-retest method may be unreliable when the respondents are sensitized to the subject matter such that he/she will answer the questions differently. When a respondent changes his/her attitude, it may cause errors that cause inaccuracy. The researcher should, therefore, ensure a high level of accuracy and consistency.
Validity is used to check if the study measures exactly what it was intended to measure; if the research instrument has efficiently and adequately measured the research objective. In quantitative research, validity is ‘construct’ such that it determines the kind of data to be collected and the means by which it is collected (Golafshani, 2003). The involvement of a researcher in the study affects the validity of the research; for example when applying a test so that to validate their research.
This research may be bias because I currently work in Tesco so the employees might not be completing honest hence giving a different result. However, since I could be able to perceive the outcome of the study using my experience at the supermarket, the data is reliable.
“With qualitative research, methods for assessing validity involve inserting numbers into formulas and calculating the outcome. But since qualitative research involves generating information that cannot be summarised in the form of numbers, one cannot simply calculate the validity measure for a particular study (Quinlan, 2011, p. 42).
The validity of the questionnaire was ascertained by giving the experts for reviewing. They checked its content validity and if it could achieve the purpose it intended to achieve.
The generalization of the data is certain and is applicable to other organizations with employees. The sample used in this study was greater than half of the population; hence, the results can be generalized.
3.7 Ethical consideration
The ethical approval to conduct the research was obtained from Tesco management. The organizational departmental heads were also informed of the study. The study has adhered to the main principles of ethics which include autonomy where all the respondents were informed of their free will to participate or not to participate in the study. Further, the study ensured justice by fairly selecting the research participants.
To comply with ethical considerations and guaranteeing no risk occurs to participants and Tesco, a consent form was asked to be read and signed making sure the participants understood what the research is about, ensuring every information obtained will be kept confidential and no names are mentioned in this research.

Chapter 4: Data analysis and discussion [2000 words]
4.1 Introduction
This chapter will describe the analysis of data followed by a discussion of the research findings. The total of 48 questionnaires was collected and none was incomplete as the intention was to have 40 respondents but got 48, the Demographic characteristics of participants can be in chapter 2 of this report.
4.2 Demographic Data on Participants and sampling methodThere were 48 respondents which 56% was female and male was 44%, for marital status 13% are married and 88% are not married.

From the pie chart, the highest age group is 18-24 with 40% while the lowest age group is above 55 with 4%.

From the pie chart, the highest earner is less than £10,000 with 40% while the lowest earner is £21,000 – £25,000 with 2%.
4.2ResultsThe quantitative analysis was analysed using Excel spreadsheet which was then presented in frequency tables and percentage frequency tables and graphical representation while the quantitative analysis was analysed by initial coding (labels) then focus coding (themes) looking for themes that occurred in the transcript of the interview and in the questionnaire and will be presented as matrices that group themes and the use of direct quotes will be in the discussion.
Work- life conflict
The amount of time my job takes up makes it possible to fulfill my family responsibilities

From the table, it shows the most participant strongly disagree that the amount of time their job takes up makes it possible to fulfill my family responsibilities. This is one of the direct quotes on one of the participants who completed the questionnaire:
“Due to work commitment, I cannot fulfill some of my family duties such as spending time with my family”.
Due to work-related duties, I do not have to make changes to my plans for family activities

Most respondent strongly disagreed with the fact that they do not have to make changes to their plans for family activities, some of the respondents’ comments are as follows:
“2days of the week I have to put my son in after school club as I’m not able to pick him from school at 3.15 due to having to be at work which means by the time I pick him up and get him home, feed him and put to bed its late which makes him tired the next working. I work both Saturday and Sunday so my son hardly sees me on the weekends so we don’t really get to do anything together unless I’m on holiday”.
“It is difficult because my partner works Monday- Friday office hours and I work from 7 am – 10 pm and I also take work home as well as my partner. However, we have to plan ahead for a family time such as taking time off from work asking my manager if it is fine then the family commitment will go ahead”.
Work environment
Do you think that your supervisor does not play a major role in getting you through the hard times faced in work domain?

Most respondents strongly disagree that supervisor does not play a major role in getting them through hard times faced in work domain.
“I believe that if they pay attention and listen to staff when issues arose they can nip the issues in the bud from early before they escalate”.
“Getting more support, you will be able to balance your life more effectively which then makes your life less stressful”.
Do you think that peer help/assistance helps in reduction of this conflict?
Most respondents strongly agree that peer help/assistance helps in reduction of this conflict
Availability of work-life policies
Does your workplace provide flexitime e.g. part-time work, shift swap, etc.?

Is childcare available at the location of the company?
Does the company contribute to the needed childcare costs?

Themes Definitions
Work Conflicts Stress Childcare responsibility Flexibility A summary of the thematic analysis provided in Table 2 and will be described below using direct quotes from participants
Work-life conflict
“2days of the week I have to put my son in after school club as I’m not able to pick him from school at 3.15 due to having to be at work which means by the time I pick him up and get him home, feed him and put to bed its late which makes him tired the next working. I work both Saturday and Sunday so my son hardly sees me on the weekends so we don’t really get to do anything together unless I’m on holiday”.
“I will get home late, therefore, I can’t do things at home like I would want too”.
“When my first child was born working at the time was demanding so it was difficult to balance between work and my family at the time, however with time things got better with routine in place”.
Childcare responsibility
“Sometimes my childminder does not turn up, an example is on a Saturday where I was due to start work in the morning and my childminder does not turn, I tried to call her but there was no response I had to bring my son to work with me, waking him around 5 am in the morning I felt bad and stressed but that was the only option I had as there was no one to look after him”.
“If someone is a carer or has child/ children that they look after by themselves they should be flexible working hours that is reasonable so that the person is not being hindered to struggle both working and personal life. I believe if there’s a balance between both the people is more likely to be happier at work and give the best customer service”.
“When I lost my mother last year I was working a twilight shift which is from 4 pm – 3am my boss at the time who has now left the business was not helpful as he was not allowing me work daytime shift to be able to facilitate what I needed to do such as collecting my mother’s death certificate all this was really stressful trying to balance this with my work which I ended up taking it out on people as I needed someone to take away some work from me in order to be able to balance things”.
“I have not been under stress; my job has made it possible for me to be able to do stuff outside of work”.

Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusions and recommendations 1000 wordsThe study aimed at finding the perceptions regarding their work-life balance in a supermarket by examining the case of Tesco. The objectives of the research were met and a comparison of their views was reviewed. The following are the summary and conclusions of the study as per the objective.
5.1 Summary of the findings
5.1.1 How employees are affected by work-life balance issues in Tesco
In determining if employees could smoothly handle work and family issues, most of the participants strongly disagree that the amount of time their job takes up makes it possible to fulfill their family responsibilities. This finding coincides with a study performed by Mwangi et al. (2017), in Kabarak University in Kenya. It affirmed that work-family issues greatly affected their performances. Generally, the employees felt that work life-family conflicts were significant sources of stress
5.1.2 The reasons why employees are experiencing work-life balance issues.
From the findings of the study, employees are affected by work-life/family conflicts. Most of the participants strongly disagreed that the amount of time their job takes up makes it possible to fulfill my family responsibilities. For a balance of work-life issues, employees, therefore, require adequate time to handle their family duties. Also, Hill et al. (2001), concludes that employees require flexible hours to help them tackle the conflict between the work and family life.
5.1.3 To determine how managers can best support employees to perform in their job roles effectively.
The respondents strongly agreed that peer help/assistance helps in reduction of the conflict between work-life and family. Managers can, therefore, ensure effective performance of the employees by improving assistance programs. In a guide to motivating employees by Houser (2010), a study concluded that EAP improves employees’ effectiveness.
5.1.4 To determine the satisfaction of employee-assistance programs.
Most of the employees strongly disagreed that Is childcare available at the location of the company. This shows the level of dissatisfaction they are experiencing at Tesco concerning the employee-assistance program. In a study performed by Nadolski & Sandonato (1987) reveal that the referral rate for employees to the Employee Assistance Program was very low (10%). Moreover, the utilization of the program was also low. This implies that the program did not fully meet the needs of the employees hence low utilization.
ConclusionsThe respondents agreed that they could not smoothly handle work and family issues; most of the participants said that their jobs consumed most of their times such that it was not possible to fulfill their family responsibilities. It is clear from the findings that the employees are affected by work-life/family conflicts. They are able to adequately fulfill their family roles since their jobs take up most of their times. The respondents were of the opinion that peer help/assistance helps in reduction of the conflict between work-life and family. However, they expressed a concern that childcare available at the location of the company and the company does not take care of their childcare costs.
5.3 RecommendationsTesco should endeavor to create a balance between work and family. The supermarket should consider developing methods like flexible working arrangements, improving the effectiveness of employee assistance programs and at times allow employees to work from home so that they can have more time to handle their family issues. Programs such as daycare for the employees’ children should be considered to give the employees ample time to work.
5.4 Research weaknessesApart the work-life conflict, more factors are responsible for the performance of the employees such as their working conditions. Work-life conflict only forms a small fraction of determinants of employees’ productivity.
5.5 Areas of further researchThe study suggests that further research should be conducted on welfare programs that help employees to improve their productivity and options for flexible working conditions that encourage employees’ performance.
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