The relation between the European union and Turkey with focus on the refugee crisis
The relation between the European Union and Turkey with a focus on the Refugee crisis.
Turkey has been one of the Main entrances for European migrants from the time the Cold War came to an end. Turkey had become the transit country for migrants during the 1990s (İçduygu 7). Most of the migrants opted to relocate to Turkey first before moving to the West. However, Turkey could not document the asylum seekers officially because there was no established method of doing so (İçduygu 8). This, in turn, affected their negotiations with the European Union.
There has been a strong relationship between the EU and Turkey. There has been a series of negotiations pertaining to the refugee crisis. The deals have been involving the EU and Turkey concerning the matter (Collett 12). However, even as the governments of the European countries focus on the implementation of the Turkey-EU agreements, observers have been raising questions about the legality of the deals (Collett 13). The agreement involved the 28 heads of states from the European countries. The deal is aimed at addressing the overwhelming movement of asylum seekers and smuggled migrants. These refugees usually travel to Turkey, across the Aegean all the way to the Greek Islands (Laitinen N.p). The agreement aims at allowing the Greek refugees to return to Turkey. In return, the European Union will facilitate the resettlement of Syrian refugees who reside in Turkey.
The leaders had set clear objectives to settle the matter. They wanted to find ways of prohibiting the unchecked arrivals into the EU. The deal has however faced paradox as the European Union has been championing for asylum standard that is too high when it comes to the nearby states. The agreement requires the reduction of arrivals and the rise in returns to Turkey. However, to achieve the self-imposed goal, the EU law would require being broken. Some of these rules are detention and the right to appeal. There will be no refugee movement in and out of Turkey if the government follows international standards when executing the EU agreements. In such circumstances, the EU-Turkey agreement will not have been achieved. Currently, the European Union law allows for the return of a refugee or anyone based on two primary circumstances. First, the law states those any individual who has not applied for asylum or does not qualify for one is an irregular migrant. Such people are allowed to return to Turkey upon readmission with Greece. Secondly, there are those people submitting the asylum claims, but they have traveled from a state which had offered them protection. This could either be a third or second country of asylum. Such people are eligible for returning because they cannot be admitted to the EU. But it is however questionable whether Turkey will meet the criteria for being a safe country to sign the deal.
Considering the current arrivals in Greece and protection status in Turkey, there is the probability of only a small proportion of return. The highest probability is that Turkey falls under ‘Safe Third’ country and might not provide the required protection for these refugees. The statistics indicate that over 57000 migrants arrived in Turkey in the year 2016 mainly from Greek islands. Out of this number of migrants, 525 were from Syria and 41% from Afghanistan and Iraq. The high three different populations incorporate the people with particular protection requirements. However, it is unclear whether Turkey has the capacity to offer special protection to these people. In reality, Turkey lacks protection capacity that meets the European Union Standards for the refugees, especially those requiring special protection. Therefore, in case all returns are legalized as per EU law as well as the 1951 Refugee Convention would lead to a small number of the population being returned. Currently, the protection regime is categorized into two. The first category comprises the Syrian nationals who are protected temporarily. These citizens have limited rights. They have regulated access to the labor market. The other category comprises the other nationals who have rights to international protection. These people are under the protection of Foreigners Law which was enacted in 2014. But the paradox here is that these laws are rarely implemented. According to the report on February 2016, out of the 200,000 Asylum seekers, those that received protection were only 38,595 (Geddes, and Peter N.p). Therefore, the scaling up and addressing this backlog will take some time. Currently, the Turkish system is struggling to meet other EU-Turkey deal like liberalization of Visa. However, according to the Turkish Government, the protection framework is sufficient.
According to the interviews done by UNHRC, almost half of those traveling to Turkey usually want to join their families that reside in Europe. The Dublin regulation suggests that people with family connections that are verified can comfortably travel to any EU member state for the purpose of completing asylum procedures instead of returning to Turkey. The officials from the EU member, in the summit, also proposed the legal basis for the returning of candidates for re-unifying with the family.
There are logistical challenges when it comes to meeting the required legal standards for the returning of asylum seekers. The Greek government is now tasked with the responsibility of addressing security and asylum imperatives. The new legislation is required for facilitating case-by-case assessments as well as the appeals of such assessments. The legislation will also play an essential role in facilitating returns.
The other challenge is how to get the judges who can comfortably effect the process. The national administrations are already overstretching and may not accept losing their personnel. More so, the building of systems might take more time. The process of the EU registration hotspots, especially in Greece took over six months to fully materialize. There was inadequate infrastructure from the Greek government which was much exhausted by then. There have also been loopholes when it comes to information gaps on identification and registration.
2.0. Definitions2.1. Introduction
The chapter below provides an essential explanation of the main aspects of European Union-Turkey relation and the refugee crisis. The importance is mainly to create an adequate understanding of how the European Union (EU) relates to Turkey as far as the refugee crisis is concerned. Another critical reason for defining the terms EU-Turkish Relation and refugee crisis is because they serve as the central and very essential concepts for the project. More so, the definitions are entirely necessary because they will develop a vital insight concerning different conceptualizations that exist regarding the refugee crisis. Again, by focusing on the refugee crisis, understanding of the above words will create more knowledge about the connection between EU and Turkey.
2.2. EU-Turkish RelationAlthough at times the definition of the term “relation” is complicated in a way, its meaning is quite substantial in developing a clear understanding of the relationship between different parties. As a result, various people have presented different definitions of the term “relation.” However, such definitions are fostered in their different views depending on their interests. Therefore, to provide a valid and genuine definition of this term, it is essential to address it right from a historical perspective. For example, by reflecting on how the European Union and Turkey relate to each other when focusing on the refugee crisis.
In almost all cases, the relation is often used where a relationship would serve as an aspect of mutual dealings and connections that exist between two parties, people, and countries. The relationship between Turkey and the EU that was established in 1959 is an important example of a relation (Kurt N.p). Although the EU and Turkey share a common land border, they also significantly relate when it comes to their focus on the refugee crisis. In the past decades, Turkey has been making several negotiations with European Union membership. Their quest was mainly concerned with human rights and their economic status. Turkey has been in the front line on matters related to the European refugee crisis due to its location.
In connection to that, the communication and relationship between Turkey and EU have dramatically increased with an aim to negotiate an agreement on refugee crisis. For example, Turkey has been making frequent negotiations and relations for EU membership for the last ten years. As a result, today the EU is strictly dependent on Turkey to establish a plan that will hold many refugees as well as maintaining a limit on the number of individuals who should enter Europe.
Turkey’s engagement in illegal movements of its citizens to Europe has been increasing since the emergence of both European refugee crisis and the threats of ISIS. In the event, EU wanted Turkey to abide by their standards and their entire processes. Therefore, since Turkey is known as an EU candidate nation, it is expected to adhere to EU affairs that addressees both migration and cooperation. Turkey is now at a position where it is forced to follow laws which it had not been used to them earlier on. Most of the Turkey officials are afraid of a scenario where the relationship with the EU will not feature any of its membership. Therefore, Turkey is forced to work independently with difficult challenges associated with irregular migration. At the same time, today the EU is much aware of the importance of Turkey’s cooperation. The European Union holds less power over Turkey with some membership relation. Therefore, Europe will face enormous challenges due to the vast numbers of refugees entering the west if turkey fails to provide necessary assistance.
2.3. Refugee CrisisThe refugee crisis is the movement of a large number of displaced individuals who in one way or the other would be refugees or even migrants. The cause of the refugee crisis is associated with the explosion of the 2011 Syria civil war. The war made millions of people to flee their homes. In the event, over 5 million refugees crossed the borders in search of safety in other countries. For example, about 1 million desperate people fled into Europe to seek protection.
In connection with that, EU has established an accord with Turkey to resolve the refugee crisis. Asylum seekers were sent back which marked a significant approach in the bloc’s effort to handle the migrant exodus. The key focus has been to minimize the refugee crisis. However, some humanitarians’ groups were not happy with the deal. They concluded that the approach violated the international laws while handling the refugees. The plan for sending back the refugees was faced with several challenges. For example, various alternatives routes were entering Europe which made it difficult to monitor their entry effectively. As a result, it was unclear how Turkish authorities would manage to control migrants who used boats. Again, the location of Turkey is perceived to be in the midst of its security threats. Hence, there are a lot of unanswered questions whether Turkey will be able to implement a plan to cope with a large number of refugees on its soil.
The idea to regulate the movement of refugees was new and latest among the European Union. Its success was a big advantage to address the refugee crisis in the two parties. It mainly deterred a group of migrants from making attempts on dangerous journeys into Europe. By so doing, it encouraged for a legal path to Europe to resettle over a million of migrants that were already in Turkey. However, the new plan created some controversies when Angela Merkel of Germany confirmed the acceptance of many people from war- ton countries and later on be dispersed around Europe. From the above decision, Turkey has received over $6.6 billion to support the migrants in its region (Nugent 13). It has also been promised free travel tickets for its citizens in various parts of Europe under the condition that it has first to meet the need required by the EU.
For a very long time, a large number of people have been undergoing a lot of challenges while living in hostile conditions in Greece on the border with Macedonia. The aspect has made it hard for the migrants to enter Macedonia (Nugent 9). Additionally, the accord with Turkey marks a painful moment of compromise for Europe. Since turkey has adhered to an authoritarian turn, Europe has been forced to embrace some of the Turkish demands for it to establish its cooperation in restricting a large number of migrants using Aegean to enter Greece.
3.0. Methodology3.1. Introduction
This chapter would offer methodology as well as the theoretical approach that shows how the study was conducted. More so the concept behind the findings is also explained in this chapter. The study will utilize the realism approach of the Critical Discuss Analysis (CDA). A realism approach is a critical tool because it is used successfully in various studies
3.2. Critical Discourse AnalysisCritical Discourse Analysis is a methodology that allows a comprehensive and rigorous assessment of the meaning of issues when language when language is used for both description and explanation. The Critical Discourse analysis is mainly applicable when exploring relationships determination and causality. These may involve events, texts, and discursive practices. It can as well apply when explaining the relationship between more extensive cultural and social relations as well as processes. There, critical components of the CDA approach are language, texts communication, and texts.
The Critical Discourse Analysis enables researchers to carry out meaningful insights when it comes to methodological perspectives to conduct analysis and then relate the study to the theory. According to various study reviews, CDA is critical for highlighting the connections between the background contexts covering the study problem. İçduygu, and Eleni Diker (14) state that the CDA has the power to connect issues under study, including the social inequalities and class difference which influences the phenomenon. The ability of CDA to account for some of the struggles will help in determining the implication of various laws, regulations proposals which affect the migration of refugees and other immigrants in and out of Turkey. It will also assist in analyzing how these laws are enforced by both the European Union and the Turkey Government. The focus will be on realism approach to this issue because it involves countries and not just a single state. Also, there are conflicting laws between Turkey and the EU relating to the refugee crisis. Therefore, the paper will focus on how these countries have succeeded in signing the deal and how it has so far been implemented.
The utilization of CDA in this study would employ the realism approach as a tool. It would involve the use of language in negotiations and creating a legal base for solving the refugee crisis. The Critical Discourse Analysis is also a methodological approach that facilitates straightforward and systematic text analysis. The study would focus on information drawn from various articles explaining the refugee status and current laws that affect the migration in and out of Turkey. The regulations include the EU-Turkey agreements, international standards and protection laws for the migrants as well as the Turkish rules on this matter. It will also explain the deals signed between EU and Turkey with an aim to end the refugee crisis in and out of Turkey. Also, the status of the agreements regarding implementation will be highlighted. Through the CDA, the emergency and conflicting issues and the situations that the migrants have undergone will be elaborated. The CDA also will create an analytical framework for this study. The textual analysis will eventually be utilized by the researcher to find out details of the issues.
The Study will involve comparison of various reports from various articles and stories covering the Refugee crisis. These migrants come either in or out of Turkey for multiple reasons. More so, the selected articles and reports would include the various deals and agreements between the European Union and the Turkish government about the management of migrants and how they should be protected while in Turkey. More so, the analysis would indicate how these deals between Turkey and the EU have been implemented so far and the measures being undertaken to resolve the refugee crisis in Turkey completely. The use of Critical Discourse Analysis in this paper would be the best idea because CDA, as a qualitative analytical strategy, will give freedom and subjectivity and eventually leading to efficient utilization of analytical framework. In this context, the future of the refugee crisis in turkey would be determined by the relation between the EU and Turkey.
3.3. Realism approach Realism is referred to like the combination of theories that are used when emphasizing the role of a particular state, world politics, national interest, and military power. The arguments are prevalent in international relations. Since the end of world wars ii, realism approach has been on the forefront when it comes to studying international relations (Brown, p.9). It offers the correct explanation concerning the behavior of a state as well as prescriptions. The balance of power between countries or countries with international organizations like EU is well explained under the realism approach. It usually lays a lot of focus on patterns of abiding by interaction policies when it comes to international systems of which does not have centralized political authority. Therefore, this chapter utilizes the realism approaches because the case of the EU and Turkey with a focus on refugee crisis can be best fit this approach (Brown 11). It involves different regulations, for instance, the Turkish Government regulations and the EU laws. The two must find common ground to address the refugee crisis moving in and out of Turkey.
The realism aspect of CDA would be vital because the refugee crisis is a universal issue and involves many countries. Therefore, international standards have to be maintained when it comes to protecting and managing the refugee crisis. The realism approach, thus, emphasizes international relations, and thus, can best be utilized to handle refugee issues because they move from one country to another and from continent to another to seek asylum. Also, the realism calls for social order, which is a critical focus in this context.
3.3.1. Textual, Realism and international relationsAccording to the reviews that have been done earlier, there is a clear link between realism and the CDA. The relationship involves the text that has to be analyzed, the productive process of authenticity as well as the international relations context of the examined object. Textual would be utilized to link these concepts of international relations and realism because they are closely related as they explain the same issues.
This paper intends to utilize text analysis to get the precise meaning of the ideological sentiments that resulted in the development of the whole document. The text is framed in a way that explores the realism involving two or various national and organizations and international relations concept. For the text analysis to be useful, it must focus well on the vocabulary and grammatical structures of that particular text. Therefore, the vocabulary used will be the primary focus on analysis in this study because they will connect the Turkey and EU with the attention to how they have been handling the refugee crisis and the measures they have taken so far. They will also be utilized to analyze the deals between the two powers about the migrants’ questions. The CDA can easily be interpreted through the utilization of essential terms. This study will back on “Andrew moralistic and “Robert Putnam and his two-level game” and how the concept can be applied in international relations. The idea will be used to explain the refugee crisis and how Turkey and the EU have been handling the issue individually.
3.4. RealismRealism approach is utilized when studying international politics. It is based on the relevance of international relations. According to this approach, nations are motivated by national interests, which are backed up with moral concerns. According to this approach, any country; would want to preserve both the autonomy and territorial integrity. However, the national interest usually involves power. The diplomatic relations become one of the federal authorities in any particular state. The context of EU-Turkey relations comes under the realism approach because it consists of the utilization of the diplomatic skills to handle the refugee crisis. The realism approach, in this case, will require careful study
3.5. International RelationsStudying international relations gives room for contextualizing the informational sources that the study scrutinizes. It also indicates how they affect the people or population under review. In our case, the refugee and other migrants who either move into Turkey or out of Turkey or even uses Turkey to cross into Europe are the focus of the study. The study of international relations involves how various powers can come together and sign a deal to end the existing crisis. For instance, the refugees from Syria, Greece, and other states have been utilizing Turkey as their place of asylum. They require special regulations to protect their rights and put them under some limitations. Therefore, the study of international relations will indicate how the EU-Turkey deals have been implemented to tackle the refugee crisis. The study will utilize various articles which explain the past situation of refugees in Turkey, the current situation and the expected outcomes of various EU-Turkey deals concerning the refugee crisis.
The international policy-making can be described as a ‘game or multi-level process. There are perceived players, field and the rules as well as the outcomes. Therefore, as a methodology, the study requires various levels of political analysis. In our case of EU-Turkey relations, inter-governmental is the most appropriate analytical framework. The international level requires state governments as the main actors of the ‘game.’
3.6. “Andrew Moravcsik” and “Robert Putnam and his two-level game.”Robert Putnam came up with the two-level game framework for understanding the interaction between domestic and international politics involving international bargaining (Cavan, Russian gambit 14). The primary aim of Putnam in his two-level game was to attain cooperation. More so, the text is essential when it comes to confrontation especially when there is a war crisis. The EU-Turkey deal of 2015 reflected as a two-level game (Chouliaraki, and Rafal 8)
There has been a Syrian Refugee crisis that has increased the pressure for the EU-Turkey relations because they require immediate action. By 2015, many refugees have been using Turkey as a gateway to enter Europe. The multi-level approach as developed by Putnam and Moravcsik is beneficial when studying international Theories. Regarding our case, the EU integration theories are critical. Most important theoretical context has been provided by the Intergovernmental. Moravcsik focuses on states as well as their specific characteristics as preditors when it comes to international negotiations and their outcomes (Cherry N.p). The EU commissioner for the refugee acts as an agent for the Turkish-EU negotiations.
4.0 Analysis4.1. Introduction
This section provides a report that draws upon two articles from different publishers. The section applies a realism approach to analyze the articles by focusing on social practice, text, and discursive practice. In other words, the operationalization of the realism approach seeks to provide a compelling analysis of the above two articles. However, each section of the review will be explored and addressed separately. However, only the crucial and most important parts of the articles will be incorporated into the analysis.
4.2.1. The Paradox of the EU-Turkey Refugee DealThis article was written by Elizabeth Collett. It was published by Migration Policy Institute (MPI) publishers. The aim of the article is to prove an insight concerning the refugee crisis in the relation between the EU and Turkey. The article was developed as a commentary in March 2016. From a given perspective, the material is entirely appropriate for the above project just because it provides an account of interests that the study demands.
4.2.2. TextThe article establishes an understanding of many questions on whether an EU-Turkey agreement concerning the refugee is legal and if it will work in the future. The author asserts that in March 2018, the 28 EU officials forged a deal with the turkey in a quite palpable and panic environment (Collett N.p). The negotiation as illustrated in the article addresses the irresistible entry of smuggled migrants and some of the refuge seekers who were moving from Turkey across the Aegean to the islands of Greek. The EU member states confessed to increase resettlement of some of the refugees who were residing in Turkey as a way of providing for an exchange. It also pledged to offer other benefits to Turkey especially by providing Turkish citizens with free visa travels as well as boosting them with financial support. “In exchange, EU Member States will increase resettlement of Syrian refugees residing in Turkey” (Collett N.p). From the above statement, the author creates a notion that the relation between the EU and Turkey is a real and quite significant to focus on the refugee crisis.
The author adds that the objectives of the EU members were clear and straightforward. The article points out that the primary goal was to initiate a genuine approach of preventing any unchecked arrivals into the EU. However, the author points out that among the 28 group of states, some of them had divergent interests (Collett N.p). Therefore, it implies that some leaders possess a domestic political future concerning the rising context of populism.
4.3. RealismFrom the article, the author develops both reliability and credibility from different aspects in order to build the real insights provided by the article. For example, the writer focuses on various vital elements to illustrate how the EU-Turkey deal is proceeding as far as the refugee crisis is concerned. Also, the contents build on the premise that there are more than two countries and powers which the refugee crisis revolves. But the EU and Turkey are the two major powers.
The statement below exemplifies the above notion “The deal has unveiled a paradox for a European Union that has spent several decades preaching its high asylum standards to neighboring countries. To achieve its self-imposed goal—a significant reduction in arrivals and an increase in returns to Turkey—policymakers will have to drastically cut legal corners, potentially violating EU law on issues such as detention and the right to appeal” (Collett N.p).
The above-quoted statement is a clear explanation on what EU members are anticipating for to ensure the deal is successful. The article enables the reader to understand the plans EU has to manage the refugee crisis by building a cohesive relationship with other nations such as Turkey. For example, it establishes an awareness that the EU has to perform effective strategies that will maintain good relations with other parties. It proposes to improve returns to turkey to reduce unexpected arrivals so that it can achieve its self-imposed objective.
Most interestingly, the author signals a caution by stating that some of the approaches would be tempting for policymakers. For instance, the aspect of violating the rights of European human in such an unworthy manner is likely to be costly in the future compared to the current situation. Also, the author asserts that some human rights organizations such as the United Nations high commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) are aware of the risks associated with such strategies (Collett N.p). However, the primary challenge facing them is the speed and unchartered nature at which the methods are being implemented showing that some rules are kept aside in favor of expediency.
4.4. International RelationsThe relation between the EU and turkey in focus of refugee crisis is an essential social practice that is taken with great concern. The relationship between EU and Turkey is seen to be very special and more distinctive one. The negotiations between the two parties are the most complex EU has ever conducted. The existing refugee crisis profoundly impacts the main point of the talks since it is not only based on 35 negotiation chapters (Collett N.p). In relation, the EU and Turkey have agreed upon better measurements to combat the crisis appropriately. The plan is classified into two main parts. The first part provides support to all Syrians living under temporary fortification (Collett N.p). The other part focuses on maintaining and strengthening cooperation to minimize unchecked migrations. The establishment of the EU-Turkey relation was mainly to solve the massive influx of refugees in Europe. However, while refugees were seeking for safe countries where they could settle and live, the link between the EU and Turkey was placed under challenging conditions.
4.5. The Turkish-EU Cooperation on the Refugee CrisisThe above article is written by Ipek Demirsu and Meltem Muftuler-bac. It was published by Sabanci University with an aim to create insight concerning refugee crisis in the relationship between European Union and turkey. The article was developed as a commentary in August 2017. The article is appropriate for the above project just because it provides an account of interests that is required in the study.
The article explains to the reader that Turkey is undergoing a lot of challenges when it comes to managing the number of refugees. Therefore, it is feeling the ramifications of the Syrian crisis than any other EU candidate country. However, its huge struggle on democratization makes it become a “litmus test” for the foreign policy success for the European Union. The text adds that the continued waves of migration showing a large number of people fleeing their war-torn countries are considering Turkey as a transit route to enable them to reach other European territories under whatever conditions.
The article explains that the quest for viable cooperation between EU and Turkey has been a quite important aspect to overcome the common challenges as the human tragedy of refugees and migrants remains unfolded. More so, the article takes into an account to illustrate how the relationship between the EU and Turkey is framed in a Turkish political scene. For example, the text asserts that there are parliamentary debates composed of commissions in a joint congressional committee to discuss factors to build cooperation between the EU and Turkey (Demirsu Dı Bıas and Meltem 4). The parliament together with its commissioners is set to show the reader the framing of the EU-Turkey relationship in a landscape that is politically Turkish. More so, another purpose of the article is to unearth the framing connections between the European Union and Turkey on the aspects of migration flow by evaluating the expectations and perceptions of these actors (Demirsu Dı Bıas and Meltem 6). Therefore, to perform the same, the article uses a frame analysis of such political deliberations by mapping out salient discursive trends contained in the Turkish political landscape by observing the refugee crisis.
4.6. RealismThe concept of Realism as presented by the author is mainly centered on the issue under discussion. However, it creates a lot of questions. For instance, the main arising question revolves on understanding the primary goal of the authors. In the section, the authors’ goal is to make the viewer get the necessary knowledge on the EU-Turkish relationship on the refugee crisis. From the article, it is entirely predictable that refugees who fled their country to look for a good life are likely to get back to their homelands very soon. Regardless of the broad application of international protections by Turkey, several refugees are continuing to encounter challenges and threats in some of the borders. In this conjuncture, the relationship between the EU and Turkey is proving to be reliable and indispensable in proving humanitarian support as well as in providing long-term solutions to some of the social and economic issues.
Based on a Turkish political scene, the relation between the EU and Turkey on the issue of refugee crisis is perceived from a cynical angle. For example, from some of the experiences, it is true that EU has done some “unjust” treatment on Turkey (Kinnvall, Ian, and Jennifer 17). For example, there is a likelihood that the deal will make Turkey end at the worse situation in the future. From the above perspective, Turkey has turned to be the dumping site for refugees who are likely to cause socio-political problems and hence jeopardizing Turkish society. The critical thing that has contributed to the massive fleeing of refugees is the lack of security — the same manifests in some of the intersecting frames of migrations and the issue of terrorism.
4.7. International RelationsThere is no apparent justification to declare that Turkey is a dumping site for refugees. Although it is holding many refugees, it has signed successful deals with the EU to maintain the refugees. The article does not provide enough references to support the refugee crisis in the relation with the EU-Turkish cooperation (Holmes and Heide N.p). More so, it does not regard migration of people as being part of social interaction. Instead, it is moiré involved in explaining some ways required to prevent unchecked entry of individuals from other nations to Europe (Demirsu Dı Bıas and Meltem 17). It makes the reader understand that influx of refugees into Turkey
5.0. ConclusionsThis section gives the overall implication of the study. The chapter concludes the article analysis to establish the relation between the European Union and Turkey with a focus on the Refugee crisis.
The various scholars have explained the migrants’ situation from Syria, Greek, and Turkey. Also, according to multiple sources, migrants are utilizing Turkey as a gateway to enter Europe illegally. More so, there are many cases of illegal immigrants in Tukey. There are those who come to unite with relatives and family members and genuine refugees. The laws regarding the return of these migrants and how they are treated are sometimes unclear, creating a paradox because many policies and agreements between the EU and Turkey have not been implemented. Some sources argue that these laws are just on paper. Eventually, the refugee crisis has not been addressed adequately.
There are two articles analyzed under CDA in this paper. The two items provide insights into the refugee crisis and the relations between Turkey and EU about the matter of migrants. This article by Elizabeth Collett published under the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) publishers indicates all these deals and how they will be implemented in the future. The article explains the legality of the EU-Turkey deal and seeks to answer many questions about whether the deal will work in the future. According to the report, there is the continuous entry of illegal migrants as well as refuge seekers from Turkey. The EU, as per the deal, decided to increase resettlement as a way of curbing the situation. In the agreement, the EU decided to offer various benefits to Turkey. One of them was that the Turkish Citizens would be provided with free Visa travels. More so, the country would be supported financially.
The other article also revolves around the refugee crisis and how to end the illegal migrants in Turkey. It is titled ‘The Turkish-EU Cooperation on the Refugee Crisis. ‘The above article is written by Ipek Demirsu and Meltem Muftuler-bac. Sabanci University published it with an aim to create insight concerning the refugee crisis in the relationship between the European Union and turkey. According to the article, Turkey is undergoing severe challenges when it comes to the management of refugees. The country is experiencing severe impacts of the Syrian crisis more than any other state. It explains the relevance of EU-Turkey negotiations to overcome the challenges the Turkish government was experiencing when it came to handling the refugee crisis. The article, however, ascertains that there are already negotiations taking place comprising congressional committee and EU officials to curb the situation.
The realism concept is vital when it comes to discussions involving more than one country or different powers. For instance, the EU-Turkey relations concerning the refugee crisis is an issue of interest to many countries. These include European countries, Syria, Greek, and Turkey among others. Therefore, the concept of international relations fits this study very well. That is whey international relations the center-stage for the study. Generally, the refugee crisis is rising especially in Turkey mainly due to issues in Syria. The EU and Turkey have to use all means possible to end the crisis because the impact is increasing.
Works CitedBrown, Andrew. “Critical realism in social research: Approach with caution.” Work, employment and society 28.1 (2014): 112-123.
Cavan, Susan J. Russian gambit: Yeltsin’s crisis leadership from devaluation to Pristina. Diss. 2014.
Cherry, David J. “Two-level game.” U.S. Patent No. 6,698,755. 2 Mar. 2004.
Chouliaraki, Lilie, and Rafal Zaborowski. “Voice and community in the 2015 refugee crisis: A content analysis of news coverage in eight European countries.” International Communication Gazette 79.6-7 (2017): 613-635.
Collett, Elizabeth. “The Paradox Of The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal.” Migrationpolicy.Org, 2018, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/news/paradox-eu-turkey-refugee-deal. Accessed 28 Nov 2018.
Demirsu Dı Bıase, İpek, and Meltem Müftüler-Baç. “The Turkish-EU cooperation on the refugee crisis: The Turkish perceptions in the parliamentary debates.” (2017).
Geddes, Andrew, and Peter Scholten. The politics of migration and immigration in Europe. Sage, 2016.
Holmes, Seth M., and Heide Castañeda. “Representing the “European refugee crisis” in Germany and beyond: Deservingness and difference, life and death.” American Ethnologist 43.1 (2016): 12-24.
İçduygu, Ahmet, and Eleni Diker. “Labor market integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey: From refugees to settlers.” The Journal of Migration Studies 3.1 (2017): 12-35.
İçduygu, Ahmet. “Syrian refugees in Turkey.” The Long Road Ahead. Washington: Migration Policy Institute (2015).
Kinnvall, Catarina, Ian Manners, and Jennifer Mitzen. “Introduction to 2018 special issue of European Security: “ontological (in) security in the European Union.”” European security 27.3 (2018): 249-265.
Kurt, Anil. “Effects of Syrian Refugee Crisis on Turkey and European Union: A Comparison Analyzes of EU and Turkey about Measures and Policies.”
Laitinen, Kari. “Post-cold war security borders: A conceptual approach.” Routing Borders Between Territories, Discourses and Practices. Routledge, 2018. 13-33.
Nugent, Neill. The government and politics of the European Union. Palgrave, 2017.
Putnam, Robert D. “Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games.” International organization 42.3 (1988): 427-460.
Free The relation between the European union and Turkey with focus on the refugee crisis Dissertation Example
Do you need an original paper?
Approach our writing company and get top-quality work written from scratch strictly on time!