Free The relationship of socio-economic status and confidence at work Dissertation Example

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The relationship of socio-economic status and confidence at work

Category: Business

Subcategory: Coaching

Level: Masters

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Dissertation
The relationship of SES and confidence at the workplace
“I declare that this dissertation is all my own work and the sources of information and material I have used (including the Internet) have been fully identified and properly acknowledged as required.”
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc522141643 h ii1Introduction (research aims and objectives) PAGEREF _Toc522141644 h 12Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc522141645 h 22.1The Role of Motivation in Self-confidence (R: the importance of self-confidence in the workplace) PAGEREF _Toc522141646 h 32.2Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence (R: defining self-confidence) PAGEREF _Toc522141647 h 42.3Antecedents of self-confidence PAGEREF _Toc522141648 h 6Age. PAGEREF _Toc522141649 h 6Culture. PAGEREF _Toc522141650 h 7Gender and birth. PAGEREF _Toc522141651 h 72.4Research questions PAGEREF _Toc522141652 h 72.5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522141653 h 73Method/Methodology PAGEREF _Toc522141654 h 83.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522141655 h 83.2Research aim PAGEREF _Toc522141656 h 83.3Participants PAGEREF _Toc522141657 h 83.4Measures (R: Scales you used in your question to ascertain SES, why you chose them and then your interview questions) PAGEREF _Toc522141658 h 113.4.1Occupational Prestige PAGEREF _Toc522141659 h 123.4.2Educational attainment PAGEREF _Toc522141660 h 123.4.3Income/wealth PAGEREF _Toc522141661 h 123.4.4International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) PAGEREF _Toc522141662 h 133.4.5Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI) PAGEREF _Toc522141663 h 133.4.6SES Matrix PAGEREF _Toc522141664 h 133.5Procedure (Data and Data Collection. R: How it was actually carried out so that it could be copied, also your ethics and your training/piloting) PAGEREF _Toc522141665 h 133.6Data analyses (Analytic Method) PAGEREF _Toc522141666 h 143.7Data analysis (R: analytical procedures used for your study – i.e., thematic analysis) PAGEREF _Toc522141667 h 153.7.1School PAGEREF _Toc522141668 h 163.7.2Family PAGEREF _Toc522141669 h 164Results/Findings PAGEREF _Toc522141670 h 164.1What is confidence? PAGEREF _Toc522141671 h 164.2Research questions PAGEREF _Toc522141672 h 174.2.1Impact of schooling on confidence; PAGEREF _Toc522141673 h 174.2.2Impact of upbringing on confidence; PAGEREF _Toc522141674 h 174.2.3individuals from which SES are more likely to be high in confidence PAGEREF _Toc522141675 h 174.2.4How is SES related to the level of competence? PAGEREF _Toc522141676 h 174.2.5Is there a link between birth-order and confidence? PAGEREF _Toc522141677 h 195Discussion PAGEREF _Toc522141678 h 206Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522141679 h 277Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc522141680 h 278References PAGEREF _Toc522141681 h 30Appendix A PAGEREF _Toc522141682 h 32Appendix B PAGEREF _Toc522141683 h 32Appendix C PAGEREF _Toc522141684 h 32Appendix D PAGEREF _Toc522141685 h 36Appendix E PAGEREF _Toc522141686 h 37
3,000 intro/lit review, 2,000 methods, 2,000 results and 3,000 discussion and conclusions
Introduction 10-15%
Literature review 20%
Methodology 15%
Results 20%
Analysis and discussion 20%
Conclusions 10-15%
Preliminary pages (Title, Content, Acknowledgements, lists of figures and tables, acronym list)
AbstractWrite the abstract here.
Introduction (research aims and objectives)A stroll through Mayfair, London, with its narrow roads and bad traffic, can lull you into a false sense of security and make you believe that it is just another part of town. In many ways it is, but what is more, this district is the stronghold of the British and International elite. Behind inconspicuous looking townhouses you will find private clubs and secret meeting spaces, reserved for the owners of big wallets and even bigger egos. It is here where you find people oozing confidence, or so you’d think, but I do wonder if belonging to a particular class really makes you more confident? Or does coming from a humbler background with all its obstacles increase your sense of self-efficacy?
According to Martens ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>0</priority><uuid>F0676C65-9FA7-4FAA-9F59-5E63D98B30E1</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>Champaign</place><publisher>Human Kinetics Books</publisher><title>Competitive Anxiety in Sport</title><url>http://www.worldcat.org/title/competitive-anxiety-in-sport/oclc/822883082</url><publication_date>99199500001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>071F27AB-5067-49F4-9232-D43A450EDC64</uuid><type>0</type><authors><author><lastName>Martens</lastName><firstName>Rainer</firstName></author><author><lastName>Burton</lastName><firstName>Damon</firstName></author><author><lastName>Vealey</lastName><firstName>Robin</firstName><middleNames>S</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(1995), self-confidence refers to the beliefs and levels of a surety that individuals possess about the successful execution of a particular task and one’s socio-economic status (SES) can influence an individual’s self-confidence especially when belonging to a group of the elites.
More on self-confidence
Having grown up in a country where all education is free, the whole concept of having to pay a substantial amount of money for a university degree was very foreign to me. The only restriction we had was our own academic ability, and the chance to attend university had little to do with the family’s financial situation. I’m not suggesting that the family’s socio-economic status (SES) is irrelevant – especially given that there is little evidence that family SES during adolescent years alone is predictive of future job performance ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>1</priority><uuid>F3685EC4-1373-4D75-83CE-85F6B961CE4A</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Inc.</publisher><title>Cognitive ability and socio-economic status relations with job performance</title><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.06.003</url><volume>46</volume><publication_date>99201409101200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>E2AB2685-9CFA-40FB-8211-B5FAC5F0A604</uuid><type>400</type><number>C</number><doi>10.1016/j.intell.2014.06.003</doi><startpage>203</startpage><endpage>208</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Intelligence</title><uuid>F7161742-6081-4B34-AC9C-F218ED30C3FA</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Inc.</publisher><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Kuncel</lastName><firstName>Nathan</firstName><middleNames>R</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Rose</lastName><firstName>Mark</firstName></author><author><lastName>Ejiogu</lastName><firstName>Kingsley</firstName></author><author><lastName>Yang</lastName><firstName>Zhiming</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Kuncel, Rose, Ejiogu, & Yang, 2014) – but the environment we grow up in isn’t unimportant.
Most of our social, environmental and cultural values and interests are heavily influenced by our family ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>2</priority><uuid>FF57BEA9-B414-42D4-9D6C-584D525641FC</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>Münster</place><publisher>Waxmann Verlag GmbH</publisher><title>PISA 2003: Der Bildungsstand der Jugendlichen in Deutschland: Ergebnisse des zweiten internationalen Vergleichs </title><url>https://www.google.co.uk/</url><publication_date>99200400001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>91801494-597B-40C7-B0F8-384AEFE70A86</uuid><type>0</type><citekey>Prenzel:2004vk</citekey><startpage>1</startpage><endpage>46</endpage><authors><author><lastName>Prenzel</lastName><firstName>Manfred</firstName></author><author><lastName>Baumert</lastName><firstName>Jürgen</firstName></author><author><lastName>Blum</lastName><firstName>Werner</firstName></author><author><lastName>Lehman</lastName><firstName>Rainer</firstName></author><author><lastName>Leutner</lastName><firstName>Detlev</firstName></author><author><lastName>Neubrand</lastName><firstName>Michael</firstName></author><author><lastName>Pekrun</lastName><firstName>Reinhard</firstName></author><author><lastName>Rolff</lastName><firstName>Hans-Günter</firstName></author><author><lastName>Rost</lastName><firstName>Jürgen</firstName></author><author><lastName>Schiefele</lastName><firstName>Ulrich</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Prenzel et al., 2004). It is therefore to this day still the most important ‘institution’ to convey the differences and nuances of societal cohabitation ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>3</priority><uuid>C97BF69E-69F5-471F-B4B5-8001BF17ABB7</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Staatsinstitut für Familienforschung an der Universität Bamberg</publisher><title>Familienbildung aus Sicht bayerischer Mütter und Väter</title><url>https://www.ifb.bayern.de/imperia/md/content/stmas/ifb/materialien/mat_2016_3.pdf</url><volume>3</volume><publication_date>99201600001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>C803B1E1-0603-4E23-89B9-AEB9306C3AD7</uuid><type>400</type><citekey>Neumann:2016wk</citekey><startpage>1</startpage><endpage>80</endpage><bundle><publication><title>IFB-Familienreport Bayern</title><uuid>54DF0A04-27EF-4F47-B3A5-63F1C083713D</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Neumann</lastName><firstName>Regina</firstName></author><author><lastName>Smolka</lastName><firstName>Adelheid</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Neumann & Smolka, 2016). Parents are role models who teach their children important skills, attitudes, traditions, and routines as well as provide for them financially.
Studies show that children of highly educated parents have categorically higher chances to be academically successful ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>4</priority><uuid>FEDE4C3B-A084-4546-B098-E1527DC95233</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Assessment use, self-efficacy and mathematics achievement: comparative analysis of PISA 2003 data of Finland, Canada and the USA</title><url>http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09500790.2010.490875</url><volume>23</volume><publication_date>99201009001200000000220000</publication_date><uuid>C45F778C-ACAA-41A6-B505-754F337D5AE0</uuid><type>400</type><number>3</number><doi>10.1080/09500790.2010.490875</doi><startpage>213</startpage><endpage>229</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Evaluation &amp; Research in Education</title><uuid>40B19C97-AEE3-4187-90CC-6A3AA9151823</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Liang</lastName><firstName>Xin</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Liang, 2010) but as the saying goes: “It needs a village to raise a child.”
Although. Even though money isn’t the main motivator to work anymore ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>5</priority><uuid>CFE36E55-7982-4147-BA29-6F5894B85650</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>New York</place><publisher>Transaction Publishers</publisher><title>Motivation to Work</title><url>https://www.amazon.co.uk/Motivation-Work-Frederick-Herzberg/dp/156000634X/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&amp;qid=1512916041&amp;sr=1-1</url><publication_date>99199302061200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>D5B19F16-8284-4AEA-A2C4-AC598A749D5E</uuid><type>0</type><startpage>180</startpage><authors><author><lastName>Herzberg</lastName><firstName>Frederick</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Herzberg, 1993), it is still a necessity.
Thereby, this research paper strives to provide insight into the current scientific position on the relationship between self-confidence at the workplace and socio-economic status.
but fee-based education signifies potentially lower equality and heightened elitism.
Literature ReviewThe relevance of the literature material was determined through two forms of criteria. The first criterion was on the relevance of the content material. This was determined by conducting a database research (ABI/INFORM Global, PsycINFO and ELSEVIER) with the help of a research formula (see REF _Ref515887967 r h * MERGEFORMAT Appendix A). Literature titles that included the keywords for this research were considered relevant.
The materials were further sorted with regard to keywords appearance in the abstract. Literature with qualitative data was favoured to obtain a clear indication of the mentioning of the relationship between socio-economic status and confidence.
The Role of Motivation in Self-confidence (R: the importance of self-confidence in the workplace)
The synergy between self-confidence and socio-economic status can only prevail when one’s socio-economic status is the main motivating factor, and this is not always the case; hence, there will need to examine the role of moderating factors as discussed herein ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>2</priority><uuid>10688EC4-918E-4E7F-B280-79FF85399818</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Twenge & Campbell, 2002). Some individuals might come from poorer socio-economic backgrounds; however, their socio-economic status does not limit their abilities and the hope of rising above their deplorable situation as indicated by Bénabou and Tirole ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>7</priority><uuid>664AF826-E3EC-4698-B4D5-F9B6162BB9C5</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-confidence and personal motivation</title><url>http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/stable/pdf/4132491.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A7d50ad422505df07a320a0b2899463a2</url><publication_date>99200200001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>68D288D0-A7E0-4140-B747-D1EDEE91D616</uuid><type>400</type><number>August</number><startpage>871</startpage><endpage>915</endpage><bundle><publication><title>The Quarterly Journal of Economics</title><uuid>9469BE02-F9CE-4110-85EA-6BE1D7EB785F</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Bénabou</lastName><firstName>Roland</firstName></author><author><lastName>Tirole</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2002). Self-confidence gives rise to the intrinsic motivation which thrives more compared to extrinsic motivation that is short-lived and does not yield the anticipated benefits. One’s socio-economic power tends to boost one’s self-confidence because one’s socio-economic status determines whether he or she can access the needed resources to influence others or pursue a particular activity.
Most of the studies on motivation have largely focused on students, yet, even in the workplace motivation to work is necessary. According to Twenge and Campbell ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>8</priority><uuid>EEEE6F94-9570-44C7-B605-3C2F27128490</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2002), the salience model indicates that socioeconomic status differs about the population. The relationship between socio-economic status and self-confidence is different across different age groups; socio-economic status in relation to money is vital to middle-aged adults, whose careers are at the peak.
Other than education, there has always been inequality in the workplace by gender and race. However, this has changed, and it is important to understand the current distribution of employees on the basis of gender and race to understand how these attributes influence the employees’ level of self-confidence, and ultimately, their motivation and self-esteem. The current study will extend current researches by incorporating the element of self-confidence to affirm the proposed link between self-confidence and motivation.
Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence (R: defining self-confidence)Apparently, there seems to be no specific focus on self-confidence, but there is adequate attention to self-esteem, which is the value that one attaches to oneself ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>9</priority><uuid>84A17525-C83D-4998-982F-EDF69D4CEA58</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Twenge & Campbell, 2002). Most of the studies on self-esteem have incorporated moderating factors like religiosity, and this further justifies the need for this study. Hence, when one believes in their capability to accomplish a certain task: self-confidence, his or her self-esteem increases, and the converse are also true. The relationship between self-confidence and socio-economic status seems to be a precedent in determining an individual’s self-esteem as indicated by Meškauskienė ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>10</priority><uuid>3E28AFF0-96F9-4411-8096-10FC3AB3BBB6</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Elsevier B.V.</publisher><title>Schoolchild’s Self-esteem as a Factor Influencing Motivation to Learn</title><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.168</url><volume>83</volume><publication_date>99201307041200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>22520654-A4EF-42A0-9EA6-E2EA81A6B7B9</uuid><type>400</type><doi>10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.168</doi><startpage>900</startpage><endpage>904</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences</title><uuid>FA22CC41-71FE-4DB8-8359-6FD2B493DA97</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><publisher>Elsevier B.V.</publisher><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Meškauskienė</lastName><firstName>Asta</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2013). Thereby, this study will examine a factor that precedes self-esteem, and one that is rarely studied but one which has a direct relationship with self-esteem: self-confidence. Meškauskienė ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>11</priority><uuid>F2DEC99E-0C8F-43CA-874C-29A4CDC7E9A0</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Elsevier B.V.</publisher><title>Schoolchild’s Self-esteem as a Factor Influencing Motivation to Learn</title><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.168</url><volume>83</volume><publication_date>99201307041200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>22520654-A4EF-42A0-9EA6-E2EA81A6B7B9</uuid><type>400</type><doi>10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.168</doi><startpage>900</startpage><endpage>904</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences</title><uuid>FA22CC41-71FE-4DB8-8359-6FD2B493DA97</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><publisher>Elsevier B.V.</publisher><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Meškauskienė</lastName><firstName>Asta</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2013) indicates that her study’s participants considered self-confidence as a significant factor that influences self-esteem. Thereby, this paper will extend current research by providing supplemental information that can be used to augment the findings that show the relationship between self-esteem and socio-economic status. It is also evident that the current empirical evidence on this subject is old, and the current study will provide new insight that is relevant to the 21st century.
Another model used to indicate that socio-economic status does not necessarily result in low self-confidence the self-protective mechanism where individuals on the low socio-economic stratum compare themselves with those who are less fortunate. Sequentially, these individuals preserve their self-esteem and relentlessly work hard to attain their goals in the workplace. Nonetheless, given the fact that beliefs instilled in an individual at childhood stand the tests of time and have a strong influence on an individual’s economic outcomes, an individual in the workplace tends to remain timid as he or she does not believe he or she has what it takes to perform certain functions. According to Twenge and Campbell ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>12</priority><uuid>9D7863A7-9091-464E-B13E-5E5F72A015A9</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2002), this phenomenon can be described as an acquired socio-economic status which has a strong influence on a person’s self-confidence, motivation to execute a certain action, and ultimately, on self-esteem. As a consequence, such an individual is not able to attain economic success and go up the socio-economic stratum.
Previous studies have barely mentioned how self-confidence coexists with self-esteem, but they have not delineated the synergistic relationship that prevails between the two. However, the models proposed by Twenge and Campbell ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>13</priority><uuid>788AC2B1-34CC-4EF8-832E-6E3ED7E55FF9</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2002) can help to delineate this relationship better. The reflected appraisal model otherwise referred to as the internalization of stigma model, is in alignment with the current study’s hypothesis because it does not indicate the difference in self-confidence among individuals deemed to belong in the lower socio-economic stratum: the blacks, compared to those in the higher socio-economic stratum: the whites. However, this model might be biased because even within a particular race, there are socio-economic strata. Given lack of adequate scientific literature that indicates how socioeconomic status is linked to self-confidence, this literature review will use self-esteem to understand the concept of self-confidence in light to socio-economic status and use the findings from the current study to delineate the relationship holistically. Self-confidence can be regarded as the reason for continued inequality in socioeconomic prosperity as well as an outcome of this inequality. A study byBénabou and Tirole ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>14</priority><uuid>FCB64206-8342-4764-B459-0299C3AC2587</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-confidence and personal motivation</title><url>http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/stable/pdf/4132491.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A7d50ad422505df07a320a0b2899463a2</url><publication_date>99200200001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>68D288D0-A7E0-4140-B747-D1EDEE91D616</uuid><type>400</type><number>August</number><startpage>871</startpage><endpage>915</endpage><bundle><publication><title>The Quarterly Journal of Economics</title><uuid>9469BE02-F9CE-4110-85EA-6BE1D7EB785F</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Bénabou</lastName><firstName>Roland</firstName></author><author><lastName>Tirole</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2002) indicates that even though self-confidence is desirable, having too much of it can yield negative consequences, and since having low self-confidence is also not good, but having the needed self-confidence to achieve set goals yields positive returns.
Among the few studies on self-confidence, Filippin and Paccagnella ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>15</priority><uuid>B9EF4F93-C07E-4762-83F3-670D2D2F9DBF</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Ltd</publisher><title>Family background, self-confidence and economic outcomes</title><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.06.002</url><volume>31</volume><publication_date>99201210011200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>CE318D1F-A7D4-4A43-B3B9-314B15F3383B</uuid><type>400</type><number>5</number><doi>10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.06.002</doi><startpage>824</startpage><endpage>834</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Economics of Education Review</title><uuid>723C9F26-ABA5-4144-83B8-60F2562B18BD</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Ltd</publisher><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Filippin</lastName><firstName>Antonio</firstName></author><author><lastName>Paccagnella</lastName><firstName>Marco</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2012) showed that one’s socio-economic background is a predictor of his or her self-confidence and associated abilities. Thereby, an individual might not reach his or her potential due to thwarted self-confidence. This study further showed that the influence of socio-economic background could be used to explain the persistent poor economic outcomes, for example, educational achievement and family income across generations due to a negative effect on one’s cognitive skills. Subsequently, individuals are not able to overcome their shortcomings. Filippini’s and Pascarella’s ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>16</priority><uuid>EB706F0C-5E93-45F4-90D9-A6E977E37924</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Ltd</publisher><title>Family background, self-confidence and economic outcomes</title><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.06.002</url><volume>31</volume><publication_date>99201210011200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>CE318D1F-A7D4-4A43-B3B9-314B15F3383B</uuid><type>400</type><number>5</number><doi>10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.06.002</doi><startpage>824</startpage><endpage>834</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Economics of Education Review</title><uuid>723C9F26-ABA5-4144-83B8-60F2562B18BD</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><publisher>Elsevier Ltd</publisher><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Filippin</lastName><firstName>Antonio</firstName></author><author><lastName>Paccagnella</lastName><firstName>Marco</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(2012)study examined the how family background, self-confidence, and economic outcomes relate to each other while the current study adopts a similar approach but instead of examining family background, it will examine socioeconomic status. Also, instead of economic outcomes, the current study will look at self-authentic confidence.
Filippin and Paccagnella (2012) state that when individuals grow up in poor socioeconomic environments, they grow up without knowing their abilities or with wrong beliefs. These authors highlight an example of a job seeker who tends to give up the search as he or she is not aware of his self-confidence and tends to give up easily. Similarly, a person who is not aware of his or her abilities is deemed to have low performance in the workplace as indicated by a correlation average of 0.38 by Stajkovic and Luthans ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>17</priority><uuid>E4EE0E7B-6E09-4B3B-AFB1-4301B4DC02E6</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-Efficacy and Work-Related Performance: A Meta-Analysis.</title><volume>124</volume><publication_date>99199802201200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B5CD8708-B825-42EE-BD16-25682BC54B88</uuid><type>400</type><number>2</number><institution>American Psychological Association</institution><startpage>240</startpage><endpage>261</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Psychological Bulletin</title><uuid>1FB238DA-ABD2-4FA4-9B17-B9D02A7BE618</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Stajkovic</lastName><firstName>Alexander</firstName><middleNames>D</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Luthans</lastName><firstName>Fred</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(1998). This study emphasizes the role of the family and nullifies the role of Bandura’s social learning theory in shaping an individual’s personality as applied to Stankovic’s and Luthans’ study (1998).
Antecedents of self-confidenceAge.The relationship between socio-economic status and self-esteem was shown to be influenced by age because the effect size was greatest during middle adulthood and smallest during childhood and late adulthood ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>18</priority><uuid>853CD0A3-1688-42A9-9901-90350C8873E2</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Self-esteem and socio-economic status: A meta-analytic review</title><url>http://content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.kingston.ac.uk/ContentServer.asp?T=P&amp;P=AN&amp;K=6009029&amp;S=R&amp;D=buh&amp;EbscoContent=dGJyMNHr7ESeprE4yOvsOLCmr1CeprZSs6i4SbCWxWXS&amp;ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGnr0%2BwqLdRuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA</url><volume>6</volume><publication_date>99200201151200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>B3C22B55-8A90-407B-A002-34A9D45B7194</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>59</startpage><endpage>71</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Personality and Social Psychology Review</title><uuid>E7BEB6FF-EDC7-4789-9B02-F1663D779BD7</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Twenge</lastName><firstName>Jean</firstName><middleNames>M</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Campbell</lastName><firstName>W</firstName><middleNames>Keith</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Twenge & Campbell, 2002). Children and adolescents are not earning; hence, their socio-economic status can only be viewed as a reflection of that of their parents’, and it may not have a significant effect on them. These findings are not conclusive large correlation effects have been observed among Asian American children. Even though this study does not focus on children and adolescent, it will affirm the large effect size between the socio-economic status and self-confidence among middle-aged adults who are at the peak of their lives about careers and income.
Culture.Individuals in a certain socio-economic stratum have a certain set of believes that cannot be easily influenced by an individual outside this league. These beliefs tend to influence how individuals perceive their capabilities and value themselves, and in Twenge’s and Campbell’s (2002) study, the relationship between self-confidence and socio-economic status was smallest among the Hispanics and largest among the Asian Americans while it was average among the blacks and whites.
Gender and birth.A cross-over effect is observed among men and women with increasing age; men’s self-confidence decreases with age while that of women increases with age due to increasing empowerment. An individual’s year of birth signifies social changes over time, and for this reason, the current research will focus on a particular culture to avoid bias that may stem from variation in social change across different cultures.
Research questions
in order to explore the following questions: (i) impact of schooling on confidence; (ii) impact of upbringing on confidence; individuals from which SES are more likely to be high in confidence (see REF _Ref517001773 Figure 2); (iii) do conscientious individuals tend to be lower in confidence than non-conscientious individuals; (iv) how the level of competence is related to SES and (v) is there a link between birth-order, sibling-dynamic and confidence.
ConclusionIn conclusion, it is evident that there is a paucity of scientific information on the link between socioeconomic status and self-confidence; hence, the current study is justified. However, the current research has used self-esteem in the review of the literature to comprehend the how socioeconomic status is linked to self-confidence based on previous findings that have indicated a direct relationship between self-esteem and self-confidence. Thereby, to ascertain this claim, this study determines the relationship between socio-economic status and self-confidence. Most of the current research on related topics are old, and there is a need to come up with up-to-date information. In view of this paper, one’s socioeconomic status will not only be monetary form but will also include one’s educational attainment, title and ranking in the workplace, as well as one’s gender, birth cohort, and age.
Method/MethodologyIntroductionIn this chapter, the methodology and aim of the research will be explained by describing the participant sample and procedures. It further includes the presentation of the method of data analysis used.
Research aim
The aim of this study is to develop and understanding of the relationship between adolescent family Socio-economic status and confidence at work.
In order to accomplish this, the interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and interpreted using a thematic analysis process ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>19</priority><uuid>A3CB2862-E4CD-4EB7-AD3B-17CDC2A8522B</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Using thematic analysis in psychology</title><url>http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa</url><volume>3</volume><publication_date>99200601001200000000220000</publication_date><uuid>39ECD451-4A24-4E8C-BC48-F750282C253C</uuid><type>400</type><number>2</number><doi>10.1191/1478088706qp063oa</doi><startpage>77</startpage><endpage>101</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Qualitative Research in Psychology</title><uuid>30E51820-6DCD-4F60-83A7-6866D37B90EB</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Braun</lastName><firstName>Virginia</firstName></author><author><lastName>Clarke</lastName><firstName>Victoria</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Braun & Clarke, 2006). The participants were asked to recall a recent ‘critical incident,’ a specific time where they felt either high or low in confidence.
ParticipantsSelection criteria for interview subjects included: currently working or had been working in the UK within the last five years and their self-reported confidence level could be clearly categorised as either high or low.
Participants were identified through both the researcher’s social and professional networks, social media platforms and recommendations.
The participants were 27 adults from a cross-section of jobs with the following breakdown: 12 participants working in the Private sector (44%), 7 working in the Public sector (26%), 5 in other services (19%) and 3 currently not working (11%)
The gender composition of the participants was 11 females (41%), 10 males (37%) and 6 non-binary people (22%), whereby 12 self-reported to be low on confidence at the workplace (45%) and 15 self-reported to be high-confident (55%).
Of the participants who provided information regarding their family Socio-economic status (SES) while growing up, 12 reported to come from a high or upper-middle SES (44%), 6 from a middle-class SES (22%) and 8 from a middle to low SES (30%). (See Chapter REF _Ref517706980 r h Error! Reference source not found. for SES measurements.)
There was no ethnic diversity amongst the participants as only 3 participants were non-white (11%). This can be seen as a limitation of this research. (For complete participant demographics see REF _Ref521827237 r h * MERGEFORMAT Appendix E).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Demographic profile of participants
You should begin your methods chapter with a review of the research aims, and research questions – these are likely to have been modified from what you started out with in the light of the literature review.
In particular, you should use the research questions as the basis for discussing the data needs (and implications – i.e., the data needs analysis) of your proposed research (essential).
Your needs for data in turn strongly influence the overall design of your study, and the choice of methods of data collection (and often of analysis). So you should describe and justify the methods of data collection in terms of (a) the data you need to collect; and (b) the practical constraints you encountered. This provides you with a basis for discussing
validity and reliability. In this context you are strongly advised, referring to the data needs analysis, to discuss methods that you do not propose to use, but which might have been preferable in view of concerns about, e.g., accuracy, representativeness, etc. of the data you will be able to collect(essential).
describe and justify the specific data collection instruments (including, e.g., show that you’ve considered clearly how questions on a self-completion questionnaire, or on an interview schedule, relate to your data needs, research questions, and thus to your research aims) (essential)
describe and justify the methods/techniques of analysis chosen (essential)
describe and justify the sample and sampling, and on measures (essential).
You should have given extensive consideration to these in developing your dissertation plan. In addition, the methods chapter/ section traditionally includes:
reporting on issues affecting the results, e.g., response rates; demographics of the sample compared to population, etc. (i.e., issues bearing on validity, as distinct from data related to the research questions); and reflections on the quality of achieved research validity issues again.
Literature review only dissertations pose a special case – see materials in the section on reviewing literature systematically for more details.
Measures (R: Scales you used in your question to ascertain SES, why you chose them and then your interview questions)When I decided on this research, I thought determining the Socio-economic status will be easy and straightforward. Well, as it turns out, it is not. There are several indicators which have to be taken into account when measuring SES. The most common groupings are prestige and resources.
“Prestige-based assessments capture social stratification and an individual’s relative social-political-economic standing and are typically measured using occupational prestige indices such as Duncan’s Socioeconomic Index (SEI). ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>20</priority><uuid>238A1C6E-A19F-4B42-B188-9C581B9F71C7</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Best practices in conceptualizing and measuring social class in psychological research</title><url>https://www.jstor.org/stable/270978?origin=crossref</url><volume>13</volume><publication_date>99201300001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>82F7BE03-16CA-4F60-B72C-479DE0C5894A</uuid><type>400</type><number>1</number><doi>10.2307/270978</doi><startpage>77</startpage><endpage>113</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy</title><uuid>05ADDD78-D0F5-435B-99DA-FB43A3CA81BF</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Diemer</lastName><firstName>Matthew</firstName><middleNames>A</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Mistry</lastName><firstName>Rashmita</firstName><middleNames>S</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Wadsworth</lastName><firstName>Martha</firstName><middleNames>E</middleNames></author><author><lastName>López</lastName><firstName>Irene</firstName></author><author><lastName>Reimers</lastName><firstName>Faye</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation> (Diemer, Mistry, Wadsworth, López, & Reimers, 2013)”
Resource-based measures include income, wealth and educational credentials, as well as the lack of such resources, such as markers of poverty (e.g., public assistance) and material deprivation (Krieger, Williams & Moss, 1997)
Occupational PrestigeOccupational prestige and educational attainment are widely used within social science research, mainly by psychologists.
Occupational prestige indices rely on societal perceptions regarding the prestige of occupations and are therefore only robust measures of SES with adults who have been firmly entrenched in the labour market. People hold relatively stable and convergent perceptions regarding the prestige of occupations that have been rank-ordered in occupational prestige measures.
Examples:
The Nakao and Treas ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>21</priority><uuid>5BD51444-B745-4FF2-8234-F44F1C28D707</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Updating Occupational Prestige and Socioeconomic Scores: How the New Measures Measure up</title><url>http://www.jstor.org/stable/270978</url><volume>24</volume><publication_date>99199400001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>30F365E4-4D94-4DF3-B898-A97EE3C93607</uuid><type>400</type><doi>10.2307/270978</doi><startpage>1</startpage><endpage>73</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Sociological Methodology</title><uuid>5AB3819B-93EC-4E63-B0A4-A3C75DE88181</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Nakao</lastName><firstName>Keiko</firstName></author><author><lastName>Treas</lastName><firstName>Judith</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(1994)Socioeconomic Index ranks the prestige of occupation titles from the Census on a 1-100 scale.
For people that are currently not working or unemployed, the scale asks for their “usual’ employment.
In addition to their utility as SES measures, occupational prestige measures are useful in psychological research, because they provide another indicator of occupational attainment. Alternatively, these measures can also be used to capture the prestige of the occupations young people expect to attain later in life, or their occupational expectations, in that occupational expectations can be classified into occupational categories and similarly cross-walked to indices of occupational prestige. This approach provides a numerical operationalization of young people’s thinking about their future occupational roles, which are a component of the career development process and relatively strong predictors of later occupational outcomes. (Blustein, 2006; Diemer 2009; Diemer & Ali 2009)
Educational attainmentEducational attainment the second of our SES indicators, is frequently measured by the highest degree participants have attained or the highest-grade level they have completed. A unique advantage of this measure is that it can be used with adults directly, as well as indirectly with older children or adolescents, to ascertain the family’s educational attainment.
Income/wealthSociologists and economist prefer to measure the SES through indicators of economic resources.
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) & International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI) {Albrecht:2013ti
Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI)Ak;lsdjf ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>22</priority><uuid>827799F3-1848-4901-87F1-1F2B8FB96785</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><publisher>GRIN Verlag GmbH</publisher><title>International standard classification of occupations (ISCO) &amp; International socio-economic index of occupational status (ISEI)</title><url>http://www.worldcat.org/title/international-standard-classification-of-occupations-isco-international/oclc/925368273</url><publication_date>99201300001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>5D0A26B3-5CBD-4044-A5C0-417716520C9A</uuid><type>0</type><citekey>Albrecht:2013ti</citekey><subtitle>Überblick und Übergang zu den 2008er Versionen</subtitle><authors><author><lastName>Albrecht</lastName><firstName>Ricarda</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suffix>, pg. 12</suffix></cite></cites></citation>(Albrecht, 2013, pg. 12)
SES MatrixProcedure (Data and Data Collection. R: How it was actually carried out so that it could be copied, also your ethics and your training/piloting)Qualitative data was gathered via semi-structured interviews face-to-face as well as via Skype and zoom. In one case the interview was held via a regular audio call. The interviews were designed by the research leader, Anna Kane, in order to develop authentic self-confidence scales, but two additional areas of interest were added for this research. The average time of each interview was 50-55 min.
The interviews followed the critical incident technique, where we asked the participants to recall a specific time of high confidence and a situation where something went wrong, or they felt low in confidence. This was to explore the participants’ thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations during these specific incidents.
For the research of this paper, two areas of interest were added: (a) what impact do you think your schooling had on your confidence, and (b) what impact do you think your upbringing/family life had on your confidence.
The interviews were audiotaped with the participants’ permission, after ensuring them about the confidentiality and anonymisation of their answers and were later transcribed.
At the conclusion of the interview, participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire with demographic information to determine their adolescent family Socio-economic status.
Data analyses (Analytic Method)The transcript data were analysed in four steps, using thematic analysis process ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>23</priority><uuid>4483F347-458B-4709-B755-A1A6D0E20B57</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Using thematic analysis in psychology</title><url>http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa</url><volume>3</volume><publication_date>99200601001200000000220000</publication_date><uuid>39ECD451-4A24-4E8C-BC48-F750282C253C</uuid><type>400</type><number>2</number><doi>10.1191/1478088706qp063oa</doi><startpage>77</startpage><endpage>101</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Qualitative Research in Psychology</title><uuid>30E51820-6DCD-4F60-83A7-6866D37B90EB</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Braun</lastName><firstName>Virginia</firstName></author><author><lastName>Clarke</lastName><firstName>Victoria</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites></cites></citation>(Braun & Clarke, 2006).
First, each transcript was read several times to ensure familiarity with the content. Next, the paper transcripts were hand-coded in a first cycle analysis to capture essential elements and to look for significant phrases that “make meaning ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>24</priority><uuid>3F67A83F-D846-49BF-B03C-97F909902060</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>-1000</subtype><title>Phrase</title><url>http://www.worldcat.org/title/inventive-methods-the-happening-of-the-social/oclc/864782347</url><publication_date>99201308011200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>5A08D5E2-0D08-464B-B6D3-04054C2834E2</uuid><type>-1000</type><startpage>163</startpage><endpage>171</endpage><bundle><publication><subtype>0</subtype><publisher>Routledge</publisher><title>Inventive Methods The happening of the social</title><uuid>527E6540-AEC9-4F5F-A44E-DDC5DC56A2C6</uuid><type>0</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Fuller</lastName><firstName>Matthew</firstName></author><author><lastName>Goriunova</lastName><firstName>Olga</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suffix>, pg. 168</suffix></cite></cites></citation>(Fuller & Goriunova, 2013, pg. 168)” of what impact SES had on people’s confidence levels. The actual phrases of the participants such as “I don’t remember my parents being specifically supportive (09[505/506])” or “I was fairly heavily bullied throughout the entire tier of my schooling (C[576])” were highlighted and then coded in reference to the phrase such as “unsupportive parents” or “bullying at school”.
Parallel to this cycle, analytical memos were noted down in excel, using methods outlined by Saldaña ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>25</priority><uuid>69B5F577-9D7C-432E-8324-04D5B65978FD</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>London</place><publisher>Sage Publications Ltd</publisher><title>The coding manual for qualitative researchers</title><url>http://serviceunavailable.oclc.org/worldcatlibraries/</url><publication_date>99201600001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>E2699679-9D0F-4E44-A06B-B4CFAFF23D08</uuid><version>3rd</version><type>0</type><citekey></citekey><authors><author><lastName>Saldaña</lastName><firstName>Johnny</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation> (2016) (see REF _Ref518490736 r h Appendix B). Not only did this serve to keep track of immediate findings and thoughts but it helped me to avoid analytic paralysis ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>26</priority><uuid>F4017868-13FB-4E17-90F8-074BB9C87D26</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>Thousand Oaks, CA</place><publisher>Sage Publications, Inc</publisher><title>Situational Analysis: Grounded theory after the interpretive turn</title><url>https://www.amazon.co.uk/Situational-Analysis-Grounded-Theory-Interpretive/dp/1452260907/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1530725945&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=situational+analysis+grounded+theory+after+the+interpretive+turn</url><publication_date>99201710161200000000222000</publication_date><uuid>9A795CA9-2E33-4514-809C-43C5047BBC4C</uuid><version>2nd</version><type>0</type><authors><author><lastName>Clarke</lastName><firstName>Adele</firstName><middleNames>E</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Friese</lastName><firstName>Carrie</firstName><middleNames>E</middleNames></author><author><lastName>Washburn</lastName><firstName>Rachel</firstName><middleNames>S</middleNames></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suffix>, pg. 107</suffix></cite></cites></citation>(A. E. Clarke, Friese, & Washburn, 2017, pg. 107).
With the help of NVivo, the second cycle of coding was then applied to cluster the codes according to “repetitive, regular, or consistent occurrences ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>27</priority><uuid>55C1DB97-E353-400D-9C42-D2A08E125374</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>0</subtype><place>London</place><publisher>Sage Publications Ltd</publisher><title>The coding manual for qualitative researchers</title><url>http://serviceunavailable.oclc.org/worldcatlibraries/</url><publication_date>99201600001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>E2699679-9D0F-4E44-A06B-B4CFAFF23D08</uuid><version>3rd</version><type>0</type><citekey></citekey><authors><author><lastName>Saldaña</lastName><firstName>Johnny</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suffix>, pg. 5</suffix></cite></cites></citation>(Saldaña, 2016, pg. 5)” and to form categories and themes in relation to the research question. Themes such as “school experience positive/negative” or “upbringing positive/negative” emerged (See REF _Ref518502275 r h Appendix D).
Ideally, a third coding phase should have been applied to review the themes further, but due to time restrictions, this wasn’t possible.
As the interviews focused on the experience of high and low confidence moments of the participants as well as the impact their schooling and adolescent family life had on their confidence, it was inevitable that the dialogue included content regarding personal characteristics. As this paper focuses on the relationship between adolescent Socio-economic status and confidence at work, for the purpose of the current analysis and due to space limitations, themes that were internal to organisational context were not included in the analysis and are not presented here.
The data analysis was primarily conducted by the second author, in collaboration with the first author, both of whom reviewed the data, the coding process, and the data coding through reading and discussion throughout. The data were read and reread several times, and then coding and analysis followed a four-step process.
Coding focused both on the semantic content of what participants wrote and on the more latent meanings in the data (i.e., the ideas and assumptions
that underpinned explicit semantic meanings; Braun & Clarke, 2006). Data were initially coded with the data collated by question-response, using fairly broad codes such as ‘‘embarrassing,” ‘‘natural,” and ‘‘personal choice.”
The second round of coding identified broad patterns of meaning by recoding the entire data set, disregarding both the questions to which participants responded and whether they were responding to generic, male, or female bodies. The codes were also revised at this stage to add more detail, producing more complex codes such as ‘‘not embarrassing, but . . . ,’’ ‘‘interferes with sex,’’ and ‘‘individual choice, but . . . ’’ At this point, the codes identified were collated in order to develop potential themes.
In the third step, provisional themes were created from the codes, such as ‘‘caveats,’’ ‘‘personal choice within limits,’’ and ‘‘attractiveness/looking good.’’
The fourth stage involved further refinement of provisional themes, which meant revisiting the coded data, and then the full data set, determining the fit of potential themes.
Data analysis (R: analytical procedures used for your study – i.e., thematic analysis)
Before the analysis, the interviews were transcribed and sorted by their confidence level. The analysis of the data was then performed by manually coding with hard copies of the transcripts, followed by using NVivo.
The five main themes emerging from the data are the School, Family, Individual, Work and Confidence type. Each category was then further divided (see REF _Ref518502275 r h * MERGEFORMAT Appendix D for detailed mind maps).
SchoolSchool plays an integral part in the Socio-Economic status. When asked about the impact schooling had had on their confidence the responses touched on individual experiences, teacher interactions, grades and school experience in general. The teacher and school experience were quite black and white. I was able to categorise then in ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ experiences.
FamilyIndividual
Work
Confidence type
Results/FindingsWhat is confidence?
Every individual defines confidence differently. Participants who rated themselves a highly confident believe that their confidence comes from “self-believe (Participant D),” “knowledge (Participant 8)”, “passion about what (they) do (Participant 18)” and “the people around [them] (Participant 4)”.
While participants who rated themselves low in confidence find that they “didn’t actually believe in [themselves] (Participant 3)”, “always questioning everything that [they] do (Participant 5)” or are “confident about the technical aspects of what (they) do […] (but) the problems come when […] interacting with others (Participant 15)”.
Research questionsImpact of schooling on confidence;It would appear that a positive school experience has a positive impact on confidence. Five high confidence individuals had an exclusively positive experience. While a negative school experience seems not to have such a great impact on the confidence level. 4 HC and 5 LC had an exclusively negative school experience, which would suggest that there must be another influence on why some people turned out highly confident and some low.
48% of the participant experienced school partially negative as well as positive.
Summary. It would appear that a positive school environment is a strong indicator of future confidence levels.
Impact of upbringing on confidence;Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Impact of upbringing on confidence levels
It would appear that a negative upbringing has a bigger impact on confidence in total (low as well as high confidence).
individuals from which SES are more likely to be high in confidence (see REF _Ref517001773 * MERGEFORMAT Figure 3);
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Hierarchy chart, SES vs. Confidence levelIt would appear that the people growing up in a lower middle SES produce the highest number of high-confident individuals (7 out of 8=87.5%), while upper middle SES seems to lower the confidence level (5 out of 7= 71.4). Middle class upbringing appears to have a fairly balanced number of Low- (4=57.1) and high-confident individuals (3=42.9), while individuals growing up in a high SES tend to be more confident (3=60%).
How is SES related to the level of competence?Although this is a limited sample, the results lead to believe that individuals on either spectrum of the SES (lower middle and high) seem to produce the most high-confident people. This is interesting because it would suggest that there are two different factors at play. My hypothesis is that the answer lies in the motivation to work. Individuals from Lower Middle SES will have to ‘fight’ their way through the education system in order to gain their professional competence which leads to higher confidence (see REF _Ref517003491 Figure 4); while individuals from high SES have often had a sense of entitlement which increases their level of confidence.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Confidence aids
It would appear that independent of the confidence level and socio-economic background, competence and ‘being prepared’ are the biggest confidence supporting factors.
“I think the times where things have gone wrong have been the times when actually afterwards on reflection, have helped me become more stable in my confidence.” Participant 10

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Confidence Blockages
Low confidence individuals seem to compare themselves to others more often which leads to a lowering of their confidence levels.
Especially individuals from Upper Middle-Class background seem to struggle when they can’t rely on their confidence: “[…] When things go wrong it, it affects me very badly (Participant F).”
“When I’m confronted with something that I’ve never done before, that’s one thing, but when I’ve done it before and didn’t honestly know how to do it, […], that’s when I, I struggle (Participant 9).”
Looking at these Low-confident/SES Upper-Middle individuals in isolation, they all reported a negative school experience, but good grades and it makes me wonder if there isn’t a connection between the school’s academic and their own expectations of competence at the workplace. I believe this would be a topic for future quantitative investigations.
Is there a link between birth-order and confidence?Although such a link is better suited for a quantitative study with a much greater sample size, it struck me as interesting how a lot of the participants willingly, and without prompting, offered their place within the birth order. According to the participants’ answers, it would appear that the youngest siblings are more confident, and the oldest child tends to have a lower confidence level. This is, of course, a distorted picture and is the opposite of what the literature suggests. Falbo ADDIN PAPERS2_CITATIONS <citation><priority>28</priority><uuid>DE21E058-31D8-4FCB-9EEA-0FF56D47F6E1</uuid><publications><publication><subtype>400</subtype><title>Relationships between birth category, achievement, and interpersonal orientation</title><volume>41</volume><publication_date>99198100001200000000200000</publication_date><uuid>F9096BAC-CCB8-45D7-B91E-8D78E8E633B1</uuid><version></version><type>400</type><number>1</number><startpage>121</startpage><endpage>131</endpage><bundle><publication><title>Journal of Personality and Social Psychology</title><uuid>E8A56158-BBE2-418C-977A-CCABEB90EE91</uuid><subtype>-100</subtype><type>-100</type></publication></bundle><authors><author><lastName>Falbo</lastName><firstName>Toni</firstName></author><author><lastName>Hogan</lastName><firstName>Robert</firstName></author></authors></publication></publications><cites><cite><suppress>A</suppress></cite></cites></citation>(1981) found that self-esteem is higher among firstborn children than later born children.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Confidence distribution according to birth order
DiscussionThe importance of self-confidence in the workplace, in day-to-day interactions with others or other life aspects, can’t be underestimated. It is due to this reason that a wealth of literature on self-confidence exists. One can easily identify literature on self-confidence and its relationship with motivation, self-esteem, and performance in the workplace among other aspects. However, close to zero studies have attempted to explore the link between socioeconomic status and performance in the workplace. Considering that confidence at the workplace is a crucial determinant of the level of output and productivity as well as in the rate of turnover, the present study can provide further insights to companies and managers on which employees need further motivation and how to provide the motivation needed to push their profits up.
The study has contributed to minimizing the literature gap by providing a framework of the themes concerning the relationship between self-confidence and SES. SES and how they affect the confidence levels in the workplace. These include among other things, the school one went to, the family upbringing, and the birth order. An investigation of the link between confidence and the competence level has also been done. An understanding of this relationship will go a long way in determining the motivation needed to be provided to the employees which may determine the motivation techniques that can be employed to address the situation effectively.
5.1 Findings
The results suggest that a positive school environment has a significant relationship with the level of confidence in the workplace. While some respondents from a negative school experience said that they had high confidence levels, this can only point to another factor in play. A positive school experience affects the future confidence majorly through the increased support from colleagues and teachers in handling students’ academic and non-academic needs (Maclellan, 2014). A prestigious school will, for example, have highly trained, motivated, and skilled instructors who will always work to improve their students’ potential as compared to those from a poorly run community school or college. One of the ways that the student might gain their confidence may be through communication. In a positive school environment, students may answer the instructor’s questions to the class from time to time as they clearly understand what is asked and how to answer it effectively. The students may also discuss frequently among themselves which with time improves their speaking skills and confidence levels. The student might then carry this increased confidence into the workplace among other areas of their life. A positive school experience may also lead to the acquisition of various skills and competencies in areas such as business, journalism, and engineering among other fields. A clear understanding of the subject area one is involved in plays a crucial part in determining one’s confidence in decision making. For example, an individual with a business degree from a respected business school would be better skilled and at a position to decide on various issues dealing in team management, business strategy, financial modeling, and project management among others.
One of the other areas that came up was the relationship between birth-order and confidence. The respondents freely talked about where they were on the birth-order. The results showed that the oldest siblings had a lower confidence level while the younger siblings had higher levels of confidence. The results can’t, however, be regarded as conclusive. They differed with the findings of Falbo (1981) among other researchers. The theme would need to be explored in a quantitative study with more participants for more accurate results.
The results did not clearly identify a trend on the link between upbringing and the confidence level. Respondents from the various socio-economic groups deemed themselves to be either highly confident or with low confidence. However, the lower middle SES group had the highest number of confident individuals which may suggest that a negative upbringing has the greatest impact on confidence levels. The confidence levels for respondents from the various groups may depend on among other things the availability of the parent when the children are growing up and the restrictions the child has to deal with.
Children who are left by their parents from an early age to freely interact with other kids and make their thoughts known to them, their parents or visitors may be at a better position to become leaders and to have high levels of self-confidence (Zahed et al., 2016). The children will have learned how to talk with others frequently, turn to take, give their views, and make crucial decisions from an early age. Free thinking, for example, helps the children to be more creative and analytical as compared to others who are faced with various restrictions such as not leaving the house or going to anyone’s home. These restrictions may be imposed by both categories of families; whether from a high or low SES. This desire to see children fit a particular description sometimes may make them end up becoming respectful employees but with zero innovative skills that would drive the company as well as themselves forward.
The lack of parents’ involvement in their children’s growth and development may also be costly to the children in confidence development. If the parent is always a way, focusing on their work life, the child will receive little encouragement or motivation. They will have no one to tell them that they are adorable, creative and will have a brighter future. This is common in many families in the middle and high SES. Over-involvement also has its downside. Too much parenting or involvement leads to laziness that proves costly in future. The kids get into some comfort zone where they believe or have a view that their problems will be handled and that there is no need to worry or be concerned about anything. This situation limits the child’s creativity or thinking ability meaning that they would not have the confidence to make certain decisions or handle challenging tasks. The fact that the people growing in a lower middle SES have the highest confidence may point to the presence of their parents in the children’s life. Only one parent may be working in such groups, leaving the other to have time for the children. The parents in the category may also be involved in the informal sector where they do not have to be guided by strict time periods unlike some of their counterparts in the upper middle and high SES groups who may be out of their homes very early in the morning and back later in the evening. Those from a low SES on the other hand, may not have the resources needed to pamper their children unlike those from high SES groups who may have the money to buy almost everything that the child needs, hire people to do things that the child is supposed to do among other things. The kid will have reduced responsibility in this case that will inhibit their thinking and problem-solving skills. One who is involved in various activities from an early age, on the other hand, will gain insights on how to do it and with time develop critical thinking skills (Bunker, 1991). The critical thinking they develop will be crucial in the workplace as it will encourage information gathering that will guide decision making at the workplace which increases the employee’s confidence. This is in line with Crooks et al. (2005) who argues that critical thinking stimulates reflection in a new graduate which increases their awareness of job requirements and consequently their confidence at work.
The results showed that individuals from both the lower middle and the high SES groups showed high levels of confidence. This should not be taken to show that there were errors in research but rather it suggests that there was an overlap of factors responsible for confidence in the two groups. The two factors responsible were the competence resulting from the motivation to work and the sense of entitlement. While the individual from a poor background may not go to a prestigious school or have all they require to succeed, they will be highly determined to change their families’ as well as their present conditions so that they may not have to put up with the problems they have in future. These individuals, therefore, put on a fighting spirit to take them past all the struggles they face and dedicate much of their time to reading and understanding what they are taught so that they can attain the education requirements needed for a good future. Those from high SES families, on the other hand, have a high level of belief of entitlement due to the pampering from their parents. The sense of entitlement increases their self-esteem (Twenge and Campbell, 2002) which increases their confidence in the long run. They would worry less about the probability of running into financial challenges among other problems and might, therefore, dedicate their time and efforts in understanding their job and industry requirements which increases their confidence. One of the things that reduce confidence is self-comparison with others. One may compare their financial and social position with that of other individuals and get discouraged, adopting the belief that they are just meant to be failures. Another comparison may be about the type of education that they have received. An individual who went to an unknown school or university may start feeling that those from the prestigious schools will have the upper hand in promotions and job security among other things which may decrease their confidence levels significantly.
5.2 Strengths and limitations
The study has some strengths and limitations. One of the strengths was that it considered a number of themes in the relationship between SES and confidence, unlike many other studies which explore one or two factors. Themes like the type of schooling, upbringing, birth-order and the level of competence all contributed to painting a clear picture of the relationship.
There are some limitations to the present study which should be considered in future research to increase the accuracy of the results. One of the issues regards the participant involved in the study. Due to time and financial constraints, only 27 respondents took part in the study. While the study tried to minimize errors by using participants from various sectors and those not working, a group of 27 respondents may be argued to be quite small and not presenting the diversity needed in such a study. For example, only three non-working individuals took part. With a high number, the accuracy levels would have been higher as the errors resulting from untruthful self-reporting would have been minimized.
Self-reporting as the method of determining confidence levels as well as socioeconomic status might also have been problematic due to social desirability issues. The fact that the participants were identified from the researcher’s professional and social networks as well as recommendations might have further aggravated the issue. Some respondents might have had the urge to report as having high self-confidence as they might have believed that the researcher who knows them well or to some little extent might start viewing them in a negative light. Individuals usually prefer interacting or forming relationships with others who are self-confident or with little negativity so that their confidence levels can be maintained. It would therefore not be surprising for one to self-report having a high confidence level at the workplace to maintain the previous interaction levels. Others might have been of the opinion that the researcher might view their economic status negatively which might affect their relationship. Believing for example that I was from an upper economic class, one might elevate their economic status to avoid this negative perception. The recommendations, on the other hand, might have been biased. One might, for example, have recommended a participant who aligned with his self-confidence levels in line with his/her view concerning the topic which might have led to inaccurate results. For example, an individual believing that the economic status ought not to determine the confidence level might suggest a friend whose confidence levels relate to their hypothesis. If the inconsistencies are distributed among the various groups, the findings might not reflect the real situation.
Additionally, it might not have been possible to gauge the truthfulness of the participants for interviews that were conducted via audio calls as it would not be possible to watch their body language in these situations. However, to increase the probability of honest responses, the participants were assured of confidentiality for their responses. The respondents, therefore, knew that their responses would not be disclosed to the individuals who recommended them; this might, therefore, have minimized the errors from this category of respondents. The need for truthfulness had also been emphasized before the interviews, and I can, therefore, hope that they considered my plea.
The results were also not adjusted for significance levels which might have led to capitalization on chance. However, the major reason this was not done was that the study took more of an explanatory style which meant that the error would not be quite significant considering the theory incorporated.
ConclusionThe present study contributes to the literature on confidence and SES in the workplace focusing on aspects such as schooling, family upbringing, birth-order, and competence. Though they do not address how confidence levels can be improved, the knowledge of confidence determinants related to SES will be crucial. The study points to some relationship between the level of SES and confidence. The type of schooling received affects the level of confidence of an individual in the future which may also apply to the workplace. The type of upbringing also contributes in some way to the level of confidence that people have in the workplace and life. The overlap of the confidence levels in the various SES groups especially the lower middle and the high SES, however, shows the need for further research on the issue.
RecommendationsThe present study has provided an explanation of the relationship between confidence and SES based on a framework of three major themes
Future research should consider exploring these themes deeply in quantitative studies to establish a clear relationship between SES and confidence. While the literature, for example, suggested that later-born children have lower confidence levels as compared to first-borns, the results found the vice versa. The upbringing theme also showed an overlap in the lower middle and upper categories which might have suggested a multiplicity of factors. Future studies should consider adjusting for other factors that could be at play as well as the confidence levels for each theme. This would minimize the potential errors that might have accompanied the results for each theme. Assigning a 95% confidence level for the upbringing theme might, for example, have minimized the error for each SES level instead of having a collective error for the whole theme.
The study points to the importance of adjusting the data for age, gender, and race among other factors. While the sample might have been regarded as small, the study made sure that there was a balance in the number of males, females, as well as individuals from various age groups. The study also ensured that participants from the various sectors were included. This adjustment meant that the results cut across the board and reflected the real situation at the workplace. The only problem was that the number of Blacks was quite minimal as compared to Whites. It may be important for future research to consider this as the different races may have to cope with unique problems or might have various advantages which may have contributed to their overall confidence levels.
There is also a need to examine the birth order variable in the SES themes as it is crucial in examining the socio-economic as well as the cultural environment (Caspi, 1987). One who is born earlier or later might enjoy or lack some benefits that may affect their confidence levels while young and as adults. This is a factor that has always been ignored by many studies, but I believe it would help in minimizing the errors and giving a clear picture of the relationship. Another variable that might be included in future studies is self-esteem. Twenge and Campbell (2002) found a significant relationship between self-esteem and SES. Future research may try to find how the three factors of SES, confidence, and self-esteem relate to each other.
Finally, the research will have various implications for companies, CEOs, and concerned parties. There was a link between schooling and confidence levels. The management in determining the level or type of motivation to give to the employee might consider the school to which one went. This might help in gauging their current confidence level so that the best motivation technique is used, whether training, verbal encouragement, and trips among others.

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Research Question Formula for database research
Confidence Socio-Economic status
Self-esteem
Self-efficacy
Self-confidence
High
Privilege
Advantage
Wealth
rich
Private school
Boarding school
Homeownership
Middle
Middleclass
Public school Low
Low income
State school
Social housing
Abuse? Foster care? Social service?
Domestic violence
noft((Self-esteem OR Self-efficacy OR Self-confidence* OR Confident*) AND (Privilege* OR advantage* OR wealth* OR rich OR Private school OR Boarding school OR middleclass OR low income OR state school OR social hous* OR bilingual* OR divorce* OR Public school OR homeowner OR State school OR Social housing OR Foster* OR dysfunction* OR minorit* OR socio-economic NEAR/4 status))
Reflective log => also called “Analytic Memos.”
Please insert here
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Analytical Memos (Reflective Log)
Codebook
Main Theme Category & Description Sub-categories
Individual
Reactions to low-confident moments FAKE
The individual reacts to a low-confident moment in a fake/pretend way. Pretending confidence – Fake it till you make it; Professional persona – Professional confidence differs from personal confidence; Seniority; Using humour.
FIGHT
The individual reacts to a low-confident moment by ‘fighting.’ Action – to something about it – change circumstances; Bravery, Courage; Actively looking for support (ally), asking for help; Pushing through; Self-organise – order the situation.
FLIGHT
The individual reacts to a low-confident moment by ‘fleeing.’ Avoidance; Compartmentalising; Denial; Procrastination; Removing oneself from the situation (leaving); Changing/switching (persona, gender, language)
FREEZE
The individual reacts to a low-confident moment by ‘freezing.’ Indecision; Numbness; Resignation; Time heals all wounds
MINDFUL
The individual reacts to a low-confident moment in a mindful way. letting go; Changing perspective (bigger picture, positive thinking); Keep calm (collected, cool head); Making yourself vulnerable; Managing expectations; Self-coaching; strength from within (internal energy, meditating, etc.)
Internal Drivers
What ‘drives’ an individual. What makes them ‘get out of bed’ in the morning. The need to prove themselves, self-discovery, self-awareness, pride, self-accepting. Control; Pride – proud of oneself; Self-accepting; Self-Awareness, honesty with oneself; Self-discovery; the need to prove oneself – have to do better than others.
Internal struggles
What is holding an individual back? What makes them lose confidence. Mental health issues (depression, anxieties, disorders, etc..); Neurodiversity; Regret; Shame (feeling ashamed); Self-doubt
Personality traits
Self-reported Conscientiousness; Introverted; Extroverted; Emotionally stable; tenacious (stubborn, sees things through); Reflective; Diplomatic; Compulsive
Negative external influences
an individual’s confidence Lack of understanding; What others think; Lack of Control; Envy/Jealousy; Not appreciated/respected/acknowledged
Positive external influences
an individual’s confidence Appreciation from others; Support from others; Acceptance from others
School School experience negative
Aspects of schooling that had negatively influenced the individual’s confidence.
BHD (Bullying, Harassment, Discrimination); Elitism; Lack of guidance; Lack of support; Lack of understanding; Lack of action (help); Social exclusion (being different than everybody else); Stereotyping; Peer-pressure
School experience positive
Aspects of schooling that had positively influenced the individual’s confidence.
Instil self-believe; Social included – friends; Formal (structure); Well resourced; Clear Aspirations – Goals; Breaking social norms (positive); Supportive.
Academic performance
How the academic performance influenced the individual’s confidence if at all. Good; Bad; Medium; Good at sports; Bad at sports
Teacher negative
Independent from school experience. How the individual’s (negative) experience with the teacher(s) has influenced their confidence. Teacher no supportive; Teacher indifferent; Teacher judgemental
Teacher positive
Independent from school experience. How the individual’s (positive) experience with the teacher(s) has influenced their confidence. Being liked (by the teacher); Inclusive teaching; Teacher support; Teacher encouragement
Work – Job – Role Motivation to work
What motivates the individual to go to work? This is not directly connected to confidence but gives a better understanding of the individual. Fulfilment; Financial; Interest/enjoyment; Meaning – Purpose; Identity; Helping, Teaching others; Autonomy – Freedom – Independence; Self-actualisation; Social (interaction, belonging); Work-life balance
Confidence hampering work environment
Aspects of the work environment that hamper/reduce an individual’s confidence. BHD (Bullying, harassment & discrimination); Pressure – stress; Lack of support (work); Boss/colleagues/clients negative; Hierarchy as a hindrance; Lack of guidance – training; Toxic Climate
Confidence nurturing a work environment
Aspects of the work environment that nurture/increase an individual’s confidence. support from management superior; People positive; Positive culture; Being listen to/appreciated
Confidence Confidence aids
What causes an individual to be confident? What actions/behaviours can aid to a person’s confidence? Ability to change; Competence-based confidence; Confidence through collaboration, working together, team; Confident through planning, preparation; Physical appearance increases confidence
Confidence blockages
What lowers an individual’s confidence? What actions or behaviours hinder a person to have a higher level of confidence? Comparison to others; Lack of competence; Lack of planning-preparing
Family Upbringing negative
Aspects of upbringing and adolescent family life that has negatively influenced the individual’s confidence.
Absent parents – working or other – not permanently absent; Abuse physical, mental, emotional; Emotional Pressure; Estranged; Family indifference; Family lack of aspirations; Family lack of encouragement; Family patronising; Hierarchical pressure; Misalignment of values; Parent unsupportive; Substance abuse of a close person (relative, friend etc); Tension at home; Social exclusion (isolation); Changes in home environment (parents separating, Loss, death, move)
Upbringing positive
Aspects of upbringing and adolescent family life that has positively influenced the individual’s confidence.
Stable Home environment; Family caring; Family acceptance; Family close; Family empathetic; Family freedom of expression; Family encouraging; Family Loving; Family seen as important; Family openness; Family protection/protective; Family strict (but fair); Family support
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Codebook 01
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Mind map, Cluster/Theme: School experience
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Mind map, Cluster/Theme: Family / Upbringing experience
For the analysis, a wide excel-sheet was used, but for aesthetic reasons, I attached the easier readable word table in this appendix.

All Examples

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