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Parramatta light rail traffic management optimization for accident mitigation

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Parramatta Light Rail Traffic Management Optimization for Accident Mitigation
A thesis by
Submitted for partial fulfillment for the Bachelor Degree in Civil Engineering (Honor’s Degree)
To the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
School of Engineering, (university)
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September 2018
Declaration by Student
I, (Student name), hereby declare that the work presented herein is original work done by
me and has not been published or submitted elsewhere for the requirement of a degree
Program. Any literature date or work that was done by others are cited within this thesis and are given due acknowledgment and listed in the reference section.
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“Parramatta Light Rail Traffic Management Optimization for Accident Mitigation”
A Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Bachelor Degree in Civil Engineering (Honor’s Degree) to the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
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This is to Certify that the thesis entitled “Parramatta Light Rail Traffic Management Optimization for Accident Mitigation” submitted by Full Name towards partial fulfillment for the Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering (Honors degree) is based on the investigation carried out under our guidance. The thesis part, therefore, has not submitted for the academic award of any other university or institution.

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AbstractThe study attempts to investigate the Parramatta light Rail traffic and find the best optimization management process that helps in the mitigation of accidents. Moreover, the investigation was mainly focused on the best means to escalate the efficiency while also maintaining the safety and timely operations of the systems.The major areas where human, vehicle and rail traffic are highly likely to conflict were selected and analyzed for the best means of management to ensure that the risks of accidents or failure of the systems are highly minimized. Moreover, a survey process, that involved 100 individuals from the public and 100 from the employees of the railway system were selected, was done. They were passed through a surveying process that incoorporated questionnaires, and ten random individuals from the two distinct cohorts were selected for interviews. This was done to ensure the social acceptability of the project and to find the best means by which the public would contribute towards the course of the project, therefore, providing a communication planning insight.
To check for the overall safety of the rail system regarding geotechnical details, some experiments, for example, embankment failure modes, pore water pressure, and ultimate loading tests were undertaken to ascertain the practicability of the development regarding its safety. This is, as known, among the most crucial characteristics of any project. To accomplish the objectives, a hypothesis was set. The results were then compared with the hypothesis that was set before the study. Accordingly, the results and conclusion were made. Fortunately, the hypothesis was concurrent with the outcomes of the investigation, and this thesis entails the causes that ultimately steered towards the satisfaction of the assumption and postulations.
AcknowledgmentI would endeavor to prompt my heartfelt appreciation to Dr. (Name of Professor), Associate Professor, and Head of the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering for permitting me to assume this work.
I am grateful to my supervisors Associate Professor Dr. (Name of Professor) Department of Civil and Structural Engineering for his unceasing directional advice effort and invertible recommendation throughout the exploration. I am also appreciative to my supervisor Dr. (Name of Supervisor) Executive chairman of Civil and Structural Engineering for providing me with the logistic provision and his valuable counsel to carry out my study efficaciously.
My supreme gratitude to (External Members that helped you with the study) without their incessant backing, this research would not have been conceivable. I would like to recognize the members of (an external organization that helped through the process) for aiding to accomplish my research.
I would also like to show appreciation (a personal friend) and (another friend) for encouraging me to undertake this project. Moreover, I would likewise like to express thanks to my classmates of Civil and Structural Engineering and my friends (Friends from other faculties within the same university) of Environmental Science IVth Year for their assistance all the way through the study.
Lastly, I would love to prompt my sincere appreciation to my parents especially my Mother for encouraging and assisting me throughout the study. They have proven to be the significant success behind my story and are the primary drivers of the research’s success.
List of abbreviationsBS: British Standards
CBD: Central Business District
FS: Factor of Safety
GIS: Global Information System
GPS: Global Positioning System
GUI: Graphical User Interface
KN: Kilo Newton
LRS: Light Rail System.
OT: Open Track
NSW: New South Wales
PSV: Public Service Vehicle
LRV: Light Rail Vehicles
WHO: World Health Organization
List of TablesTable 1: The different routes selected for the Parramatta light rail project
Table 4: Management Condition Results
List of FiguresFig 1.0: Basic concepts of design in consideration of embankment construction on clay soils.
Fig 3.0: process mining TROTS data
Fig 3.1: Process mining algorithm
Fig 4.0: Demographic details of the population
Fig 4.1: interview results
Fig 4.2: Selection panel for the train
AppendicesAppendix A: Field Investigation Report
Appendix B: Questionnaire Questions
Appendix C: Interview Questions
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc524760995 h vAcknowledgment PAGEREF _Toc524760996 h viList of abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc524760997 h viiList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc524760998 h viiiList of Figures PAGEREF _Toc524760999 h ixAppendices PAGEREF _Toc524761000 h ixTABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc524761001 h x1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc524761002 h 11.1Historical Background PAGEREF _Toc524761003 h 11.2Objectives and Precincts of the Study PAGEREF _Toc524761004 h 41.2.1Objectives PAGEREF _Toc524761005 h 41.3Limitations of the study PAGEREF _Toc524761006 h 41.4Hypothesis set to achieve the objectives PAGEREF _Toc524761007 h 42LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc524761008 h 7The literature review is a critical part of the research as it links this research with prior studies and tends to find links between this research and other studies. PAGEREF _Toc524761009 h 72.1Aims and objectives PAGEREF _Toc524761010 h 72.2Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc524761011 h 72.2.1Aims in rail control system PAGEREF _Toc524761012 h 102.2.2Models Used in Rail Traffic Management PAGEREF _Toc524761013 h 113MATERIAL AND METHOD PAGEREF _Toc524761014 h 133.1Description of The Study Area PAGEREF _Toc524761015 h 133.2Collection of secondary data PAGEREF _Toc524761016 h 133.2.1Official document and literature survey PAGEREF _Toc524761017 h 133.2.2Expert Discussion and Suggestions PAGEREF _Toc524761018 h 133.3Primary data collection PAGEREF _Toc524761019 h 143.3.1Selection of Samples and Sites PAGEREF _Toc524761020 h 143.3.2Number of samples selected PAGEREF _Toc524761021 h 143.3.3Materials used during the sample collection PAGEREF _Toc524761022 h 144RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc524761023 h 234.1RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc524761024 h 234.1.1Soil and embankment investigation PAGEREF _Toc524761025 h 234.1.2Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc524761026 h 234.1.3Computer Model Tests and Simulations PAGEREF _Toc524761027 h 254.2DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc524761028 h 264.2.1Analysis and Discussions of Data PAGEREF _Toc524761029 h 265CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc524761030 h 345.1Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc524761031 h 345.2Recommendations for future PAGEREF _Toc524761032 h 356References PAGEREF _Toc524761033 h 377APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc524761034 h 417.1SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT PAGEREF _Toc524761035 h 417.1.1Requirements and Objectives of the Site Investigation Report PAGEREF _Toc524761036 h 417.1.2Field and laboratory testing details PAGEREF _Toc524761037 h 417.1.3Soil properties PAGEREF _Toc524761038 h 417.1.4Embankment tests PAGEREF _Toc524761039 h 437.2Site plan PAGEREF _Toc524761040 h 457.2.1Analysis of Test Results PAGEREF _Toc524761041 h 457.2.2Recommendations and Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc524761042 h 467.3Questionnaire Interviews PAGEREF _Toc524761043 h 467.4Interview Questions PAGEREF _Toc524761044 h 477.5Thesis Writing Plan PAGEREF _Toc524761045 h 48
INTRODUCTIONHistorical BackgroundThe Parramatta light rail project
In the year 2013, the city council of Parramatta proposed a $1-million-dollar study for the feasibility of a proposed Western Sydney Light Rail Network intended to enhance transport connections through Western Sydney and address the difficulties presented by the anticipated ascent in the populace in the locale in the coming decades. The investigation found that a light rail framework was a feasible answer to address the developing transport needs of Parramatta and Western Sydney. The report evaluated $20 million in financing was required to embrace a thorough examination and to set up a business case. It suggested that development of the system would happen in a few phases, the first involved a course from Macquarie Center to Castle Hill through Eastwood, Parramatta, Dundas, and Baulkham Hills, with a branch from Parramatta to Westmead (“About Parramatta Light Rail”, 2018, N.p; “Parramatta Light Rail-Stage 1”, 2018, N.p). Other expansions were proposed from Parramatta to Rhodes and Bankstown.
As a significant aspect of its 2014/15 spending plan, the New South Wales Government reported Transport for NSW would explore ten potential light rail courses in Western Sydney. The legislature apportioned $400 million to guarantee funds for thorough and detailed arranging and development of an initial project undertaking that would be ‘prepared to go,’ should the examinations demonstrate to be in favor. Six of the ten courses being researched were wiped out from the conflict in October 2014. These were the routes investigated
11366535242500Table: 1 the different selected routes for the Parramatta light rail project.
In 2016, the City of Parramatta Council embraced its Position Paper on Parramatta Light Rail System (LRS). Articulating the Council’s desire for light rail in the City of Parramatta, the position paper included targets, managing standards, and needs. It additionally gave an arrangement set to a more comprehensive outline work to be undertaken in getting ready for Parramatta Light Rail and a key heading for Council in counseling with the NSW Government and partners in arranging and conveying the project.
In 2017, Transport and Infrastructure Minister Andrew Constance went ahead and confirmed the $1 billion proposals for the light rail line that was to be founded between Westmead, Carlington, and Parramatta and in 30th May 2018, the government announced the planning approval for the initial stage of the Critical State Significant Infrastructure project. This was inclusive of the input from the council and the community in general on the statement of the Environmental Impact for the first stage of the Parramatta Light Rail project (“Background of Parramatta Light Rail Project,” 2017, N.p).
The feasibility of the proposed project
As Sydney’s second developing CBD, Parramatta bolsters a developing populace of 4.5 million individuals. Neighborhood transport in the territory is an outstanding issue with massive clog from private vehicular usage as well as an inefficient existing open transport framework. This 20 km light rail undertaking bolsters the continuous advancement of Sydney Olympic Park as a world-class, energetic, blended utilization precinct. The light rail is being incorporated with other built-up open transport modes, for example, heavy rail, PSV, ferry, and making new opportunities for interchanges.
To determine its feasibility, the overseers of the scheme determined the practicability of the development using an engineering overlay for the venture. This entailed maintaining focus on end-state operations, and including consulting light rail delivery professionals at the commencement of the planning process. They then prepared a Technical Consolidated Report that synchronized and gazetted all the technical details of the work streams as the project progressively transitioned into the designation of evaluation phase and route options. They then assessed the impact of high traffic at a high level for individuals schemes along the identified options of routes.
To test out its delivering value, the team used GIS and early documentation to delineate the opportunities and limitations and to analyze the reuse of existing transport framework resources in evaluating alternatives at each phase of the planning of the project. This approach helped to populate a hazard register, which was then used to organize the project encounters and strategically coordinate other expert administrations including engineering and ecological administrations, giving more opportunity to investigate and boost open opportunities for the project.
Objectives and Precincts of the StudyObjectivesThe primary aim of the research was to delimitate the management optimization processes that would be undertaken in the Parramatta rail project to boost its efficiency and safety levels, therefore, mitigating the possibilities of accidents occurrence.
The precise goals of the research were as follows:
To scrutinize the varieties of models that could be utilized in the rail management system.
To determine the social acceptance and thoughts from the community on how to progress the system’s safety.
To ascertain the engineering safety of the project.
To determine the least budget effective safety actions that can be engaged in the administration of the light rail system.
Limitations of the studyThe proposed solution cannot be universal because only a portion of the project is in progress.
Due to budget limitation, most critical parts could not be analyzed.
Some of the conclusions were projected due to the constraints of time.
Some of the tests needed expensive equipment to undertake, and thus the cost constraints limited the scope of the study.
Hypothesis set to achieve the objectivesThe investigation aimed to delimitate the management optimization processes that could be undertaken in the Parramatta rail project to boost its efficiency and safety levels, therefore, mitigating the perils of accidents occurrence.
It is generally hypothesized that through the combination of models, simulations, and the critical insights from the stakeholders, the management process can be best optimized for the mitigation of accidents. The combination of processes is critical because they combine different elements of mathematics and engineering modeling to the socioeconomic aspects of the project. The project is deliberated in such a way that it delivers maximum safety at maximum efficiency. The rail system is also found within the areas of towns where traffic intensities, densities, and flows are incredibly elevated (Ewing et al., 2014, 93). This creates critical points of conflicts where there exists a high risk of accident occurrence. Moreover, geotechnical elements must be included in the process to ascertain the engineering safety of the light rail traffic system. This is because the ground acts as the foundation of the system and with its failure, the system will eventually fail leading to fatalities.
Although the route conflicts are resolved using the principle of ‘first-come-first-serve,’ they are to some extent risky, and trains might try to compete for places (Kecman, 2014, 4). This, therefore, calls for algorithms and prediction models to be set in place to continually and effectively manage the light rail traffic system. Moreover, to avoid conflict between road traffic and the light rail traffic, signaling and controlling measures should be set in place to avoid inconvenience and impedances of one traffic over another.
The other objective was to find the engineering safety of the embankment and soil used in the Parramatta light rail. This was to be determined through the conduction of a succession of experiments and computer programs that defines the safety of the soil’s bearing capacity and the sustainability of the embankment of the study in regards to service life before failure (Hopkins, 1986, 1). This was the expected performance of the system;

Figure 1. Basic concepts of design in consideration of embankment construction on clay soils.

LITERATURE REVIEWThe literature review is a critical part of the research as it links this research with prior studies and tends to find links between this research and other studies.Aims and objectivesThe primary aims and objectives of this literature review are:
Finding the least cost-effective and efficient means of optimization of rail management to diminish the number of risks associated with accidents
Finding successful algorithms and simulations that can be hired in the alleviation process.
Finding mistakes in previous experiments that might be used as a direction on what to avoid during the mitigation process.
Finding critical insights and comments given by the peer-reviewed articles.
Literature ReviewThe World Health Organization claims that more than 1.25 million individuals lose their lives annually due to road traffic crashes. In the same manner, 20 to 50 million individuals are involved directly in non-fatal injuries while a majority of these individuals incur a life-changing disability due to the injuries (WHO, 2018, N.p). Studies have also shown that these numbers are ever increasing in developing countries. It is, however, critical to identify that there are significant socioeconomic and geographical variances in the risks of injuries that are traffic accident related. When it pertains to rail traffic, accidents are significantly depressed due to the identity of the mode of transport. There is less traffic, and the scheduling and management process considerably reduces the probability of occurrence of an accident.
Although rail traffic is exposed to less probability of accident occurrence, there are several ways in which accidents in these areas manifest themselves. For instance, according to the official report of the Parramatta project, there are higher risks of accidents in the regions that are associated with overcrowding for example at stops and at proximity to live traffic (“Parramatta Light Rail (Stage 1)”, 2018, 122). Moreover, the report purports that there are concerns over the safety regarding the location of a proposed traffic light pole that is conflicting with the entrance to the service station which is positioned on the junction of Alfred Street and George Street. There are significant concerns that it would be a potentially hazardous zone for not only vehicles but also for pedestrians. In another instance, there are distresses that the Parramatta project is just adjacent to the sports field at Robin Thomas Reserve which poses a great risk to children and that mitigation measures should be formulated to prevent balls from entering the Harris Street road corridor (“Parramatta Light Rail (Stage 1)”, 2018, 122). As clearly stated in the BS, without proper precautions for safety, there are significant potential risks of LRV accidents, especially when pedestrians would either cross or interact with the alignment of the project. In this manner, there should be some form of appropriate management measures, e.g., Fitting warning bells to LRVs.
Moreover, train specialists claim that during the night time, belts would be used where the driver considers there is a danger to public safety. Targeted safety campaigns to raise awareness around the performance of the LRVs can likewise be utilized in the lead up to the opening of the venture and during operation to endorse the safe service of the project. This would be a measure to raise awareness and encourage safe behaviors around the project.
According to the project’s official first stage report, there is a need for detailed review that would be undertaken during the thorough design process to identify a requirement for additional responses. A point by point review survey would likewise be embraced amid detailed planning to recognize prerequisites for facilitating reactions to oversee and decrease the danger of episodes emerging from crashes during activity. Vulnerabilities related to the development of LRVs through the existing network and very pedestrianized territories has been overseen in many real urban communities, (for example, Strasbourg, Linz and France, Austria, Sydney, and Melbourne) through targeted safety campaigns and safety in the design process for the stops and vehicles. A comparable approach would be applied to overseeing potential dangers or dangers related to the task. Transport for NSW has found a way to guarantee that a solid look and feel furnishes commonality on the best way to connect with light rail frameworks, for example, Sydney Light Rail and Newcastle Light Rail (“Parramatta Light Rail (Stage 1)”, 2018, 122).
Light rail stops will be estimated to suit the traveler loads expected in busy periods. Amid high demand periods, for example, on special occasions, potential dangers related to congestion would be limited by giving extra LRVs or potentially administrating through crowd management procedures. Current frameworks show that the Parramatta light rail framework would have the capacity to support to no less than the year 2053.
The following risks pose a significant probability of occurrence of accidents, therefore, demanding attention. Management should be so organized that delays, risks, and accidents are mitigated. Rodriguez, Pellegrini, Marliere, Hu, and Richard claim that the operation management of railways should be able to cope with the failure of the rail system or any form of external instabilities that may bring about delays or primary delays and, in the same context, accidents (2014, 465). In their research, they discuss the outcomes of experiments that are used to assess rail traffic optimization apparatuses that diminish the ancillary delays through the selection of suitable route sets and train movement sequences. The actual experiment was based on the European FP7 project ON-TIME through a developed algorithm. They found that among the preeminent methods of detecting a feasible solution is via the algorithm with a diversified integer linear programming devising for limited computation time. In this manner, the best solution that would be feasible within the time limitation is the ultimate result that is reverted by the algorithm. Their significant findings were that optimization is vigorous to different sets of the framework of the rolling-horizon (Rodriguez et al., 2the 014, 465).
Aims in rail control systemThe principal aims of the rail control system are to ensure that trains operate efficiently and, most importantly, safely. This is according to engineers who claim that it is among the core elements of a railway system because it can maintain a safe operating distance between two trains, regulate the services of trains and control the flow of trains. This mitigation measure would consequently reduce the probability of occurrence of accidents and thus mitigate them. For instance, signaling can be utilized as a method of control in railway signaling systems to prevent collisions. According to Zhao, conventional methods were used to time interval systems for the correction of headways to protect trains from the risk of occurrence of accidents (2013, 8). Designers then reduced the headway to increase line capacity. This increased the capacity but consequently elevated the number of accidents. They, therefore, introduced the aspect of signaling (Zhao, 2013, 8). It was a measure used to mitigate the limitations due to 2-aspect signaling. Another technique that can be effectively used in the controlling of rail traffic is the Automatic Train Control. This comprises of coordination that can be utilized to automate the tasks of the train and the operator fully. This method can be a ‘game changer’ especially considering that the traffic flow is increasing and the railway control systems are becoming more complex. The ATC method has developed to be very prevalent due to its capacity to reduce errors due to human and also protect trains from the collision.
Models Used in Rail Traffic ManagementOperating and planning railroad transportation frameworks are exceedingly complicated because of the combinatorial unpredictability of the hidden discrete streamlining issues, the specialized complexities, and the enormous sizes of the problem occasions. Thus, be that as it may, numerical models and improvement strategies can result in tremendous increases for both railroad clients and administrators in the improvement of efficiency and safety of the rail system (Borndörfer et al., 2015, 1).
In one of the researches, Li, Wu, Johnston, and Zhang suggested that the LRT priority system has four major components: dwelling time predictor and train travel, train detector, traffic signal regulators, and priority request generators (2009, 5). The train detection can be traditional, for instance, the loop system, or it can be in a continuous form, such as the GPS AVL system. The four researchers developed a model based on collected field data that consisted of dwelling time predictor and travel time predictor. They also developed a mixed-integer Quadratic Programming mode that could minimize intersection delays for trolleys due to the provision of signal priority. The model also reduced impacts on other traffics due to the priority process. Their results were that the average trolley performance index decreased significantly by 89.5% and the standard deviation also declined by 68.6%. This translates to the circumstance that the travel time of the trolley is more steady because of the priority of the signal. This generally increases the efficiency of rail transport and reduces conflicts and thus can mitigate the occurrence of accidents.
Generally, the design procedures and processes that proved to be a success in previous research can be applied to this particular thesis. The purported means, strategies of analyses, and models for a solution can be applied to the management optimization for the mitigation of accidents and reduction of risks. The previous research proves invaluable in the way forward for this thesis and can be extensively used as a guide in the optimization processes of the Parramatta light rail project. Since there is a significant similarity between the traditional train and rail system management, the methods can as well be applied to the Parramatta light rail project for the minimization of conflicts in rail traffic for a proper efficiency and safety (reduction of accidents). Most critically, it will also guide on things not to do in the design processes, especially in studies that have had failed attempts.

MATERIAL AND METHOD Description of The Study AreaThe Parramatta city lies in a region of riverine valleys that are defined by ridges both on the south and north. The primary centers sit between the railway line and river, and this was the first region to be first settled and surveyed. The raised line of the railway and sunken banks of the river generates breaks in the south-north views. The region has important parklands to the west and east and also the river foreshore parklands within the precinct of the culture.
Collection of secondary dataOfficial document and literature surveyDifferent companies and projects are taking place in the Parramatta light rail project, and they have proven to be quite helpful in this study. Notably, their report and work were beneficial for this study. For instance, reports from NSW on the Parramatta project were utilized in the process of the study. Different peer-reviewed articles, reports, and electronic information were employed in the review of the literature.
Expert Discussion and SuggestionsExpert discussions and suggestions were critical to this research. At the time of my study, I met a few individual researchers and experts in the field, and we brought up some few discussions.
The suggestion of Mr. (Name), who works at (Name of company) was constructive for the research site selection and various data collection methods.
The suggestion of Mr. (Name), who is a Civil Engineer, at (Name of company) was very supportive in the data analysis, and also during the discussion and results of the study.
Primary data collectionThe primary data collection process was principally done during the time of the field study.
Selection of Samples and SitesThe site of selection where the data collection regarding the geotechnical properties of the soils, were collected in embankments along the Centennial Park pond.
Data that involved humans consisted of a group of randomly selected individuals using the simple random sampling process which is an unbiased representation (Investopedia, 2018, N.p). They were each given questionnaires that were to be filled after which 10 individuals were selected using random cluster sampling to be forwarded for interviewing.
Number of samples selectedThere was one major embankment selected. 100 individuals from the general public consisting of 50 males and 50 females were selected. Furthermore, 100 individuals who were workers were selected, consisting of 75 males and 25 females. This was so because the ratio of women to men in the Parramatta project was 1:3. It would thus be a complete representation of the population. This consisted of a total of 200 individual samples.
Materials used during the sample collectionTotal stations
Used to measure and monitor surface displacements
Strain gauges
Used for weighing the loads.
Slip surface tubes
To approximate the slip surface depths and overall magnitudes of failure.
Earth pressure transducers
Used to measure longitudinal scattering of vertical stresses under embankment.
Used to measure dislodgments in soil
Settlement tubes
Used to obtain the settlements of embankments
Pore pressure transducers
Used to measure pore water pressures in the soil
Contains a list of open and closed-ended questions to acquire data.
Used for simulation and analysis of models
Recording instruments
Used for recording information.
Contents of the field test kit
Total stations2 units
Strain gauges1 unit
Slip surface tubes70 units
Earth pressure transducers5 units
Inclinometers9 units
Settlement tubes3 units
Pore pressure transducers30 units
Questionnaires200 units
Computers2 units
Recording instruments20 units
Procedure for field test kit:
The thesis incorporates three major experiments;
Study 1
The first procedure for testing the safety of embankments is clearly stated in the appendix A material.
Study 2
The second experiment that involved people included the following processes;
This research uses the rationale that the social domain can be best understood from the perspective of individuals who are part of the on-going process under scrutiny (Cohen et al., 2000: 190; Cohen et al., 2007, N). This is probably due to the belief that the reality is as a consequence of the cognition of individuals. The study was done to analyze the rational and ethical points of view of the project from the individuals’ perceptions. This helps us to mine the thoughts of the public on how the light rail system’s safety can be improved immensely. This, therefore, incorporates the social aspects of safety into the study of the Parramatta light rail system. The study takes a comparative approach to match the outcomes of the investigation with the existent system.
To ensure that the responses from the questionnaires accurately symbolize the thoughts of the subjects under study, we first obtained approval from the State Extension Director and the Institution Review Board. We then identified eligible respondents using sampling procedures. After that, we filled the Respondent Identification Form and ordered postcards and address labels. In this manner, we generated address labels for the potential respondents and sent the subsequent introductory letters.
We then printed and prepared the cover letters and the questionnaires and also prepared the return envelopes which were sent together with the questionnaire packet. In the follow-up processes, we sent the first, second, and third reminder postcards and letters to the respondents. The answered questionnaires were then collected and analyzed. The contents of the questionnaires are found in Appendix B.
These were the primary agendas of the questionnaire;
To find out if the current measures put in the Parramatta safety system is sufficient for safety.
To find the best means possible to make the Parramatta safe for commuters
To find any particular suggestions, the public might put across to aid in the integration of safety into the system.
The interviews consisted of 20 individuals who were randomly selected from the primary samples. 10 representing the general public and 10 from the workers in the train management system. The interviews were seen as a critical part of the study as it provided patches for the loopholes found in the questionnaires. It tends to fill the voids left by the questionnaire methods.
The interviews were conducted with an allocated time of two minutes for each interviewee personally (“Personal Interviews,” N.d, N.p). It entailed fundamental questions to test whether the individuals concur with the management optimization systems in the current system. The questions are detailed in the Appendix C. The data were recorded using a recording instrument while small and important notes were noted down. They were then forwarded the data for analysis.
Study 3
Computer simulation and modeling
Data for computer simulation and modeling were collected from the original designers of the system. The data included; an existent signal system in the proposed network, the entrance, and exits of the light rail system, the average distances, speeds of the light rail, existent signaling frameworks, and the schedules of the light rail. They were then used to test models and simulations for the perfect safety measure that could aid in the mitigation of accidents and the consequent elevation of safety and efficiency of the system.
The idea of the procedure mining tool is displayed in Figure 3.0. An essential property is that this technique can be connected both for handling a live stream of approaching train describer messages to monitoring movement and preparing archives of log documents to separate the organized correct traffic realization information. The center of the framework is a domain containing the area, signal, block and rail objects. All items are made and refreshed on-the-fly while parsing a TROTS log document utilizing the depicted framework and timetable records.
Static properties in each question are settled when objects are made, utilizing new framework and timetable info documents portrayed in the past segment. Area objects are ascribed by name, stage signal that depicts stage segments, open track (OT) signal that shows amassed track segments on an open track, and signal that secures the segment (just for the central segment in a block). Signal objects are portrayed by name, secured area (first segment of the ensured square) and anterior segment (last segment of the block that was previous). The static traits of block objects incorporate the delimiting signs of the block and involved track segments. At last, each train is depicted by the comparing object utilizing the traits number and timetable that contains the rundown of booked arrival and departure times in stations.

Figure 3.0 process mining TROTS data
Every object of infrastructure monitors occupation, discharge and passing occasions of all trains that are accounted for by the train describer framework. This information is put in the train rundown of the comparing object. The dynamic rundown ‘Stop/go’ in a signal question is refreshed with each signal message. Each line in the rundown contains the time of an aspect change to ‘stop’ and resulting change to ‘go.’ A Train object is ascribed with the arrangements of navigated areas and signals, which are refreshed with each communication from the log record identified with the train.
Data going between various object classes and techniques inside a similar class mirror the operational limitations of rail movement, for example, course setting and release standards and train division on open track as per blocking time hypothesis. The yield of process mining incorporates, realized running and abide times, course clashes, acknowledged departure and entry times and also realized train ways (Kecman, 2014, 61).
The primary algorithm
For the end goal of this investigation, we simulate the ongoing condition by parsing the sequentially requested messages line-by-line. Since the time slack between two progressive messages is frequently shorter than one second, an effective calculation is expected to extract the important data from each message, refresh the relating objects and recognize a course conflict or decide the actual occasion time. The pertinent data from the log documents are saved in the train number and infrastructure items which allows for the calculation to return to them, and utilize and refresh the data in that (Daamen et al., 2008, 52).
619125434594000At any minute in time, the estimations of object properties furnish the present movement state with all train positions, actual deferrals, and framework accessibility. The significant preferred position of this methodology is the information stream between objects. The subroutines portrayed in the central circle of the calculation, are actualized as strategies for the corresponding object classes. They can compare the estimations of the relating characteristics for the important objects and recognize course clashes, process times, and the real departure and arrival times. The algorithm first peruses each line of the log document and updates the relating object. TROTS logs each segment framework message tailed (at least one messages later) by the relating train step message. Along these lines after a train step message is gotten, the important data about the segment occasion is finished, i.e., timestamp, segment name, train number, and occasion compose are known. Signal entries can be enlisted utilizing the predefined
Figure 3.1 Process mining algorithm
Association amongst signals and secured areas. This is the representation of the algorithm in a pseudocode format;

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSRESULTSSoil and embankment investigationThe results of the soil investigation are well documented in the Appendix A material. The data was then compared
QuestionnairesThe questionnaires were administered to a total of 200 individuals. Of the 200 individuals, 125 individuals were male while 75 of the individuals were female. This data was based on the initial sampling process that precisely selected the number of individuals and gender. However, in the selected sample 19 individuals were between 15-20 years old, 121 were 20-30 years old, 56 individuals were between 30-50, and the rest were above 50 years of age. This is embodied in the data below;

Figure 4.0: Demographic details of the population
The questionnaires also inquired on the efficiency of the management system and the results were that 137 individuals thought that the system’s management seemed to be in perfect condition. 31 thought it was in good condition while 25 individuals thought that the management was not good enough. 20 individuals thought it was in poor condition while the rest did not know. They are represented in a tabular form;
Perfect condition Good condition Bad condition Don’t know
137 31 20 12
Table 4: Management Condition Results
Also, a large percentage (99%) of the surveyed individuals thought that the stakeholders of the project should be active in the realization of the safety measures for the mitigation of accidents. This data was critical as it showcased the thoughts of the stakeholders in the development and general management of the project.
Main findings
The interviews revealed that there limited number of individuals who think that the current system is not safe enough for the proper and safe functioning of the system. Of the 20 individuals who were interviewed 6 concur that the procedures that are in place to make the system safe are sufficient and do not need reinforcements. 13 of the randomly selected individuals think that there should be more systems put in place to guarantee the supervision of the organization is optimized for the safety of its consumers and in the same instance, mitigate the possibility of occurrence of accidents. They also agree that the system needs testing and approval of all forms of safety before being officially opened for public usage. One of the interviewees was unsure of whether the system needs an upgrade on its safety measures in the mitigation of accidents. The results are 571500929640displayed in the figure below:
Figure 4.1: interview results
The interview data was qualitative and was to find out the public opinion on the system’s safety regarding the mitigation of accidents. The outcomes are deliberated in the discussion section.
Computer Model Tests and SimulationsFrom the results, the tab board for loading information enables the tester to either load the crude information and begin the calculation or load the already handled information and show the outcomes. In the lower tab board, the user can pick which results to show. In the tab Trains (Figure 4.2), a train line can be chosen from the menu which enables one to choose a train number from the picked line. We would then be able to choose the entire railway or a piece of it by choosing a begin and end station. The outcomes are then shown in the tables on the left and the visualization board on the right. The chosen portion of the train course is envisioned together with every other train that worked on the chosen passage 15 minutes after and before the train selected. The tables speak to the rundown of conflicts in which the chosen train participated, the running occasions on all areas, the blocking times, and real departure and arrival times and postponements at all stations.
2286004445Figure 4.2: Selection panel for the train
DISCUSSIONSAnalysis and Discussions of Data site investigation data
The time-reliance of pore pressure and displacement reaction because of the high rate of stacking was made clear by the trial. Amid the vast majority of the stacking, the displacements and overabundance of pore pressure developed at a direct, almost linear rate. Close to the end of loading, the earth started to yield gradually, and pore pressure and displacements started to increment at a consistently quickening rate. The failure happened two hours after stacking was finished. The slopes of relocation and pore weight change were most significant just before the ultimate failure (Lehtonen, 2011, 55).
It appears to be evident that due to the time-subordinate pore pressure reaction, a characterized failure load can’t be resolved for quick undrained loading on clay. However, the failure stack relies upon soil properties, the rate of loading and time. The same thing can be generalized to the transient factor of safety for a given load and time. For reasonable outline purposes, the factor of safety should, in any case, be figured agreeing to the most extreme pore pressure/least shear strength for a given load.
For an immediate-loaded embankment, (e.g., a railroad dike with a train halt) on mud, the factor of safety will probably diminish for quite a while until the point when the highest pore pressure is attained in the undrained state. This is so because the nature of loading affects the factor of safety (The constructor, 2013, N.p). This time reliance is an issue to be deliberated while considering the checking of embankments of low stability, as the underlying moderate overabundance pore pressure and relocations, may give a misguided feeling that all is well.
The best pointers of a looming rail embankment failure were observed to quicken embankment settlement, transverse soil relocations, excess pore pressure reaction and upward development of the soil on the sides of the embankment. This is, for the significant part, in harmony with past research. The decision of monitored amounts and the situation of instruments ought to be founded on case particular investigations of the likely failure system. Prior researches have embarked on analyzing and developing calculations for stability especially for rail embankments and also determining the least costly (cost-effective) and most effective and safe methods of improving the existing embankment stability.
Simple indices of soil, for example, liquid limit, water content, liquidity index, and plastic limit give genuinely great markers of whether the anticipated stabilities obtained from total pressure or effective stress analyses that might be effective. The primary indices of soils are valuable in defining plan or guidelines for design. A design safety factor as low as 1.30 (total pressure analysis) or, maybe, 1.35, might be utilized if the liquidity indices of the foundation are more extensive than 0.36 and the plasticity indices are under 40 percent. For this circumstance, shear strength gotten from either unconsolidated or field vane tests·
The undrained triaxial examinations might be utilized without the need to redress the shear strengths of the laboratory. As to effective stress investigation, no revisions of the effective stresses from the laboratory are required. At the point when clay foundations have moderately large plasticity index values (> 40 percent), and the liquidity index is more than 0.36, undrained shear qualities obtained from triaxial pressure tests ought to be amended. If the undrained shear strengths are acquired from vane tests, the shear strength ought to be adjusted utilizing Bjerrum’s factors of correction. A low safety factor of around 1.30 might be utilized if the field vane shear strength is revised.
Both aggregate stresses and analyses of effective stresses may yield erroneous estimates of the soundness of the embankment when the liquidity indices of the clay foundations are under 0.36. The two sorts of analyses, in light of lab strengths, tend to yield safety factors that are too expansive. Correction factors for the laboratory undrained shear quality are proposed, or, on the other hand, the lab shear quality might be rectified. Another proposed approach for acquiring shear strength for design is to perform triaxial tests on molded samples remolded to specific calculated water content. As an alternative, the analyses of effective stresses could be performed utilizing diminished parameters.
It is, thus, dire that the embankments and the underlying foundation and soil are thoroughly checked for the general strength and ultimate capacities before the design process. Their failures and modes of failures can be significantly mitigated if the characteristics of the soil are recognized. Most importantly, the stability checks for the rail system is part of the management optimization process that can assist in the mitigation of accidents. This is because of the failure of the rail’s foundation, or the soil itself can significantly increase accidents in the light rail system.
Questionnaire and interview data
The data obtained from the interviews and questionnaire reveal the thoughts of the general public on the project’s safety and how it can be improved. The demographics show that most users of the system can comprise of both the young and old and both genders. This is critical because transportation should be versatile for all individuals. It is predicted that by 2060 there will be a 10 percent increase in the population of Sydney and it should comfortably serve the ever-increasing population (Head, S. 2016, 2). The outcomes of the data are independent of the gender and age of the respondents as they all concur on the criticality of the safety of any form of transportation.
The questionnaires and interviews also help us obtain the socio-engineering aspect of the project. It helps us get an insight into the impacts of the project and how the individuals can contribute to the project itself. It was also a measure in which judgment can be obtained on awareness levels of the public and the workers on the project’s significance and impacts. This will be used as a measure by which the public and the workers in the project can be educated and enlightened on the project itself. Moreover, through this process, public awareness and the general knowledge on the project and its significance can be significantly raised. This can be done through seminars and adverts in radio stations and also on the internet.
The stakeholders of the project can be educated on how they can add to the safety of the scheme and in what way they can help in the management process for the optimization and mitigation of accidents. In this manner, they can also be able to air their views on how they can be able to contribute to the general efficient and safe functioning of the system. The questionnaires and interviews, therefore, acted as a platform to help in consideration of public awareness of the impacts and significance of the project. Their results show that most individuals recognize the ongoing project itself but are not copiously cognizant of the management processes and how they are part and parcel of the project. For instance, the public is what the project revolves around, and they should thus be made aware of the safety measures to undertake to minimize the occurrence of accidents.
Algorithm and simulation
Process mining is a strategy for finding processes and separating data about them from event information utilizing a procedure model. It consolidates information mining with domain learning about the particular processes that are broken down. The primary idea is to extricate the vital data from substantial information sets and acquire an output containing perfect and organized information prepared for analysis. Ongoing progressions in sensor telecommunications and technology have empowered consistent checking of processes in complex frameworks. The relating software frameworks frequently store the event messages and estimations of processes in event logs. Utilizing a procedural model, which is assembled based on the domain information of the present world framework, event logs can be mined, and important processes can be found and recovered. This data mining process that was recently developed has been successfully applied in the analysis of processes of businesses and social network activities. This thesis, therefore, applies process mining to the train path recoveries, train describer data events, and in the identification of conflicts of routes.
This section exhibited an instrument for the recuperation of trainways and programmed conflict distinguishing based on process mining of train describer information. For instance, archives files from the Sydney train describer framework TROTS were utilized for building up the algorithms. The disadvantages of TROTS information for performance investigation have been overcome by including extra info containing the vital foundation and timetable information. The calculations have been actualized in a software apparatus for information processing and analysis of performance. The device gives adaptability in examining specific trainways and activity on the corridor. Tabular and visual output streamline examination and show severe interruptions and also minor aggravations because of changeability of process times.
Method of process mining allows for the domain knowledge application to understanding data and also the extraction of information that is relevant. This, according to Fayyad et al., are the first essential steps for any application that is data-driven. Furthermore, processing that is model-based allows for the anticipation of any future events and in this way, simplifying the detection of errors in the data using the detection of any unexpected event. This is highly critical for applications that are real-time and are not reliant on any structured or cleaned data. It relies on streams of data that are noisy and need immediate processing.
Clear relevance for other train describer frameworks firmly relies upon their information structure. In any case, utilizing the standards of block time hypothesis as a procedure model in mining the event log records is a bland technique for examination of dwell times and running times and recognition of route clashes for fixed block signaling frameworks. Potential improvements are chiefly coordinated towards programmed investigation by giving valuable and measurable markers to auxiliary imperfections in the timetable, and also, recognizing severe disturbances and distinguishing initial delays (Goverde and Meng, 2011, 71).
The work displayed in this theory was devoted to building up the parts and building blocks of a model-prescient controller for railroad traffic administration. Predictive control models can be utilized to connect to the devices for traffic control that assumes full information without bounds to an online situation. The principal segments of prescient model control: checking, predictions that are short term, and advancements are deciphered with regards to the continuous and real-time administration of light rail traffic.
These testing issues from the present traffic control practice have been handled by various experts and scholarly and academic network. A survey of the current methodologies uncovered two clear gaps that decided the primary research destinations set for this exploration. The primary target was to build up a framework that screens train movement and predicts its future advancements and evolution. The checking framework needs to monitor the states of the traffic. That incorporates observing of train positions, running events, delays, headway distribution, and course clashes and conflicts. In light of the present traffic state in the system, the development states inside a specific timeline should be anticipated and, therefore, predicted.
The model is fabricated and updated given the traffic control activities and current train positions revealed by the train describer framework. The topology of the model mirrors all limit and synchronization interdependencies between trains. The alignment is performed continuously with the vigorous process times estimators. With each update of the position of trains, a productive forecast calculation visits all arcs in the graph, recovers their weights relying upon the real traffic condition, and predicts the realization times of all station events and signals inside the prediction. The graphs mesoscopic character helps in the identification of all course conflicts and routes. The second research objective concentrated on making an ongoing rescheduling model that can create ideal calendars on the system level. The objective was to make an all-round traffic model that considers all interdependencies between trains in the system. Given the anticipated activity state toward the end of the rescheduling calculation strategy, the model ought to give an answer that limits the deviation from the reference plan inside a short calculation time.
The appropriateness and the eminence of the outcomes of the approach presented depend fundamentally on the accessibility and quality of information for the model adjustment and additionally, the recurrence and spatial resolution of the updates of train position. For applicability to be realized, quality information sources that give recurrent and precise reports on train locations are required. Consequently, because the model was exceedingly applicable to the Dutch train describer system, it can as well be employed by the Parramatta, to predict events in the Parramatta light rail system accurately, that is, the model can be generalized. This model can thus be integrated into the general system of management in the Parramatta light rail. It can be utilized in the prediction rail traffic and can thus contribute to the extrapolation of conflicts before it happens. This can significantly increase the chances of prevention of an accident before its occurrence. When incorporated into the Parramatta light rail system, it will elevate the safety of the system. This can be especially true if the precise locations of trains can be pinpointed using GPS data because they are accurate (Tripathi, P., 2010, 11).

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSConclusionsIt is paramount that the stakeholders of any project should be fully aware of the existent system that is in place for the correct operation of the project. Among the critical aspects of a project is safety. This study aimed at maximizing the efficiency and safety of the Parramatta light rail system. The public can be educated on how to develop the welfare of the projects in regards to the mitigation of accidents. This can be realized through the incorporation of optimization measures designated in the chapters above and through the realization of every safety measure, starting from the foundation to the project itself.
This is the primary reason the study was aimed at determining the stability of the foundation of the light rail system. The soil is the natural foundation of the rail system, and for the project to function optimally, the foundation should be as stable as possible. In the embankments, the tests results were concurrent with the initial hypothesis stated. It was expected that the soil would be stable and that it would display bearing pressures that are able to sustain repeated loading and impact loads. From the experiments, the soils around the Parramatta seem to be stable enough to support he rail project and is thus safe.
However, one of the downsides of the FEM (Fixed-End Moments) soil models is that they need many soil parameters that often don’t have a direct physical denotation that enables them to determined readily from lab experimentations. In this manner, the new models that are advanced cannot be used in the day to day design procedures and purposes. Moreover, the FEM analyses are incorporating more advanced measures of calculating the excess pore water pressures (Länsivaara et al. 2011, N.p).
Through algorithms, simulations, and models, prior studies have shown that the traffic movements along each route can be predicted. Moreover, conflicts can be easily identified before they take place therefore significantly reducing the chances of occurrence of an accident. This, therefore, calls for the incorporation of the TROTS models to the Parramatta light rail system to mitigate the chances of occurrence of accidents and significantly increase the safety for the commuters.
When the three elements of the above study are combined, i.e., the socio-engineering, geotechnical, and traffic predictive elements, the management can significantly be optimized towards the increment of the safety of the system and avoidance or mitigation of accidents.
Recommendations for futureFrom this study, I have come to learn that socio-engineering elements are very critical to the proper functioning of any engineering project. Moreover, I have learned that modeling, simulations, and algorithms can be great time savers regarding finding solutions to any problem and that they should greatly be utilized in the reduction of accidents and simplification of management of light rail traffic.
To make projects traverse the problems of the stakeholders, the significant stakeholders, i.e., the public should be greatly informed on the functioning of the arrangement and how they can significantly add to the efficiency and safety of the system through public dissemination of information, seminars, newspapers, etc.
Moreover, future geotechnical calculations should incorporate the yield surface to assume the undrained stress path, which can then be used to obtain the excess pore water pressures. Moreover, in pore pressure calculations, one can even assume failure pore pressures for the FS that are above 1 which can significantly result in a comprehensive representation of the FS that are considerably compatible with the analyses of total stress stability.
In another instance, the integration of the traffic state prediction and monitoring with an innovative driver advisory system can be a great direction for possible future research. Optimal train trajectories can be obtained from accurate route conflict predictions, and therefore reducing the effects of conflicts. Also, GPS can be incorporated into models for better accuracy of location. It is however, paramount to note that the practicability of the model is highly dependent on the quality of data and the frequency at which the data of each events are frequently updated. In this manner, for modelling output to be reliable, quality data should be fed into the system.

ReferencesAbout Parramatta Light Rail (2018). Home | Parramatta Light Rail. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].
Background of the Parramatta Project. (2017). Background of Parramatta Light Rail Project | City of Parramatta. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].
Borndörfer, R., Klug, T., Lamorgese, L., Mannino, C., Reuther, M. and Schlechte, T., 2015, February. Recent success stories on optimization of railway systems. In 6th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis-RailTokyo2015 (pp. 077-1).
Cohen, L., L. Manion, et al. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education, 5th Edition (London: RoutledgeFalmer).
Daamen, W., Goverde, R. M. P., & Hansen, I. A. (2008). Non-Discriminatory Automatic Registration of Knock-On Train Delays. Networks and Spatial Economics, 9(1), 47–61.
Ewing, R., Tian, G., and Spain, A., 2014. Effect of Light-Rail Transit on Traffic in a Travel Corridor.
FitzGerald, Deborah. (2014). Transport Minister promises to set a cracking pace on Parramatta light rail. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2018].
Goverde, R. M. P., & Meng, L. (2011). Advanced monitoring and management information of railway operations. Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, 1(2), 69–79.
HEAD, S., 2016, July. Easing Sydney’s Congestion–Developing a Road Network for Tomorrow’s Sydney. In Australian Institute of Traffic Planning and Management (AITPM) National Conference, 2016, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Hopkins, T.C., 1986. Stability of Embankments on Clay Foundations.
Investopedia. (2010). Simple Random Sample. [online] Investopedia. Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].
Kecman, P., 2014. Models for predictive railway traffic management.
Länsivaara, T., Lehtonen, V., Mansikkamäki, J.(2011): Failure induced pore pressure,
experimental results and analysis. 2011 Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical Conference
Lehtonen, V. (2011). Instrumentation and analysis of a railway embankment failure experiment. [ebook] Finnish Transport Agency, pp.1-56. Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2018].
Li, M., Wu, G., Johnston, S. and Zhang, W.B., 2009. Analysis toward mitigation of congestion and conflicts at light rail grade crossings and intersections. California PATH Program, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Berkeley.
Parramatta Light Rail. (2018). Feasibility and Planning for Parramatta Light Rail. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].
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Parramatta Light Rail (Stage 1). (2018). [ebook] WSP Australia Pty Limited and Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd, pp.122-123. Available at: [Accessed 2 Sep. 2018].
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Rodriguez, J., Pellegrini, P., Marlière, G., Hu, S. and Richard, S.S., 2014. Improvement of real-time traffic management by using optimization tools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 160, pp.465-473.
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APPENDICESSITE INVESTIGATION REPORTSite Investigation Report of the Parramatta Light Rail Project
Requirements and Objectives of the Site Investigation ReportThe primary aims of the site investigation report were to test the safety of the rail system from different perspectives including:
Test the strength of the soils and embankments.
Testing for the general safety of the rail system.
Geotechnical Assessment
Field and laboratory testing detailsThe location of the site was in Westmead railway station Carlingford, where the first stage is found and in the Sydney Olympic Park where the stage 2 of the network exists. The local topography is typical of the Sydney with high-quality open spaces and coastal climate and with soft clay deposits that are alternating with sandstone soils.
Soil propertiesThe several sampling and investigation programs carried out in the region were determined using the Nordic weight penetration tests and CPTU soundings. The clay layer grows gradually thicker as it moves towards the river. However, the thicknesses and properties of the soil vary slightly in the area. The general properties of the soil and sounding results are shown in table 1 And Figure 2.

Table 1. General characteristics of the soil. The Su values were reduced based on Finnish guides on the liquid limit.
The soft clay fraction lies between 40% and 70%, with the most substantial layer being in the middle. At the instance of the experimentation, the hydrostatic groundwater level was approximately +7m.

Figure 1. Vane shear test and Nordic Weigh penetration test.
Embankment testsThis experiment was done over a 2-day period. The loading of the embankment started at 1700 hrs. Moreover, the loading stopped at night at 24 kPa in the middle and 21 kPa in the outer regions. The Transverse movement of the embankment was measured using the total stations, and the pore water pressure was seen to have increased over the night. The process was then continued in the early hours of the morning where the loading was reasonably increased at a constant rate of 5-7 kPa/h. The pore water pressures and displacements were measured. At 1740 hrs., it was decided that the loading should be increased and this was done to ensure failure due to an exceedance of the ultimate capacity of the embankment.
The first visual failures were tilting of the embankment a few minutes before the failure process began. At failure, the first, second, and third weights sunk and fell on the side of the embankment. The failure was characterized by the downward displacement of the embankment and the upward movement of the soil between the embankment towards the ditch as clearly shown in figure 2.
1428752540Figure 2 the failure of the embankment.
The general state of the failure was evident from visual perceptions. The surface of the slip started just behind the sleepers and finished on the base of the ditch. The longitudinal degrees of the slip surface could be approximated from corner to corner breaks at first glance. The failure system comprised of two distinct parts: the embankment had moved down while different parts had climbed to the side. The dirt had split at the dike toe, where the two soil masses had probably moved in inverse ways vertically. Most significant displacements were seen amidst the territory.
Site plan
Figure 3. the Parramatta project site plan (FitzGerald, 2014, N.p)
Analysis of Test ResultsThe failure extents could be determined by measuring points of the slip surface tubes. It can thus be postulated that if the measuring point had not moved during the experimentation process, it was probably out of the zone of failure. It was observed that the high pore water pressure under the embankment toe was due to kinematic properties of the mechanisms of failure and it increases with increase in loading (Hopkins, 1986, 3). This was inclusive of the embankment and the parts away from the embankment. The initial failure had a width of 50m with a gradual movement from center to the edges.
From the experiment, it was evident that pore pressure and displacements depended on time due to the elevated rates of loading. The failure occurred a few hours after the loading ended and displacement gradients were larges just before the collapse. It was also vivid that the failure was dependent on the characteristics of the soil, time elapsed, and the rate and degree of loading (Lehtonen, 2011, 55).
Recommendations and ConclusionsFor practice, the safety factors should be calculated based on the soil’s maximum shear strengths for a unit load. For instance, for an embankment that is quickly loaded, the coefficient of safety will as well reduce until the ultimate pore water pressure is attained. Therefore, the time-dependency factor should be engaged into attention in the design processes.
Questionnaire Interviews258127533337600220980050801. What are your full names
2. How old are you? Please state Yrs.
5191125381003648075355603.what is your gender? Please select. Male Female
4057650381005381625298454. Are you an inhabitant of Sydney? Yes No
4486275571505381625571505. Do you think the current management systems work? Yes No
5381625571504486275476256. Do you think you know much about the project? Yes No
781050276225007. Please state the motives for your answer above.
78105034607400How do you think you can contribute to the general safety of the system?
This section is for the workers of the rail project only
69532524892000What other management measures should be put in place to mitigate accidents?
71437523368000Do you think the engineering tests have been sufficiently conducted? Why?
71437520383500How can you generally contribute to the project?
Interview QuestionsWhat do you know about the project?
Do you think the project will succeed? Why?
How do you think the management is right now?
How can you contribute to the safety of the project?
Do you think that the information about the project should be taught to the public?
Which is the best way you see fit to disseminate the information on the safety of the project to the public?
Thesis Writing PlanBefore Writing
Collect data from different sources
Compare and contrast before deciding what to use in the writing process.
After that, organize, reflect, sort, and categorize them according to their use and where they will be used.
For storing data that are in hardcopy format, use filing system and always keep them in a safe place.
Data in softcopy format are saved in the hard drive of the computer with backup from online servers.
My backup strategy is that I will always have a copy of my original data and save its online servers for safety and security.
I will be willing to devote at least 2 hours a day to writing and the number can be increased to 3 on weekends. They are summarized in the following table:
Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Number of writing hours 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
‘A’ Time- I can work with the most concentration at 5-6 AM in the morning and therefore the critical works will be done within this period of time. For instance, research and analysis of data and information can be done within this time period.
‘B’ Time- for less stringent works that require just typing and involves less critical thoughts, I would do it in the evenings before going to bed. This can be in the period of 8-9 PM.
Document Outline
This is how the essay will be outlined and organized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc524432009 h vAcknowledgment PAGEREF _Toc524432010 h viList of abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc524432011 h viiList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc524432012 h viiiList of Figures PAGEREF _Toc524432013 h ixAppendices PAGEREF _Toc524432014 h ixTABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc524432015 h x1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc524432016 h 11.1Historical Background PAGEREF _Toc524432017 h 11.2Objectives and Precincts of the Study PAGEREF _Toc524432018 h 41.2.1Objectives PAGEREF _Toc524432019 h 41.3Limitations of the study PAGEREF _Toc524432020 h 41.4Hypothesis set to achieve the objectives PAGEREF _Toc524432021 h 42LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc524432022 h 72.1Aims and objectives PAGEREF _Toc524432023 h 72.2Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc524432024 h 72.2.1Aims in rail control system PAGEREF _Toc524432025 h 102.2.2Models Used in Rail Traffic Management PAGEREF _Toc524432026 h 113MATERIAL AND METHOD PAGEREF _Toc524432027 h 133.1Description of The Study Area PAGEREF _Toc524432028 h 133.2Collection of secondary data PAGEREF _Toc524432029 h 133.2.1official document and literature survey PAGEREF _Toc524432030 h 133.2.2Expert Discussion and Suggestions PAGEREF _Toc524432031 h 133.3Primary data collection PAGEREF _Toc524432032 h 143.3.1Selection of Samples and Sites PAGEREF _Toc524432033 h 143.3.2Number of samples selected PAGEREF _Toc524432034 h 143.3.3Materials used during the sample collection PAGEREF _Toc524432035 h 144RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc524432036 h 234.1RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc524432037 h 234.1.1Soil and embankment investigation PAGEREF _Toc524432038 h 234.1.2Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc524432039 h 234.1.3Computer Model Tests and Simulations PAGEREF _Toc524432040 h 254.2DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc524432041 h 264.2.1Analysis and Discussions of Data PAGEREF _Toc524432042 h 265CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc524432043 h 345.1Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc524432044 h 345.2Recommendations for future PAGEREF _Toc524432045 h 356References PAGEREF _Toc524432046 h 377APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc524432047 h 417.1SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT PAGEREF _Toc524432048 h 417.1.1Requirements and Objectives of the Site Investigation Report PAGEREF _Toc524432049 h 417.1.2Field and laboratory testing details PAGEREF _Toc524432050 h 417.1.3Soil properties PAGEREF _Toc524432051 h 417.1.4Embankment tests PAGEREF _Toc524432052 h 437.2Site plan PAGEREF _Toc524432053 h 457.2.1Analysis of Test Results PAGEREF _Toc524432054 h 457.2.2Recommendations and Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc524432055 h 467.3Questionnaire Interviews PAGEREF _Toc524432056 h 467.4Interview Questions PAGEREF _Toc524432057 h 47
Report Outlines
Historical background
this section will tend to date the events of the project and will derive the processes that led to the project in a chronological order.
Objectives and precints of the study
This section will explain what the study was trying to deliver
Limitations of the study
Will entail the limitations that are present in the study
Hypothesis set to achieve objectives
Explains the initial thoughts of the outcomes of the project
Literature Review
Aims and objectives
This section will delve into the objectives of the literature review
Aims in rail control system
Will entail the primary aims according to prior research.
Models used in rail traffic management
This section will go into the details of the different types of models used in rail traffic management
Materials and Method
Description of the study area
Describes the area under investigation in terms of geographical and geologic information.
Collection of secondary data
Will entail the naming of those who aided in the data collection and analysis process.
Official document and literature survey
-This will tend to explain the sources of data that were used in the study.
Expert discussion and suggestions
-Tells about individuals who aided in the study process.
Primary data collection
Explains the primary methods of collection information from the site of study.
Selection of samples and sites
-This will explain how the samples and site of investigation were selected for analysis.
Number of samples selected
-Entails the description of number of samples and how the number was arrived at.
Materials used during the sample collection
-Will entail detailed description of the materials used in the study.
Results and Discussion
Description of results obtained from the data collection methods.
Soil embankment Investigation
-Describes the data obtained from field and soil investigation.
Questionnaires and interviews
-Displays results for the questionnaires and interviews
Computer Model Tests and Simulations
Explains the results from the simulation and models.
Analysis and discussion of data
Incorporates the detailed analysis of data obtained and described in the results section to make meaningful information and conclusions from it. They include data from soil investigation, interviews and questionnaire, and models and simulation.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Concludes the whole research and summarizes the critical information from the research process.
Recommendations for future
Points out things that I have noticed throughout the study that could be helpful to other researchers willing to undertake future studies.
Gives credits and dues to the sources of information for the study.
Gives extra information that are helpful to the reader of the paper.
Using Writing Plans
Sections/subsections length Pace (pages per day) Time (days)
Including editing Deadline
Abstract and intro 5 2 2.5 Literature review 5 2 2.5 Material and method 2 2 1 Results and discussions 4 2 2 Conclusions and recommendations 2 2 1 Appendices + References 11 2 5.5 Conclusions
-Time management is one of the most critical factors in any study.
-Going with the writing plan is very critical and important to the on-time completion of the thesis.
-Readjustments can be done whenever a need arises.

All Examples

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