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Research revised

Category: Business

Subcategory: Communication

Level: University

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

The Difference in Communication Styles between Men and Women
Name
Institution Affiliation
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract3Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Background4Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
Assumptions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
Literature Review7Characteristics of Male and Female Communication7Communication Styles and Workplaces7Communication Influence on Power-role Influences8Management and Leadership9Variations in Communication Indicators9Psychology and Impact on Gender Communication10Critique and Analysis11Gaps and Issues Unresolved by the Literature11Research Methodology12Sample12Research Approach……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
Study Design14Procedure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Credibility……………………………………………………………………………………………………..17
Materials17Questionnaire Form18Findings21Thematic Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..22
Validity and Reliability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..24
Ethics25Significance26Limitation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..28
References30Appendix 1: S.A University Student Population33Appendix 2: Staff Numbers in S.A Universities and Campuses33
AbstractIn this research proposal, I explored the sections relevant to fulfilling the study. It incorporated the Literature Review, the Methodology, Ethics and Significance to explain the dissimilarities regarding the communication styles between men and women. Understanding these differences works to the advantage of corporations as well as the employees. It is easier to hire female employers in a caregiving institution due to their association with nurture. Without having an in-depth understanding of communication styles about of gender, there may be expected loopholes. Using undergraduate participants from universities in and around Cape Town, this research will offer enlightenment about communication-correctness of gender in the workplace.
Each gender has a particular purpose in the workplace; and therefore, the creation of balance (by including both genders) is preferable. The use of Questionnaires and Interview Schedules, as research models, impacted the feasibility of this research study. Thus, this research sought to discuss the communication styles of male and female staff in workplaces with a particular emphasis on Cape Town as the study area. However, across geographic boundaries, men and women communication is similar. Men send status signals through dominant conducts like shaking the head, expressing dissatisfaction, and disgust. Masculine behaviour extends to standing tall and sprawling or spreading things on the conference table. Women are organized, attentive, and appreciative. The findings of the study showed that men and women are motivated by different factors when communicating, which makes their communication styles different. Men are motivated by the desire to lead while women are motivated by emotions.
Introduction
Background and Awareness
In the workplace, men and women can equal in many ways including their educational background, expertise, experiences, and position. Despite the similarities and equalities, there is one critical area that men and women differ: communication. There are stereotypes that have defined how men and women communicate for years. One of these stereotypes states that women are more talkative in the workplace and tend to react with emotions, whereas men are more relaxed and sober when interacting with colleagues (Thiederman, 2016). The only way to find out if these stereotypes are accurate is by exploring the behaviours of both genders in the workplace. Ideally, the differences in the styles of communication can result in misunderstandings and conflict between female and male employees. Thus, it is important to understand how different people react to information and how they relay it.
Men and women differ in nature, and these variations play out in corporate communications. Male employees take pride in authority and status while women are happy with reputation and reception. Sources note that male style is direct and tough while women seek sympathy and offer empathy (Goman, 2016). The study of communication style will help inform leadership and management in contemporary organizations and workplaces.
Variations in communication styles define how genders communicate, and the implications of such conveyances in corporate communications. The findings of this research discuss the difference in men and women communication styles and how they play out in organizational contexts. The study looked at literature like journals and scholarly articles to establish the views of experts regarding gender communication styles. Of special concern for the paper was to collect data through instruments like questionnaire and interviews distributed to respondents in a University set-up. The returned questionnaires and interview findings established thematic differences in communication styles in two genders; men and women.
Problem Statement
The style employed by men and women is different in nearly everything, including communication. Ideally, women tend to be more emotional and talkative while men are not usually open to their emotions. There are many differences that exist between the spoken language of males and females, as well as body language (Lieberman, 2016). In fact, non-verbal cues are often difficult to notice, which makes it hard to identify these differences. Because the different styles of communication are influenced by environment, circumstances, and relationships, it is important to learn why different genders communicate differently because it affects several areas of a person’s life.
Essentially, communication is the means through which individuals spread and share emotions, ideas, and information. It is a universal concept that is important in all aspects of life. The question, however, is how different genders treat it differently. John Gray, the author of “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus,” had an opinion on why there is a difference between how men and women communicate. He said that “Men generally communicate to transmit information and solve specific problems, while women usually communicate to express feelings and achieve emotional intimacy” (Gray, 1993, p.247). This, among other opinions, has, thus, tried to explain why men and women communicate differently.
Studies have been carried out to explain the difference between men and women in communication and why they differ. However, the findings of most of these studies are not conclusive enough because they do not explore the different styles of communication that differentiates men from women. Therefore, in this study, the different communication styles used by men and women in the workplace were explored to understand why they communicate differently. Emphasis was laid on the characteristic differences between men and women, the different styles they use to communicate, and how the character and style differences influence the power role between men and women. To achieve this, the managerial and leadership skills of females and males were explored as well as the variations in communication indicators between them.
Assumptions
There are two major assumptions concerning different styles of communications between men and women. These assumptions are based on two factors namely leadership and emotional intelligence:
Leadership- men are more aggressive in the way they communicate. They send status signals through dominant conducts like shaking the head, expressing dissatisfaction, and disgust (Maltz & Borker, 1982). In contrast, women are more organized, attentive, and appreciative.
Emotional intelligence- women are more talkative and use communication to express their emotions while men are more conserved and are not usually open to their emotions.
Literature ReviewLiterature Items SummaryWhat are the differences in Characteristics of Male and Female Communication?
The Forbes publication examines communication and interactions supported by gender. The top three communication strengths for females are; empathy, good listening, and the ability to interpret body language (Maltz & Borker, 1982). Men feature strengths in commanding physical presence, showing power and conversations that are direct to the point. Because men prefer to communicate by giving orders, there is likely to be a conflict due to a breakdown in their interaction. However, this conflict may be minimized because women are culturally conditioned to maintain harmony in relationships. The commanding nature of men means they tend to be more aggressive and direct in their statements while women are softer in their statements and demands. They are individually oriented (Merchant, 2012; Theiderman, 2016; Tannen, 2001). Moreover, the top weakness for women is that they are overly emotional, not authoritative, and meandering. The latter is the inability to go straight to the point through direct, clear and succinct information (Maltz & Borker, 1982). Men exemplify such weaknesses as overconfidence in their opinions; they are insensitive to audiences and overly direct or blunt.
What are the differences in Communication Styles and Workplaces between male and female communication?
Workplace communication displays unfold in real-life management and supervisory roles where managers interact with corporate staffs. According to Tannen (1994), organizations have diverse taskforces that attract conflicting outlooks to gender and gender lines. The ability to connect with colleagues determines whether a person can communicate effectively. In contemporary workplaces, people assess others for two types of qualities; authority and warmth. Warmth captures likability, empathy and caring while authority is characterized by status, credibility, and power. It is further stated that women excel in platforms that require collaboration, body language, and reading visual communication like group works and team projects. Men excel in positions that test the ability to make decisions and are thought to be better at monologues (Andrews, 2013). Women are better in corporate dialogues that prompt the development of positive interactions and associations within the workplace. Based on the assessment by Naaman, Boase & Lai (2010), women connect with colleagues through emotional conversations, while men connect through their actions. Women always want to share their emotions whenever they want to talk as opposed to men who always want to share their suggestions and ideas- they often avoid talking about or expressing their feelings in conversations. These communication styles, therefore, explain why women and men communicate differently.
What is Communication Influence on Power-role Influences between male and female communication?
The approach of executing mandates and ordering differs across gender. A respected body of research shows the approach of women as soft, sympathetic, and giving ‘alternatives’ as opposed to men communication that is direct and commanding (Theiderman, 2016). Where possible, men will enforce power and authority in subtle ways and conceal disappointment and emotional imbalances. Women raise voice with the level of stress, and the external stimuli exemplify in the way they convey information. Another area of comparison is an inquiry and asking questions. Corporate environments feature teams and groups working on common projects and scheduled tasks. Women are seen to ask more questions and clarifications for two primary reasons; information and relationship (Alberts, Nakayama & Martin, 2015). Men will inquire to gather information solely. In this case, therefore, the literature supports that women are likely to ask questions they have answers to develop relationships or to show corporation with respondents and other players.
Are there differences between male and female Management and Leadership?
Another major body of research shows that men are task-oriented managers and leaders while women are relationship-oriented. Task-centred leaders are controlling, direct and autocratic and will build relationships around the completion of tasks. Men communication will set work standards to meet production goals and fulfil supervisory roles. The take-charge characterizations found in many parts of male communication and will affect relationships in the workplace (Goman, 2016). Women, on the other hand, will leverage democratic and relationship-oriented measures to meet goals and operational objectives. Their approach to communication is to show empathy and to offer consolation and guidance to staff and workforce. Female leaders allude to care-taking due to the influence of their stereotypical roles as domestic caretakers of husbands and children (Mandell & Pherwani, 2013). In the process, women develop more inter-personal relationships through associations, understanding feelings and emotions, and being careful not to overstep.
What are the Variations in Communication Indicators between male and female communication?
The variations in communication styles of genders are discussed by a growing body of literature and grouped in key thematic areas. For example, the take-care relationships by women are feminine and defined by networking, consulting, inspiring, rewarding, and mentoring. Other aspects may include supporting, consoling, and team-building. Masculine communication and approaches to management will include; problem-solving, delegating and influencing upwards (Merchant, 2012). Under delegating, men will offer roles to juniors and challenge them to act better through daunting tasks and projects. Problem-solving involves analyzing obstacles to ideal performance and productivity. Finally, men communication influences top positions and can challenge top execs and managers. As a result, men are viewed as ruthless but strategic as opposed to their female counterparts who are people-friendly and sensitive to situations and individuals (Goman, 2016).
What are the Psychological differences and Impact on Gender Communication?
The literature goes ahead to outline the gender differences based on psychological research. Women staff members exemplify affection, appreciation, emotion, and friendliness. Under critical situations, there is the portrayal of warmth, mildness, and sensitivity. Men display traits like aggression, ambition, self-confidence, and rationality (Burleson, 2013). They can be tough and achievement-oriented depending on the situation and the nature of the underlying needs. Other masculine traits with implications for communication styles include; toughness, coarseness, and action (Lumangas, 2008). Such traits continue to influence information transfer and regular conveyances in professions.
Critique and Analysis
Communication in the workplace is important for any company. It dictates the kind of work environment in an organization (Tannen, 1994). However, different genders have different styles of communication, which in most cases lead to a conflict within the work environment. These styles of communication may differ because of personality differences, or because of how the organization is set. According to previous studies, it is true that men and women’s style of communication differs. Men are considered assertive and leadership-oriented while women are known to form relationships and express their emotions while communicating (Thiederman, 2016). Women may have a problem with the assertive nature of men; leading to a conflict in the workplace. Even so, this difference is healthy for the overall outcome of an organization. If the two parties understand the communication styles of their colleagues, there may exist harmony within the workplace, creating an environment of trust and loyalty.
However, the challenge is that differences in communication styles can impact relationships and interactions in workplace environments. There is a need to establish clear lines of information transfer is to create coherent organizations that support cross-gender communications and empower leaders to be neutral in managing relationships. The three weaknesses of men addressed as overconfident in own opinion, insensitivity, and bluntness can potentially taint the execution of roles and duties particularly supervisory roles. On the other hand, the feminine approach to communication can be taken for granted when they become supportive and collaborative.
Gaps and Issues Unresolved by the Literature
The outstanding gaps that research failed to address regard to merging cultures in the realization of mutual outcomes. As organizations become global and issues of sex take precedence in workplaces, the need for corporate communication is necessary for successfully operating entities in public and the private sectors. Based on my own findings, previous studies simply focused on why there are differences in communication styles between men and women in the workplace. They do not address critical issues that may arise as a result of poor communication such as cross-gender interactions, reducing chauvinism to empower women and create inclusive, supporting programs (Zeytinoglu et al., 2004). Because of the different adjustments within the working environment in organizations, addressing these issues when talking about communication styles is important for improving the general outcome of organizations.
Another important issue studies fail to address is how managers can be developed to address the needs of genders. Psychology and human sciences should establish clear links between the psychological pressures and implications of gender communication. Further, conditions beyond personal intervention and influence are paramount when judging corporate communication under the realm of gender. A clear understanding of underlying gaps will inform decision-making on where to appoint women as execs and what to look for when selecting candidates for job placements.
Research Methodology
Sample
The sample population was undergraduate students of Cape Town Helderberg consisting of ten females and fifteen male students from a total of 22,298 student population in the entire university. Convenience sampling (a non-probability sampling) was used to select the participants. The students had an equal chance of being selected, and no criterion for selection was specified. Moreover, the study only focused on students, no teacher or staff members was selected. The sample was representational as it encompassed respondents from two genders. The questions were not limited to the behaviour of individual respondents but also to those displayed by members of the teaching and support staff. The objective was to capture the opinions and attitudes of respondents on the defining characteristics of men and women from a communication viewpoint. The chosen sample was also accessible and convenient based on the location of the researcher.
Research Approach
The study employed qualitative methods to extract data from the students. Particularly, the study used semi-structured questionnaires and interviews to obtain the perspectives and responses of the students on the different communication styles they use. The male students offered information on how best they find communication, conversations, and overall approach to situations. Female students answered what they prefer saying, style of passing information, and body language. This approach was more effective because this is a descriptive study. It tries to understand why different genders behave or communicate in the manner they do. In this regard, individual insights are relevant to explain the different communication styles. Questionnaires and interviews provided the participants with the opportunities to give their own accounts and insights. These responses provided data for analysis. Furthermore, a cross-sectional study was employed to extract data from previous relevant studies. A search was conducted using the keywords: the difference in characteristics between men and women’s styles of communication, difference in communication styles between men and women in the workplace, communication influence on power-role between male and female communication, difference between male and female management and leadership communication styles, variations in communication indicators between men and women, and psychological differences and impacts on gender communication.
Study Design
Cross-sectional studies offer the opportunity to gather findings from multiple scholarly sources on the communication approach at the workplace. Psychological research on gender differences, attitudes and emotions support findings which underscore the communication gaps between male and females. For instance, sources observe that men build relationships as groups while respecting power-role relations. There can, however, be one-on-one conversations between friends (DeFrancisco and Palczewski, 2013). The disparate characterizations continue to manifest throughout the development cycle of the person. Corporate workplaces look forward to understanding the attitudes of gender towards communication and the underlying issues.
This is a cross-sectional study. It tries to explore what other authors have discovered and discussed and compared them with the responses of the students surveyed. The cross-sectional design is a model that helped discuss the findings of multiple scholarly sources and identify disparities in the communication styles of forms of both genders [male and female]. The unit of analysis was the responses of the participants and the findings from studying different sources. The most common themes were identified from the responses and study findings, coded and analyzed to come up with a conclusion regarding the topic. As mentioned above, the selection of sources to be studied were done through search engines, using the keywords listed above. However, for the study, convenience sampling was employed to select the participants. Because the school population is large, participants were selected based on how easy they were to select. For instance, the first students I met were selected to represent the entire population. Particularly, a total of 20 students (ten females and 10 males) were selected to take part in the study. A questionnaire was administered to each participant with questions exploring the difference in communication styles between men and women. Interviews were also carried out and the responses recorded for analysis.
Data Collection Procedure
Collection of data was executed through the use of questionnaires and interview schedules. Qualitatively, the research was open to collecting data from both primary and secondary materials for critical analysis. With the questionnaires and interview schedules as primary sources, the research stretched to incorporate secondary sources; involving literature such as scholarly articles, publications, and books. To analyze the data, qualitative models [questionnaires and interviews] were used for proper, accurate and effective responses. When the responses are organized in accordance with the questions, it is easy for the data to be analyzed. In other words, the questionnaires had questions for the participants to respond to. Each participant was required to give their personal accounts regarding the questions asked. The questions mainly sought to explore their styles of communication, how these styles differ from gender to gender, and why they have different styles of communication. The responses were then presented for analysis.
Data Analysis
As the research relies on qualitative analysis, it is obvious that it utilizes inductive reasoning to compile and analyze the data. This is realized through a thematic analysis of the responses. For this research, first-hand information, due to the use of questionnaires and interviews, was acquired. It is easier, for instance, to understand the reasons that cause some women to exhibit heartlessness in their communication; regardless of the nurturing characteristics attributed to the gender. With the questionnaires and interview, it may be learned that a woman who lost her child/children is more susceptible to developing cold forms of communication. In fact, the participants are often advised to avoid such sensitive topics during research. Similarly, for example, while interviewing a family; the researcher may learn that the husband has served in the army for numerous years. In effect, therefore, there are inevitabilities when it comes to associating this man with leadership and strong characteristics in his communication techniques (Merchant, 2012; Theiderman, 2016; Tannen, 2001). All the questions detailed in the questionnaires and posed during the interview created an avenue for acquiring substantial information for data analysis. Questionnaires and interviews; as qualitative research models, offer organized and factual information that makes it much easier to analyze the data.
Essentially, a thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Because questionnaires provide a multiplicity of responses, common themes were identified from the responses. These themes were coded using the open and axial coding. The process was as follows:
Theme Identification- First, distinct categories and concepts in the responses provided formed the basic units for the study analysis. In short, distinct concepts or themes were highlighted, broken down and headings used to distinguish the most common themes. The themes highlighted in the responses were sympathy, emotions, facial contact, humor, direct communication, indirect communication and leadership for different factors that characterized female and male communication styles, and tone, emotional intelligence, clarity, subtlety, information completeness, and non-verbal communication for factors that influence these different styles.
Coding- these themes were then re-read to confirm the accuracy presented in the responses. An exploration of how they are related was then done by understanding the conditions that influenced the concepts or themes, the social context, or the associated effects. During the process, the most common or repetitive themes were identified and highlighted. For instance, for women, emotions and emotional intelligence were the most common themes while, for men, leadership and information completeness were the most common themes that influenced their style of communication.
Credibility, Trustworthiness, and Reflexivity
Credibility is the most important criterion for establishing trustworthiness (Cope, 2014). In this research, I established credibility and trustworthiness by linking the research findings to reality to determine the accuracy of the findings. One method I used for this study is triangulation. I utilized different methods to collect data. First, I used questionnaires and interviews to gather the accounts and responses of participants. Second, I explored both secondary and primary sources to identify findings that are relevant to the current research. Because communication is an essential part of our activities today, the multiple sources provide a broader understanding of the subject studied. It provides robust, comprehensive and rich findings. Therefore, the results of the study can be considered credible, trustworthy and reflexive.
Materials
Questionnaire forms and interview schedules rely on informed consent to gather findings from individual respondents and groups. This research makes the data collection instruments with focused questions to identify particular differences between female and male workers in corporate platforms. The following section of the research outlines two research instruments; questionnaire forms and interview schedules to be submitted to undergraduate students in Cape Town, Helderberg region. The questionnaires will be collected after a specific period of one week and findings evaluated through analysis.Questionnaire FormWhat do you find strange on how female corporate employees communicate?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What are the communication misunderstandings with female scholars?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What would you like to change how female students communicate and exchange information? Tick where appropriate.
To stop being personal
To keep feelings and emotions aside
To be direct and succinct
To reduce empathy
Any other
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What do you think are the major differences regarding communication between men and women?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What improvement areas in communication styles would you advise female students to work on?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Rank Male and Females Students in the following Areas that Influence Communication and Distinct Characteristics of Styles of Communication.
Rating
[1-10] Sympathy Emotions Facial contact Humor Communication
[Direct/indirect] Leadership
Male Female Rating
[1-10] Emotional Intelligence Tone Clarity Subtlety Non-verbal Communication Information completeness
Men Women Interview SchedulesAre male employees in S.A universities and campuses better communicators than their female counterparts?
What are the significant differences in the communication styles of both genders in South Africa’s higher learning institutions?
What drives the communication of female corporate staff in South Africa’s universities?
What influences the communication needs of male S.A University corporate staff?
Need
Superiority
Task-relationships
Feelings
None of the above
Is it true that male corporate workers build relationships based on power and hierarchy while women seek social circles for support and emotional needs? Kindly explain.
What stands out in the communication styles of women working in South Africa Universities?
Name any outstanding factors in the communication of male campus staff.
Findings
Rank Male and Females Students in the following Areas that Influence Communication and Distinct Characteristics of Styles of Communication.
Rating
[1-10] Sympathy Emotions Facial contact Humor Communication
[Direct/indirect] Leadership
Male 2 4 6 7 8 10
Female 10 10 6 4 2 1
Rating
[1-10] Emotional Intelligence Tone Clarity Subtlety Non-verbal Communication Information completeness
Men 2 3 4 5 7 8
Women 8 7 5 4 3 2
Interview/Questionnaire Schedules
Questions Common Response
Are male employees in S.A universities and campuses better communicators than their female counterparts? Yes
What are the major differences in the communication styles of both genders in South Africa’s higher learning institutions? Men are motivated by a desire to lead, and women are emotional.
What drives the communication of female corporate staff in South Africa’s universities?
Emotion
What influences the communication needs of male S.A University corporate staff? Leadership
Is it true that male corporate workers build relationships based on power and hierarchy while women seek social circles for support and emotional needs? Kindly explain. Yes
What stands out in the communication styles of women working in South Africa Universities? Emotional intelligence
Name any outstanding factors in the communication of male campus staff. Information completeness
Thematic Analysis
Thematic analysis mainly focuses on common themes. The responses from the questionnaires and interviews were read and highlighted to identify the most common themes. The analysis entailed two processes:
Theme Identification
In the first table, the participants were asked to rate the main influencers of their communication. There was a multiplicity of responses. In other words, multiple themes were identified. For instance, when asked to identify what influences their communication styles, women identified sympathy, emotions, and facial contact as the major influencers. However, most women identified emotions. On the other hand, men identified direct and indirect communication, humor and leadership: leadership was the most common theme. Moreover, when asked to identify what makes their styles different, the majority of women identified their emotional intelligence and tone as the major factors while the majority of men identified their information completeness. In this regard, emotional intelligence was the most common theme among women while information completeness was the common theme among men.
Coding
Because of a multiplicity of the responses, open coding was carried out to identify the most common themes. In the findings, in identifying what influences their communication styles, the most common themes for women were sympathy, emotions, and facial contact. Men, on the other hand, identified leadership and direct communication. However, after carrying out an axial coding by identifying the dominant themes, men were found to be influenced by leadership, particularly the desire to lead, while women were found to be influenced by their emotions.
Similarly, when identifying the differences between the communication styles of men and women, open coding identified emotional intelligence, tone, and clarity among women. For men, information completeness, non-verbal communication such as listening and subtleness were identified. Axial coding established that men are complete and direct in their communication while women are emotionally intelligent while communicating. In essence, the two differ in the way they communicate because of these factors. For women, emotions drive their style and form of communication. They will try to form relationships at work to influence their communication. In most cases, they are express their feelings while communicating and have high tone. On the other hand, men are authoritative. They are influenced by the desire to lead. While communicating, they give instructions and commands and communicate directly what they want and how they want it (Merchant, 2012). Therefore, in the workplace, the two genders have different ways of communicating, and these are influenced by different factors.
Previous Studies
Comparing the findings from the responses and the findings from previous studies, there is a similarity in the conclusions. For instance, studies by Merchant (2012); Theiderman (2016); and Tannen (2001) demonstrate how different the communication styles between men and women are. Men are more commanding while women are softer. The commanding nature of men means they tend to be more aggressive and direct in their statements while women are softer in their statements and demands. Chan (2017) agrees that these differences usually lead to a conflict in the workplace. However, this conflict may be minimized because women are culturally conditioned to maintain harmony in relationships. Mostly, the findings are similar. The fact that previous studies find that men are more commanding is the same as saying there are motivated by the desire to lead. This shows that men always try to demonstrate their superiority in the workplace by giving commands, whereas women are soft and less aggressive in their style. Therefore, the different styles portrayed by men and women are influenced by different factors, as discussed above.
Validity and Reliability
Validity is the ability of the measurement instruments to measure the intended phenomena. The question to be asked is whether the method of investigation provides answers to the research questions using the appropriate methods. For this study, questionnaires were used to investigate the research questions. The questions to be answered were whether there is a difference in communication styles between men and women in the workplace and what influence them to have different styles of communication. The questionnaires explored the personal accounts of the participants. Because this is a social research investigating behaviors of the participants, the use of questionnaires validated in the study.
Reliability, on the other hand, focuses on the instrument used to investigate. It determines whether the instrument creates reproducible results. Questionnaires can only be reliable if the answers obtained repeat themselves. In the responses of the participants, the majority of female agreed that emotions motivate their communication style while a majority of males agreed that the desire to lead influence their communication styles. Because the responses repeated themselves, the instrument was reliable.
Ethical Considerations
In research, ethics are issues that often crop up while attempting to decipher the correct way of executing research and disseminating its respective results. There are ethical issues such as confidentiality and anonymity that should be explored while participating in research. For instance; if participants share their familial issues in confidence, ethics requires that the researcher maintains confidentiality (Reynolds, 1981). It is, in fact, a way of creating rapport and gaining the trust of these participants. While other research participants may desire to be recognized as part of the study’s success, others would prefer to be identified under pseudonyms or aliases. The needs of these research participants should be respected since they are the major instigator of this study. To address these ethical concerns, I sent consent forms to participants. The letter of consent included the Title of Study, Purpose of Study, Research Procedures, Time Required, Risks, Benefits, Confidentiality, Questions about the Study, Questions about Rights as a Research Subject and Giving of Consent. The forms were collected within a week’s time. Thus, the participants provided informed consent to participate in the study.
Since the research focused specifically on The University of Cape Town, it was necessary to decipher the institution’s Ethical Code and vow to follow it to the letter. Ethically, the researcher should explain the study purpose and objectives to its participants. Since the latter offer personal and crucial information, it is only fair to return the favour by acting in accordance with research ethics. Also, since research participation is voluntary, ethics requires researchers to inform the participants about the freedom to withdraw from the course, at their pace. Therefore, I ensured participation was voluntary and the age-limit of eighteen years was strictly adhered to. Even though the selection was random, only students with eighteen years of age and above were allowed to participate. No student was forced to participate. Hence, it adhered to the ethical standards of social science research.
Significance of study
The importance of this study is to decipher the differences in communication between male and female individuals. It achieves this by allowing people to understand the different factors that influence communication styles between men and women. For instance, the study found that women are mainly influenced by emotions and men are influenced by the desire to lead. This information helps people understand the different behaviours portrayed in the workplace to avoid conflicts that exist because of the misunderstanding between different forms of communication.
Often, in different sectors of life, there is a representation of gender. The research, using substantial information, will attempt to prove that the two genders do not disseminate information similarly. While the former employs dominance, aggression, and authority, the latter strive to utilize mellowness, care, and appreciation while addressing individuals in the workplace. Taken directly from the household, it is evident that women are born and made to exhibit characteristics of nurture. It is easier for them to reason with other parties while communicating about a particular topic. Their aim, unlike men, is not to achieve victory; rather ensure that the other party is educated and enlightened. With an understanding of the varied forms of communication between the genders [male and female], it is easier for employers to recruit their members. For instance; most men, due to their authoritative nature, are fit to take up leadership roles in a given organization (Merchant, 2012; Theiderman, 2016; Tannen, 2001).
In an institution like The University of Cape Town, the nursing and hospitality department is bound to have more female than male workers due to the former’s affiliation with nurture [and care]. With these differences, it is possible for an organization to create a balance by hiring both men and women. Even if the authoritative nature of men has a significant impact on an organization’s success, women staff members are required to handle other parts of the enterprise. When it comes to communicating about long-term plans, it is easier to deal with female workers; because of male ones, only often work toward achieving short-term goals (Merchant, 2012; Theiderman, 2016). The study is also relevant in explaining the influences that communication employed by either men or women have in the workplace and propagation of successful organizations. Like the research participants, it is necessary for the researchers to understand the aims and objectives of their study. With such knowledge, it makes it easier for them to involve the research participants in the course.
Limitation of the Study
The major limitation of the study was the verification of the participants’ responses. Because they are personal accounts, it is hard to verify the accuracy of the responses. The questionnaire simply lists the questions to the participants and requires them to answer in their preferred way. Therefore, it might be hard to verify if the results were a clear and accurate representation of the relationship between men and women in the workplace in relation to the styles of communication.
Moreover, the population of the university is large. The study only focused on the responses of twenty students. It was, therefore, hard to conclude that the responses of the twenty students represented the accounts of the entire student population. The limitation was that the population studied was small as proportioned to the whole population of the university. Hence, when generalizing the findings of the study, it might be hard to convince the readers that the findings represent the opinions or perceptions of the whole student population. Thus, the study might suffer reliability issues once it is published.
Conclusion
Communication styles differ between men and women in the workplace. Considering the stereotypes that surround this topic, it is important to understand why these styles differ. From the study, these styles differ because men and women are motivated and influenced by different factors. Women are motivated by emotions in their communication and men are motivated by the desire to lead. In this regard, to avoid conflicts or misunderstandings in the workplace, it is important to understand what influenced the different genders in the communication to understand why the different employ styles. For instance, if a man is authoritative and gives commands when communication, it is vital to understand that they are motivated by their desire to lead.
Ideally, this is an important area of study. It helps in understanding the behaviours of employees within a work environment. This environment mainly involves an interaction between different personalities, which makes it ideal for understanding the general behaviors of human beings. For instance, personalities define how people approach communication. When there is a conflict between these personalities, there is likely to be a difference in communication styles, which then leads to conflict within the workplace. To fully understand the behavior of people using this area of research, future studies should focus on exploring how these factors influence communication instead of why. The findings of this study will add to the existing literature on the topic.
I recommend that workers within an organization understand that different genders differ in their styles of communication. Conflicts that arise as a result of the differences in communication create a work environment that is not favorable for the employees. This study found that men are more leadership-oriented with their communication and women are relationship-oriented. Based on these differences, the two parties should understand their differences and embrace their colleagues to avoid conflicts. Therefore, this study is important in educating employees and companies.

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AppendicesAppendix 1: S.A University Student Population
[Republic of South Africa, 2013]
Appendix 2: Staff Numbers in S.A Universities and Campuses
[AALTO Network, 2007]

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