Manifestations of Asthma
Manifestations of Asthma
Asthma refers to a situation in which individual airways swell and narrow producing excess of mucus. It is characterized by a general breathing problem that often causes breath shortness, coughing and wheezing. To some individuals, this disorder is a challenge while to others it’s a minor nuisance. This text starts by describing the general clinical and pathophysiology manifestation of the disorder giving the difference between early and late-stage reaction. Since it is difficult to provide a complete cure for asthma, the text highlights its common signs and symptoms, general triggers and risk factors associated with it. This is significant as it helps one to determine a proper adjustment to be made on treatment as well as avoiding the common triggers that might cause it. Some of the triggers are genetic while others relate to environmental conditions that surround an individual. Also, we get to know how the stated triggers and risk factors affect one’s respiratory system leading to asthma.
Asthma refers to an ordinary disorder relating to airways that are intricate and mostly characterized by recurring and variable signs, impediment of airflow and basic inflammation. These interactions influence the severity and clinical manifestation of the said disorder (Kim, et al., 2013). Therefore, considering the pathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestation of this disorder, there are three major factors involved; underlying inflammation, bronchial hypersensitiveness and airflow obstruction.
This is assumed to be a secondary cause of asthma due to renowned IgE and non- IgE pathways. The former implies that the smooth muscles of the Bronchial are forced to contract due to exposure to irritants or allergens from the surrounding. In non-IgE, the mediators are sent right from airway cells in reaction to NSAIDS which leads to bronchi-constriction. In addition, stimuli in the nature of cold air, exercise, and irritants can also influence the occurrence of Bronchi-constriction
Airway hype- responsiveness
This is made up of exaggerated reaction to particular stimuli in the body. The process is entirely reversible and as a result, it is associated with a Methacholine challenge where the patient demonstrates a sudden reduction in FEV1. However, the actual mechanism that leads to the hypersensitiveness is yet to be identified. In this regard, dysfunctional neuro-regulation, formation change, and inflammation are thought to be significant.
This plays a pivotal role in asthma pathogenesis. It is made up of late and early phase response.
In early-phase, a person is left to allergens and as result generates IgE antibodies (Fahy, 2015). Putting together environmental exposure and genetics makes one express more of Th2 T-cells as opposed to 1. Continuous exposure to the same allergen finally leads to contraction of airway muscle.
Contrary to the above discussion, in the late phase response, mediators produced influences enrollment of adaptive and innate inflammatory cells. In these cells, mediators are generated in large numbers leading to contraction of the smooth muscle. In many instances, this is evidenced after one gets exposed to the allergen. The other features of the inflammatory reaction are shaped by mediators as they are generated.
Holding to the fact that asthma shifts from time-to-time, it is significant for people to realize its symptoms as an aid to treatment adjustment. The most common symptoms relating to it include:
Chest pain and tightness
Wheezing sounds mainly when exhaling
Wheezing and coughing that is intensified by the flu
Difficult sleeping influenced by short breath and wheezing
People have raised a question regarding why some get asthma attacks while others don’t, although the response to this question is yet to be properly known, the difference is created by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. For this reason, Asthma triggers tend to be different from one person to another and they include:
Specific medications including aspirin and beta blockers
Stress and tough emotions
Irritants and air pollutants like smoke
Airborne substances like dust and pollen
In addition to the above triggers of asthma, there are other risk factors that enhance probabilities of asthma development. They include:
Disclosure to secondhand smoke
Inhaling exhaust fumes
Allergic condition like hay fever
The above asthma triggers, as well as risk factors, have the common effect to respiratory system where some make the muscular found in bronchi to contract hence narrowing the airways. Others increase the sensitivity of airways thereby enhancing their chances of reacting with asthma triggers.
Fahy, J. V. (2015). Type 2 inflammation in asthma—present in most, absent in many. Nature Reviews Immunology, 15(1), 57.
Kim, K. H., Jahan, S. A., & Kabir, E. (2013). A review on human health perspective of air pollution with respect to allergies and asthma. Environment international, 59, 41-52.
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