Kerala Contaminated water issue
Kerala contaminated water is an issue that the community has faced for a long time. The government through support organizations such as the NGOs has placed necessary steps to address the water issue. Contamination is one of the challenges that contribute to the destruction of the natural environment. Past studies that were conducted were mainly aiming to explore some of the field responses from the society on the impacts of water contamination. The current research assesses several NGOs which were present in the field to address the water contamination issue within Kerala. Some NGOs concerned with the water contamination issue were consulted and interviewed using basic methods. An interview was performed through the phone and Skype; the organizations managed were asked open-ended questions to address the current issues on water contamination. After performing an interview, a result analysis was conducted through the use of content analysis of the respondent communications. The non-governmental organizations (NGOs) which were responsible for addressing the water contamination issue in Kerala were collected, and background information was conducted.
Keywords: water, contamination, content analysis, communication, NGOs, Skype, research, interview
From the past research which was performed in Kerala, it was found that 73% of all the sources of water are contaminated. Around 26.9% of all the water sources that were surveyed including ponds, lakes, and wells were found to be entirely polluted (Bain, Cronk, Wright, Yang, Slaymaker & Bartram, 2014, pg. 5). The results of the study were obtained from the sources of Kerala State Literacy Mission Authority (KSLMA), and the report showed that hotels and households were the primary sources of contamination. It has also been shown that apart from the hotels getting contaminated, sand mining and protection walls also are core contributors to the pollution. The only way to prevent the contamination as shown in the report is to formulate and implement strict laws. Again coordination between the existing agencies is necessary to examine the how waste is managed within the state. Kerala is a land of several water sources, but the survey has shown that 73% of the sources are contaminated, and thus people’s lives are endangered, and the pollution is widespread in the state. Several NGOs have come out to strictly address the water issue in Kerala with every NGO coming with recommendations to salvage the situation in the country (Bakker, 2010, pg. 5). The following is research to demonstrate the water contamination issue in Kerala with some of the responsible bodies in the matters also covered comprehensively.
To acquire the information on the water contamination issue in Kerala, I used a qualitative approach in combination with theories from the field of environmental studies and health sciences. Interpretive, qualitative research focuses on the behavior of the people in Kerala and the ultimate conclusion made is that their interpretations are dependent on life experiences with the water they use that defines the quality of life they live (Balan, Shivakumar & Kumar, 2012, pg. 148). The participants were the NGOs who are linked with the research in the region, and they were asked to give some experiences they had with the water issue in Kerala. A narrative interview that encompasses narration of the experiences they have encountered in the society about the water contamination was applied (Barkouch, Eddine & Pineau, 2016, pg. 1349). First, I assembled different interviewing resources including questionnaires, Skype and using telephone calls. The first NGO interviewed narrated how they have taken key measures to create policies that guide the people on how to treat their water before using. The water and sewage authority in the region felt that the lifestyle of the community in Kerala contributes a lot to the water contamination. In a questionnaire open structured questions were used that was aimed to inquire about some of the practices that the NGO uses to limit water body contamination.
. Skype interview was done for those Non-Governmental Organizations which were out of the state, and the project team was not in a position of reaching such places (Harikumar, Jesitha, Megha & Kokkal, 2014, pg. 1425). For every interview was performed on Skype, some NGOs were requested to show some of the present experiences that they obtained from the field. They were also asked to include the research interventions that they have adopted for the time they have spent in the area. The information was relevant to the analysis part for the results obtained (Jesmi, Mujeeb, Hatha, Deepu & Jyothi, 2014, pg. 149). After that, the results were analyzed using different computer programs to provide a comparison of the information obtained from the NGOs in the region.
The results were recorded in a table of analysis ANOVA and analyzed using the SPSS statistical analysis. The ANOVA aimed to provide a variation in the data obtained from the NGOs that were interviewed and the actual experiences of a few community members interviewed.
Data analysis was dependent on the interview answers obtained from the experiences the NGOs had in the community. A thematic form of analysis was used since it was a flexible form of data analysis in qualitative research that generates discussions from the data obtained from the interview. I read all the interview transcripts from the organizations on the water contamination issue to come up with the various issues that are important to be discussed (Narender, 2013, pg. 18). After taking time to familiarize with the data, I did a coding of the data using a computer software data analysis. An application of NVivo was used to distinguish the paraphrases and response on the water contamination. The coding was done for every transcript from the NGOs and after which a comparison of the data through ANOVA analysis was performed. The participants’ responses were placed to the sample statistics where the answers were combined and compared through computer programs like the SPSS which enhanced comparison of the related results. Water contamination was used as the crucial variable, and the analysis dwelled on some of the pollutants that were classified by most of the organizations (Ajendra & Khanna, 2013, pg. 7). Groundwater contamination is one of the current problems that have adversely affected the water bodies, and it has been shown that it contributes to 56% of all the contaminations (Burnett & Welford, 2007, pg. 307). The interview conducted in around ten states indicated that several health complications that the state faces are as a result of the drinking contaminated water. Water diseases are common, and it was found that individuals bathing in the contaminated water are most likely to develop the diseases.
Thematic analysis is essential in the research for analyzing water contamination in Kerala since the relationship among the codes for the organizations was used to provide the final rational on the water contamination. Computers were used to give the final analysis and information achieved from the Non-Governmental Organizations will form the basis for the report (Shaw, Umma & Abedin, 2013, pg. 5). After placing the results in a computer program, the pollutants were compared and then the most contaminant were isolated. After the isolation, the analysis was broken down into a step-by-step examination to look at some of the possible weaknesses of the responsible agencies that could intensify water contamination despite the warnings from the local agencies.
Chart of NGOs
Water Aid India
The organization has been critical in the transformations of the lives of people in India through improving access to safe water. The NGO is beneficial in the research since it provided information necessary for coding to come up with a refined data.
We are Water Foundation
The organization has technically supported the communities affected by providing valuable information on the water contamination. The information can be used to come up with sources of pollution and best practices to curb the challenge.
TSO: “Third Sector Organization”
Incorporates all the resources and ensure that they are essential for the utilization by the people.
GONGO: “Government Operated NGOs”
The government aids the operations of the organization by providing relief to societies affected by water issues.
DONGO: “Donor Organized NGO”
It has provided water treatment alternatives and has ventured into training societies on safety methods of water treatment
INGO: “International NGO”
Global support for those who are affected by water contamination and issues drugs to support the affected community members
QUANGO: “Quasi-Autonomous NGO”
Encourages society collaboration to ensure that water conservation is done and provides regulations on human activities that contribute to water contamination
National NGO: “A non-governmental NGO which exist in a particular country.”
The national NGO operates within Kerala to provide supportive medical care to adults and children who are affected by water contamination.
CSO: “Civil Society Organization”
The CSO issues regulations to protect and conserve resources to serve the people.
ENGO: “Environmental NGO,” such as Greenpeace and WWF
The ENGO ensure that the environmental conservation is achieved through introducing policies which guide the people on how to control wastes into the water bodies.
In conclusion, Kerala water contamination issue is a critical challenge that faces the community and thus the need for a research intervention. The current explored some of the causes of water pollution in Kerala by performing interview sessions with the NGOs addressing the issue of water contamination. The results were further analyzed using the method of content analysis to provide a communication analysis of the response achieved. Therefore, the NGOs should continue working positively to ensure that the water contamination issue in Kerala is sufficiently addressed.
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