Free Adoption of e-Government in Bahrain Dissertation Example
Factors Impacting the Adoption of e-Government Services in Developing: A Case Study of Bahrain Government
The age of technology has seen the gap between developing and developed countries increase. The gap is caused by the implementation trends between the two nations and the easy access to innovations. E-Government service is a technology that was invented to enhance service delivery among government agencies. In Bahrain, the implementation of e-Services has not been effective due to the low-level of adoption among citizens. Many governments have realized that this is a problem for not only e-Service adoption but also the implementation of other new technologies. It is difficult to understand why citizens have this behavior and attitude towards e-Services in Bahrain. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the factors that impact the adoption of e-Government services in Bahrain. The study uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to evaluate how the concepts of culture and trust influence citizens’ attitude towards e-Services in Bahrain. The evaluation focuses on four constructs: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitation conditions. These four constructs define culture and trust.
Keywords: UTAUT, e-Services, Bahrain citizens
Factors Impacting the Adoption of e-Government Services in Developing: A Case Study of Bahrain Government
Chapter One: Introduction
In March 2001, 122 nations convened at the Third Global Forum on Reinventing Government. The theme of the meeting was “Fostering Development through e-Government.” The representatives of each country shared ideas, information, and best practices linked to e-government (Basu, 2004, p.111). Since then, the United Nations has focused on assessing the effectiveness of e-government adoption in its member states. The first benchmarking was conducted by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) in 2016, analyzing the progress each member nations have made and the approaches they have employed to ensure e-government adoption is a success. In 2016, UNDESA carried out a survey, this time to analyze the achievements that each member states had made in their adoption of e-government services (United Nations, 2016, p.108). The primary aim of the research was to promote effective adoption of e-Government to improve the lives of people and support development, particularly in developing nations.
Essentially, e-government services are meant to enable access and improve the quality of services offered by the government, support transparency, participation, and accountability, enhance coordination within government, and contribute to social equity (Basu, 2004, p.112). As a significant step towards development, countries have attempted to adopt e-government services for their citizens. The Bahrain government is no exception. They are conscious of the necessity to improve the government services’ efficiency using new technologies. As a method to achieve vision 2030, the Bahrain government has initiated the e-Government Agency service program formerly initiated by H.E. Shaikh Muhammed bin Mubarak al-Khalifa on 23rd March 2007 (Bahrain e-Government Authority, 2016). However, its full implementation has not been realized, and this is down to several factors that impact its adoption as part of the government’s strategy to deliver services to its citizens. The two significant factors are culture and trust. Therefore, with an emphasis on Bahrain government, this case study tries to understand how culture and trust impact the acceptance of e-government programs in developing nations within the structure of the UTUAT model (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology). The UTAUT model outlines four constructs that explain culture: Effort Expectancy, EE, performance expectancy, PE, Social Influence, and Facilitation Conditions.
The Concept of Culture and Trust
The concept of culture is not easy to define. It does not have a general or specific definition. The only close definition is given by Hofstede (1993). He states that culture is “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members in one human group from another” (p.21). Also, Hofstede defines organizational culture as “ideologies, practices and beliefs that make an organization different from others” (p.22). In essence, he regards culture as a factor that distinguishes a person, group of people or organizations from others. Culture has been a major factor in the adoption of e-Services in different countries. However, the study of e-Services adoption in Arab countries relies on different cultural dimensions. Bahrain, in particular, is considered one of the most diverse and complex cultural and social systems in the world, which makes a study of the cultural influence on e-services adoption an important aspect of this paper (Meftah, Gharleghi, & Samadi, 2015, p.141). Based on Hofstede’s definition, different cultural dimensions explain Bahrain citizens’ cultural beliefs that influence their acceptance of e-Government services. They include performance expectancy (PE) and social influence.
Ideally, a study of the social influence and performance expectancy will define how culture influences Bahrain citizens’ attitude towards e-Government services. According to AIAwadhi and Morris (2009, p.586), performance expectancy is the degree to which citizens believe that using e-Government services will improve their lives and performances. They assess the effectiveness or relevance of the government services based on their benefits such as time, effort and money, how they improve or enhance the quality of services provided by the government, how it provides people with equal opportunities and whether it facilitates interaction or communication between government agencies and the people. In other words, performance expectancy is a cultural dimension that determines people’s beliefs (AIAwadhi and Morris, 2009, p.586). Similarly, social influence describes people’s belief and perception of new government services. They ask themselves whether the services to be rendered important and whether they should accept it. Because the two cultural dimensions are based on people’s perception and beliefs about new services, they demonstrate how culture influences people’s attitude towards e-Government services. Therefore, a study of the two cultural dimensions will explain how culture influences the adoption of e-Services.
Trust is what defines the relationship between the government and citizens (Sharma, Bao& Wang Qian, 2012, p.71). In service delivery by any government, it is important to build trust between government agencies and citizens to allow for smooth and easy implementation. Four major factors determine whether citizens will trust in the service delivered by the government: whether the services are ethical, whether they are legal, whether they are trustworthy and whether they can safeguard their confidentiality (Sharma, Bao& Wang Qian, 2012, p.77). However, trust is defined in two main dimensions, which will form the basis of assessment for this research- effort expectancy and facilitation conditions. These dimensions define the concept of trust because they explain citizens’ perception and beliefs in the government’s services.
Essentially, Venkatesh et al. (2003, p.434) explain effort expectancy as the degree of ease in the implementation of e-Services. He states that trust is built between citizens and government agencies when the service to be implemented easy to use, not complex and is legally and ethically protected. The construct is vital in measuring the degree of trust in government institutions and how this trust helps in the easy implementation of e-Government services. Also, facilitating conditions defines the citizens’ beliefs about the new invention, and how their belief that the government is working in their interest. The dimension measures the degree to which the citizens believe that the government is implementing services meant to support them and improve their lives. As constructs that define trust, this study will focus on effort expectancy and facilitation conditions to demonstrate how trust influences the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain. The two constructs will define the relationship between citizens and government agencies.
Many governments all over the world are now using technology to improve their services. The main aim is to make it possible to have access to government services and information. Traditionally, the public would go to agencies formed by the government to request services. With technology changing society today, it has become essential for nations to implement strategies that will help them compete in the global market while improving the well-being of the citizens. Ideally, the difference between developing and developed nations is the manner in which they embrace new technological advancements. For example, nations such as the UK and the U.S. have been known to use ICT to influence their businesses and citizens. UNDESA has been vigilant in making sure developing countries adopt these styles of governance- surveying how UN member countries take e-government services is an excellent example of their commitment to improving government services and closing the gap that exists between developed and developing nations regarding development and service delivery (Meftah, Gharleghi & Samadi, 2015, p.144). Hence, e-government has offered a platform for governments to transform their countries.
However, Bahrain government is faced with the challenge of low-level of adoption of e-government services by citizens because of the cultural differences and lack of trust in government agencies (Meftah, Gharleghi & Samadi, 2015, p.141). Its success relies heavily on the cooperation and commitment of citizens to adopt the innovation. Unfortunately, Bahrain, together with other developing nations, still prefer to use conventional means to communicate with the government (Meftah, Gharleghi & Samadi, 2015, p.142). For instance, most members of the public in these countries prefer in-person visit and phone calls to the utilization of the internet to communicate with agencies from the government. The low adoption shows rejection and economical usage of initiatives leading to government failure. This unresponsiveness on the public’s part is down to the unawareness of the benefits that come with using e-government programs. The initial step in ensuring consciousness among citizens is by understanding the factors impacting the acceptance of e-government programs in Bahrain by questioning the members of the public together with government agencies. Their insight will be valuable in analyzing why the adoption of the strategy has been unsuccessful, the cultural issues involved with the unresponsiveness of the public, trust between the government and citizens, and what is needed to motivate the audience to use e-government programs to communicate and hold the government accountable.
ICT has transformed the development technology to Bahrain. It affects virtually all agencies of government. E-government- in particular, has established an effective strategy for improving and increasing efficiency and productivity within the government by enabling citizen’s centric services. However, the low-level adoption of the innovation by the public resulting from a lack of trust in different agencies government and Bahrainians cultural perspective has stifled its success in Bahrain. The research tries to understand how two significant factors impact its approval in a bid to explain the low-level implementation. Therefore, the conclusions made by this study will benefit government agencies and citizens of Bahrain, as well as researchers. Firstly, government organizations could apply the findings drawn from this case study’s analysis to enhance e-government services acceptance and reduce on expenses and costs that goes in creating awareness. Also, they could use the findings to develop their performance and encourage people to accept and implement e-government programs through decision-making and motivational ways to assist people in implementing the strategy. Secondly, the responses of the public may reveal the reasons why people fear utilizing e-government programs and the misconceptions surrounding its implementation. The responses from government agencies may be used to create awareness among members of the public, increase transparency and trust between the public and government organizations. Lastly, the concept and findings of this case study may lay the foundation for further research on the field. It may give other researchers ideas on what to focus on and why the area is significant for study.
Research Aims and Objectives
The primary aim of this case study is to comprehend how trust and culture impact the e-government programs adoption in developing nations within the framework of the UTAUT model. To realize this aim, the study will pursue the following objectives:
To identify why culture and trust between government and the public prevent citizens from implementing e-government services.
To explore the perceptions of government institutions on why there is a failure by the government to motivate citizens to adopt the use of e-government programs.
To explore the perceptions of the citizens on why there is the low-level adoption of e-government.
This is a qualitative study, aiming to comprehend the factors impacting the behaviors of end-users towards e-government programs. It explores the subject from the perspective of the public and government organizations. The UTAUT model is used to achieve this objective. Therefore, the research question for this study is:
How does trust and culture impact e-government programs adoption in developing nations within the framework of the UTAUT model?
The Scope of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the subject by discussing background information. It also explains the implication of the case study, the significance of the issue being studied in its research problem section, the research aims and objectives, and the questions the study intends to answer. Chapter two of the study reviews previous studies that have been conducted to investigate the subject. It focuses on the main principles related to e-government such as its definition, benefits, types, and challenges. Chapter three discusses the research methodology. The chapter focuses on the methods utilized to conduct the research. Because it explores the perspectives of both the public and government organizations and questionnaires are the preferred methods to answer the research questions. Chapter four analyzes the data obtained from the purposes mentioned in chapter three. The analysis involves discussions of the results and recommendation of the best practices to improve or enhance the acceptance of e-government program usage. UTAUT model shall be considered during this process with Culture (CT), and Trust (TR) included as independent constructs. Lastly, chapter five concludes the study by summarizing the findings and comparing them with the results of other studies. It also recommends other bases for future research and why how the study findings will improve productivity and efficiency within Bahrain government.
Chapter Two: Literature Review
In the previous section, the background of the use of e-Government in the Kingdom of Bahrain was covered. In this chapter, previous studies are reviewed using a critical approach for the Middle East and developing countries, as Bahrain is part of both. The section discusses the details related to e-Government adoption in Bahrain and other developing countries. Ideally, the advancements of information technology have critically affected the success of service delivery in government agencies. E-Government services have been designed by governments to improve service provisions, accountability, and efficiency. This chapter focuses on the definition of e-Government services and progress in developed nations as well as developing countries, the characteristics that distinguish e-Government services from other services produced by the government, how developed countries have adopted the program and the manner in which they have managed to achieve success in their adoption, a discussion of the concepts of culture and trust. Also, the chapter clarifies the need to adopt e-Government services in developing countries and why it is essential to take the program in these countries based on the cultural dimensions of society. It also clarifies how trust construct is defined and developed by other studies.
The chapter comprises of:
Definition and emergence of e-Government services
Adoption of e-Government services
The concept of culture in the context of e-Government service adoption
The idea of trust in the context of e-Government service adoption
E-Government in developing countries
The Importance of adopting e-Government services in developing countries
Definition and Emergence of e-Government Services
E-Government entails the use of ICTs by government agencies to improve the delivery of services to its citizens (Furuholt & Matotay, 2010, p.133). It mainly covers businesses, government, citizens, technology, and economic viewpoint. The basic principle of this program is that individuals within a country can communicate with their government and access their government services through the set communication channels in the internet and other information technology devices developed by government agencies to relay information to the public (Sharma et al., 2012, p.81). The idea of e-Government was born and established in the age of the internet. It has continued to develop and has reached advanced stages where the government relies on its effectiveness to enhance the service delivery to the citizens. With the advent of this program, government agencies worldwide have realized the essence of making their services more effective, efficient, and accessible to ordinary people. For instance, the interaction between the government and citizens has completely been revolutionized by its development (Affisco &Soliman, 2006, p.17). As a result, citizens in developed countries have become more Internet-adept and begin to have expectations that the government will provide the same standards of services delivered by the private sectors. Therefore, different studies have highlighted how and why the government plans to emulate the private sectors by offering more transparent, accessible, and efficient public services to businesses and citizens (Al Shafi, 2008, p.29).
In describing the concept of e-Government, different researchers interprets it based on technology (using ICT to deliver government services electronically), process (procedures used to transform and transact e-Government services), benefits (what the public achieves by adopting the program), citizen focus (the desires of the citizens to obtain quality and effective services from their government), single point access (the avenue used by the government to deliver services through e-Government programs), and phenomenon (using e-Government as an alternative way used by the government to provide its services to the people). According to Choudrie and Weerrakody (2007, p.33), e-Government programs comprise a broad range of services offered using ICT. These activities include, but not limited to the management, capture, dissemination, sharing, and use of seamless information. When the government uses e-Government programs, they aim to enhance the quality of government programs offered to the public by increasing efficiency, accountability, transparency, and efficiency of government programs. Akman et al., (2005, p.244) also support this notion by contending that e-Government services are the most effective way to improve communication and interaction between the citizens and government. It has played a vital role in the transformation of service delivery by the government from a bureaucratic perspective to personal needs-based approach. Hence, it appears that the government around the world is trying to make fundamental changes to the way its agencies use ICT to interact or achieve maximum communication between the government and citizens. It has provided a convenient and efficient method for business and citizens to communicate with government agencies.
Ideally, the Bahrain government has tried to adopt the use of e-Government services fully. Today, it is an essential aspect of the process of service delivery and is aimed at improving the way the government provides services to its residents, citizens, businesses, visitors, and government entities. According to eGovernment Portal of 2016, the users of the e-Government services in Bahrain have expressed satisfaction with its effectiveness (Bahrain.bn, 2016). According to their testimony, services delivered electronically have increased, and more than 80% of the businesses and citizens have shown how they are satisfied with the quality of services rendered by the government since the acceptance of e-Government programs. However, despite the positive review of the program, its approval has not been implemented as expected by the government. Many people are still reluctant to perform the service. In an attempt to lure people to adopt the service, the Bahrain government has pledged to have a positive influence on three key stakeholders in the country. The stakeholders include the government, individuals, and businesses. Individuals include citizens, visitors, and residents, businesses include large, medium and small business enterprises together with their employees, and the government consists of government agencies and their employees. Hence, studies demonstrate that the implementation of e-Government by the Bahrain government may impact service delivery positively and how the three stakeholders receive services from their government.
Adoption of e-Government Services
The government of Bahrain has a responsibility to provide quality and efficient services to its citizens. They offer different classes of services such as education, health, tendering, and employment system. However, these services vary based on the needs and preferences of the users. According to Ray et al. (2011, p.117), the main aim of providing e-Government services is to offer quality services to business, employees, citizens, and other government agencies. The study shows that the acceptance of e-Government programs in Bahrain may improve efficiency and effective coordination amongst the three stakeholders as well as project teams by developing an efficient monitoring system. Essentially, the acceptance of e-Government services has become an essential study area for many researchers. It has, however, among the most challenging study areas. Many studies have been carried out to understand the trend of its acceptance by citizens, and each study provides different findings and results. Nonetheless, despite the difference in conclusions and effects, most of the studies agree that there is a low demand for e-Government services and this is the main reason many studies have been carried out to understand why the trend exists in developing nations. Also, due to my experience as a service delivery manager, I have a personal concern about citizen’s behavior towards new technologies. In most cases, it is hard as a government provides to implement a service that people are not familiar with. The acceptance behavior of the public is often low when performing such functions. It is, therefore, important to understand the origin and reasons for such actions.
Basu (2004) carried out an analysis of the acceptance of e-Government services among citizens using the UTAUT. The theory they used had four determinants or predictors of usage intention including effort expectancy, performance expectancy, facilitation conditions, as well as social influence. The findings and conclusions were split into two categories: non-significant and significant factors. For non-significant coefficients, the focus was on the social impact and its effect on the behavioral intention for e-Government services usage. The significant factors were, however, the four determinants including, performance expectations, effort expectancy, internet experience, and facilitation conditions. Another factor that formed the foundation of the research was whether age or gender had an impact on the behavior of citizens towards the adoption of e-Government services. In their findings, the two factors did not influence people’s behavior towards the approval and acceptance of e-Government services.
Alhujran (2009, p.81) also applied another theory to investigate the level and acceptance of e-Government services. The approach used was the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The author used case studies and surveyed to establish the findings and was based on the external and internal variables of the TAM. The internal variables comprised of perceived ease in its usage, attitude, usefulness, and intention by the citizens to use the system. On the other hand, external variables were trustworthiness, national culture, and perceived national value. In their findings, honesty, trust, and citizens’ awareness of the significance of the e-Government services influenced their acceptance and implementation of the service. If people are aware of the quality of the services provided by the program as well as its perceived usefulness and benefits, there is likely to occur high level of acceptance amongst different stakeholders. The survey also stated that the internal variables such as perceived usefulness and its easy usage positively impact the attitude of citizens towards acceptance of e-Government services. However, public value is the factor with the highest impact on the citizens’ thoughts towards the acceptance of e-Government services. Similarly, Jamali, Samadi, and Marthandan (2014, p.171) also agree with these findings. In their study, they also discovered that the perceived public value significantly influences the attitude of citizens and other stakeholders towards the adoption and implementation of e-Government programs.
Lastly, Akkay et al. (2013, p.1535) conducted a more careful study to investigate the adoption of e-Government services by German citizens. In their findings, issues of privacy, data protection, and security are the main factors that influence people’s attitude towards the adoption of e-Government services. For people to trust and rely on the system, the government must demonstrate that they have taken the necessary measures to protect individual data and guarantee the security of their data. This consequently improves the citizens’ level of reliability and completeness of information. The lowest factors that are considered to have an influence on e-Government implementation are the convenience of the services, the variety of services, and status information. The researchers, thus, noticed that the trust in government among citizens is fundamental in influencing them to adopt or implement the function. The government must find a means to motivate citizens by explaining to them the significance of choosing the service.
Adoption of e-Government Services in other Countries
The United Nations had focused on assessing the effectiveness of e-government adoption in its member states since 2001 when 122 nations convened at the Third Global Forum on Reinventing Government. The first benchmarking was conducted by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) in 2016, analyzing the progress each member nations have made and the approaches they have employed to ensure e-government adoption is a success. Ideally, the focus of the UN operations has been focused on developing and underdeveloped countries. For instance, Bahrain, Qatar, Estonia, and Luxembourg have been trying to implement e-Services to provide government services fully. These countries are important for this discussion because of the low adoption rate of e-Services. Like Bahrain, Qatar, Luxembourg, and Estonia have not fully adopted e-Services for their citizens, and it is important to understand what factors have played a part in the low adoption levels. Also, the three countries have significantly less population (see table below). Therefore, understanding the nature of e-Service acceptance among citizens of these counties is essential for understanding how culture and trust impact the acceptance levels of Bahrain’s residents.
Table: Population of citizens in Bahrain, Luxembourg, Estonia and Qatar
Country Population (million) Size (km square)
Qatar 2.639 11,571
Bahrain 1.493 765.3
Estonia 1.316 45,226
Luxembourg 0.591 2,585
Adoption of e-Government Services in Estonia
Estonia is considered the benchmark for e-Services implementation in the world. It has pioneered in converting services rendered to the public into e-solutions for the citizens. Globally, it is known as the most digitized nation because it has effectively implemented the government cloud solution which has in-turn provided and an excellent foundation for public service delivery (Kalvet, 2012, p.143). The government’s vision when implementing e-Services was to integrate the services provided by the government into a shared pool of resources that can be accessed by any member of the public. Many studies have been conducted to assess how Estonia has managed to convert its services into shared resources effectively. In the process, they have tried to differentiate e-Governance from e-Government. While defining the approach taken by Estonia to provide services, Gil-Carcia (2005, p.27) defined e-Services in Estonia as “the use of information and communication technologies to provide public services, to improve managerial effectiveness and to promote democratic values and mechanisms.” In short, Estonia has used technology to improve its services delivery to its people, a trend that is slowly being adopted by other countries.
Estonia is a middle-income country. It is, however, impressive to see how they have effectively converted their public services into a pool of resources that can be easily accessed by all members of the public (Anthes, 2015, p.19). In comparison to countries Eastern and Central Europe, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) listed the number of countries that had effectively implemented e-Government services by 2004. Estonia was ranked first among Central and Eastern European nations (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2004, p.2). It has continued to lead these countries over the years, which demonstrates their commitment to delivering quality services to their citizens. As a middle-income country, Estonia is the best fit for comparison with Bahrain. They fall within the same economic bracket (Gil-García, 2006, p.76). Therefore, an assessment and investigation of the adoption of e-Government services in Bahrain will benefit from this comparison because Estonia provides a benchmark for e-Services implementation. Bahrain, on the other hand, is still faced with lack of acceptance among citizens, which makes it hard for the country to implement e-Services fully.
Adoption of e-Government Services in Luxembourg
Technology has transformed the way countries provide services. Most countries are now converting from traditional methods to online methods. The aim is to improve services delivered to citizens by making the services available to every member of the public. Luxembourg has not been left behind. It is among the countries that have been committed to moving from traditional ways of service delivery to e-Services. Like Estonia, Luxembourg has a big percentage of people using the internet. In a report compiled by Pederson (2016, p.99), all households in Luxembourg had access to the internet by 2015, and 97% of citizens used the internet at least once a week. This makes it an ideal place to implement e-Services because almost every household has access to the internet and can easily use it to communicate with government agencies. Compared to other nations within the same economic bracket, Luxembourg has a very high online service index value, topped a few countries including Qatar, Lithuania, Mexico, Estonia, and Bahrain (Urbina & Abe, 2017, p.63). However, the challenges faced in the implementation of e-Services are similar in both Luxembourg and Bahrain. In this regard, a comparison between the two countries is important to understand how they both deal with these challenges and what Bahrain can learn from Luxembourg’s method of ensuring they implement e-Services despite non-acceptance among the public.
Adoption of e-Government Services in Qatar
According to Al-Shafi (2009, p.101), there is an adoption gap between Qatar and Bahrain. The first country to commence the adoption of e-Services is the Middle East was Qatar. However, over the years, Bahrain has surpassed Qatar based on the acceptance level among citizens. Bahrain is considered the country with the highest level of acceptance among citizens about the adoption of e-Services. Qatar, on the other hand, is not far behind, but it has been slow in the implementation of e-Services. The major barriers to their implementation have been the complex Arab cultures, which have lowered the level of acceptance among citizens.
However, Qatar offers an ideal country to compare to Bahrain because of the similarities in their challenges. They have tried to eliminate the cultural challenges that they have faced over the years, which offers a lesson to Bahrain (Al-Shafi, 2008, p.28). Despite the gap between Bahrain and Qatar, Qatar remains one of the technologically advanced nations in the Middle East, and also one of the most respected and reputable countries globally. It is important to understand how they have dealt with challenges that have hindered their implementation of e-Services. Therefore, the study will compare the adoption of e-Services in both Bahrain and Qatar.
The concept of culture in the context of e-Government service adoption
There is no precise definition of culture in the context of government services delivery mainly as a result of the complications associated with defining it. According to Hofstede (1993), culture can be characterized as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members in one human group to another” (p.85). Different studies have underscored the importance of culture and how it is connected to the comprehension of the recognition of e-Government. Alshehri and Drew (2010, p.1053-1059) carried out a study to investigate the challenges faced by the people of Saudi Arabia regarding the acceptance of e-Government services. In their findings, they stated that social barriers are significant challenges. They influence the intention of the citizens to adopt and accept e-Government services. Moreover, cultural differences between citizens of Saudi Arabia were the main social barrier to the adoption and acceptance of the program. Mainly, cultural challenges include language barrier, lack of education, religion, features, experiences, background, and different expectations towards e-Government services. In other words, Alshehri and Drew believe that the main barrier to the acceptance and adoption of the program is cultural compatibility. In most governments, it is hard to resolute culture because of the complexities associated with it. For instance, when e-Government service involves the collaboration between the government and citizens, resolving cultural issues is vital to address their social attitude towards the program.
Al-Sowayegh (2012, p.101) also conducted a qualitative study to investigate the cultural drivers and barriers to the acceptance of e-Government services among Saudi Arabian citizens from the perspective of the government employees. After the author interviewed the participants, he found that different cultural drivers influence the attitude of citizens towards the acceptance of e-Government programs. These drivers include collectivism, nepotism, generation gaps, loyalty, and grouping affects the perspective of the user towards the recognition of e-Government services. Moreover, the author found that two cultural dimensions directly affect the adoption of the program by employees. They are socio-structural practices and cultural values. It is hard to change cultural values because they are rooted and embedded in society. They include national backgrounds such as their beliefs and history and the national culture which is also referred to as cultural infrastructure. Based on his assessment, Al-Sowayegh (2012) states that “The socio-structural practices are elements in the culture that are always changing and are not as embedded in the cultural fabric as the cultural values” (p.137). He found these elements to be technological, political, organizational, resource-based, educational, and legislative factors. Therefore, this study found that cultural difference poses a significant challenge to the acceptance of the e-Government program in developing nations.
Further, Nadi (2012, p.1401) conducted a study on the influence of culture on the acceptance of e-Government services in Saudi Arabia. The author found that several factors influence the approval of the program positively. They include conservation values, perspective on communication, trust, compatibility, and result demonstrability. The exercise of power by the government and the lack of confidence in these agencies has adverse effects on the way people adopt and accept to use e-Government services. In another study by Hofstede (1993), five dimensions of cultural variations were identified. They include uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity versus femininity, collectivism versus individualism, and short-term versus long-term orientation. According to his findings, employees with cultures scoring power distance tend to be diligent and obedient to their supervisors. They will complete tasks assigned to them by their supervisors even if they do not agree with them or have confidence in the task they are asked to finish- this is because they believe that there is an unequal distribution of power and those in authority should be obeyed and respected. In most cases, employees of citizens with this kind of cultural practice or attitude will implement or adopt e-Government services without questioning its effectiveness and efficiency. Also, the study found that people living in countries with low uncertainty avoidance are more likely to take risks and make decisions based on their assessments. These people are, therefore, more likely to implement the program because of their intention and attitude to take risks.
Lastly, Aldraehim et al. (2012, p.655-662) also showed the impact of culture on the use of e-Services in developing countries. In Saudi Arabia, nepotism had a significant effect on society. The study focused on this aspect of learning. They identified it as “the employment of relatives, whether in the same organization or even working or being supervised by their relatives in the same department” (p.656). To clarify their findings, the author defined some cause of nepotism which included educational, economic, sociocultural, and political structures. In the survey results, the authors found that nepotism negatively influences people’s intentions of adopting e-Services. The relationship between intention to use and nepotism is weak. In other words, nepotism is a culture that is practiced in most developing countries. It defines the way governments conduct their businesses. Based on the study by Aldraehim et al. (2012), states that practice nepotism are less likely to see a high level of implementation of e-Services because people have less intention to use the services. Therefore, people’s attitude towards services provided by the government is significantly affected by the different cultural practices including nepotism.
The concept of trust in the context of e-Government service adoption
The citizens and government’s relationship determines or impacts acceptancee-Services. In a study conducted by Nogoev et al. (2011, p.119), recognition is influenced by the level of trust developed in users. For instance, when citizens believe that the mediums used to relay e-Service information are legal, trustworthy and ethical, they are likely to build trust in government agencies. According to Nogoev et al. (2011, p.121), faith is defined as the respect shown by employees or residence towards the government’s ability, security, trustworthiness, and reliability. It involves the main factors that appeal to the emotions of citizens. In other words, for citizens to adopt e-Services, the government must ensure they create an emotional connection with their citizens. They must demonstrate a high level of trustworthiness, reliability and the security and protection of their data. Nogoev et al. (2011, p.120) state that most government agencies face significant problems when the citizens do not have trust or confidence in their services. In this regard, most studies have focused on the impact of faith on their acceptance of e-Services.
Brown and Thompsom (2011, p.330), in their study, also emphasizes the importance of trust in the government and the internet about the adoption or acceptance of e-Government services. The portrayal of trust towards government authorities by citizens determines the success of its approval. In this research, the authors found that faith by the public in the government websites translates to the trust in the government authorities. In essence, for citizens to trust the sites or other mediums used as platforms for e-Government program, the government must ensure that they build a relationship of trust by assuring them of security of their data, the efficiency of the services and how it intends to enhance the quality of services provided. In essence, the authors believe that citizens’ trust in government agencies should act as direct motivating factors in government Websites. The demonstration of faith by citizens towards the capabilities of the government and security of the internet can indicate the level of trust they have towards the government.
In another study, Lopez-Sisniega (2009, p.37) argued that conveying a right image requires the e-Government websites to be professionally designed. The design should be able to appeal to the public, reliable and have a high level of security and availability. The government institutions have to ensure they design websites that are trusted by the public and ensure their data is secure. To increase the trust of the people, they should come up with regulations and policies that protect the handling of personal data, audit processes and ensure the rules are implemented. They should also include sanctions for those who violate these regulations and assure everyone is educated on the way to use their data and what they need to do in case a person invades their privacy. This initiative will help in building a relationship of trust between the government and citizens by demonstrating a high level of transparency and management of e-Service transactions.
Lastly, Alhujran (2009, p.79) also conducted several interviews to investigate factors that influence the building of trust between the government and citizens. He got numerous responses from his participants. Most of the participants agreed that the government needs to increase the trust between them and citizens to influence successful implementation of e-Services (Alhujran, 2009, p.80). They also listed many things the government needs to do to achieve the level of trust they need to implement e-Services. According to the participants, implementing privacy and security issues on the websites and improving the reliability on the government’s side, drafting and ensuring relevant laws and regulation are implemented and enforced increases the trust in government.
Similarly, a study by Zahir and Gharleghi (2015, p.81) found that governments that implement laws to improve the level of security and privacy increase transparency in their governance, which in turn increase the level of trust amongst citizens. In other words, confidence and security are the significant determinants acceptance and adoption of internet services. Because many people use the internet, the government ought to increase the degree of trust among citizens by guaranteeing the security of their data and ensuring sanctions are implemented to deter potential cyber crimes that have become one of the significant security threats in the world. Therefore, trust is a fundamental principle required to motivate citizens to accept or adopt e-Government services.
E-Government in Developing Countries
There is a difference in how developed and developing countries use e-Government services. The reality of using e-Government is that it has been designed over a long period in developing countries that its implementation should be guaranteed. According to United Nations (2014), since e-Government services/program was launched in the year 2000, by now it must have enough capability and experience to meet the requirements as it is in developed countries. Many developing countries recognize the potential importance of e-Government services. However, most of them still struggle with its implementation. According to Schuppan (2009, p.121), the lack of proper implementation may be attributed to the vast technological gap that exists between developed and developing countries. The author states that the distinction between developing and developednations about the acceptance of e-Government programs is that it is used to increase the development rate and improve democracy in society, while in developing countries, the program is used as part of the government’s move to enhance development within their organization. In short, the gap, in both ideology and technology, between the two countries highlights the reasons why there is the low rate of acceptance of e-Government programs in developing nations.
In a study conducted by Aldraehim, et al. (2012, p.660), the projection of the full implementation of e-Government services in developing countries requires an extended period to reach the level of developed countries. This is mainly because of the lack of consciousness among citizens. The governments have not done enough to market the program and make people understand its benefits to society. As a result, people have become skeptical about its implementation because they do not know how it is used and the potential benefits it may bring to them. In Bahrain, a study by Omer (2016, p.77) shows that the low acceptance rate among citizens is mainly due to their culture and lack of trust between the government and citizens. Culturally, the lack of education among citizens has contributed to the lack of adoption or acceptance of e-Government services. Also, diminished trust in the governments’ functions has led to people fearing to adopt the program. To most people, the problems associated with the internet have made it hard for people to trust the websites developed by the government agencies. They prefer traditional forms of communicating with the government because of the fear of privacy invasion and loss of personal data. In other words, the government is at fault for failing to gain the trust of the public. They understand why people refuse to implement e-Government services and should take measures to ensure that they learn the confidence and trust of the people. One of the ways to achieve this is by enacting laws and regulations that protect the personal data of citizens and impose sanctions on people who violate these laws. If they guarantee the public that they will defend their private data, they will build trust thus increasing the level of acceptance amongst citizens.
Lastly, in Bahrain, Al-Shafi (2009, p.99) found that the implementation of e-government services did not meet the expectations of the international standards. However, it is worth noting that the adoption of the program in some of the developing nations is handled. While assessing how the Bahrain government has dealt with the application of e-Government services, Al-Shafi (2009, p.101) compared the adoption gap between Qatar and Bahrain. Accordingly, Qatar commenced the adoption of e-Government programs back in the year 2000. After some years, 2007, Bahrain began its implementation. However, Bahrain’s government’s implementation of e-Services in Bahrain has improved and surpassed Qatar. There is a higher acceptance level in Bahrain than Qatar. Meanwhile, among developing nations in the Middle East, Bahrain is considered the top-ranked countries about the adoption of e-Services since it launched the program. Its success in the Middle East should be recognized. However, when compared to other developed countries, it ranks low. The rate of implementation of e-Government services in developed countries is higher and more efficient. This narrows down to the focus of the government, the level of education they give to their citizens, and how they build trust amongst their residents.
The Importance of adopting e-Government services in developing countries
In developed countries, people are living better and more productive lives- this is mainly because of the practical and successful implementation of e-Government services. According to the United Nations (2016, p.124), the difference between developed countries and developing countries is the level of awareness among citizens. In developed countries, people are literate about technological issues and are highly appreciative of self-advancing compared to people in developing countries. As a result, their governments find it easier to convince them to implement e-Government services by merely outlining the benefits associated with the program. For example, in developed countries, democracy makes it likely for citizens to engage in greater participation to assist them in interacting with public servants. Ideally, the government understands the importance of adopting e-Government services. They have a responsibility to educate the public on the benefits they stand to gain by embracing this program. The interests range from political, economic and social, to administrative.
Politically, a report by the United Nations (2016, p.129) states that e-Government services make interactions between citizens and government agencies easier. Through this program, citizens can access government services electronically without having to visit government agencies physically. A direct connection between the citizens and government will promote transparency, accountability, and democracy in society. Once all these are achieved, the value of services delivered will automatically improve. Economically, the program makes the government more effective in its delivery of services. It plays a significant role in the economic enhancement of countries as well as reforms. Moreover, the program offers tremendous services including e-commerce, e-banking, e-procurement, and online trading exchange using electronic transactions between different sectors in society. The results are that businesses within a country grow and succeed because of the technological environment created by the e-Government program (United Nations, 2016, p.123).
Lastly, e-Government also helps administratively. The communication between different departments improves service provision by the government. According to Sheela and Chandran (2014), developing countries need to enhance the use of e-Government services within their departments. The main advantage is to make it simple for governments to delivery service and facilitate easy access and delivery of services without focusing on the bureaucratic processes. The process is likely to reduce corruption with the government and improve the quality of services provide. In developing countries, corruption is rampant, which makes this program a viable option. It ensures interaction between citizens and government institutions are positively enhanced. Therefore, the studies have made it apparent that developing nations need to adopt e-Government programs.
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
The research methodology outlines the process used for data collection and analysis. It deals with the methods and principles utilized in the research: it explains the research process, data collection methods, the subjects, the materials used to collect data, the theories used to interpret data, and the techniques used to analyze the data. It also provides a rationale for choosing a particular research method. In this chapter, the procedures and practices used to collect and analyze data are discussed. In scientific research, many ways are available for both studies (qualitative and quantitative). The chapter presents an essential research issue. Thus, it starts by describing the philosophical assumptions about the approaches to be used and the rationale for using the selected methods. It then maps out the procedures and the expected outcomes.
Ontology and Epistemology
Ontology refers to the view that there is no right or wrong answer in qualitative research. Different people view topics different depending on their data. This view denotes that the world is either that of subjectivism or objectivism. Ideally, objectivism considers entities to exist independently from social actors that do not influence reality and espouses predictability across scenarios and situations. On the other hand, subjectivism emphasizes the continual creation of phenomena as a result of the activities of social actors. The concept of a socially constructed reality stems from the interpretive philosophy, where different actors have different perceptions because of individual views of the world (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009, p.121). In qualitative studies, the outcome depends on the kind of data obtained. The study relies on responses from people with different value sets, backgrounds, and beliefs. Based on the concept of ontology, it is expected that the reaction will be diverse and varied. Therefore, using an appropriate method of collecting data and analyzing to provide an accurate reflection of the perceptions surrounding the topic is important.
Epistemology relates to what people regard as acceptable knowledge. According to Saunder, Lewis, & Thornhill (2009, p.137), epistemology separates objects from social actors and consider observable facts as valid and applicable. Alternatively, the concept tries to unveil the facts that explain how social actors affect phenomena. This perspective is that of interpretivism and positivism. In short, positivist philosophy emphasizes facts and data collected empirically. It uses statistical tools to test hypothesis prescribing the relationship between the different variables. Similarly, interpretivists believe that what is factual is constructed by social actors- social participants or actors create or build their reality and interpretation of the world. They also interpret the actions of other social actors, which explains bias in researchers perspectives- they have their understanding of facts. In this regard, qualitative studies use inductive methods to interpret the perceptions of participants. By using techniques such as questionnaires, the responses of participants are analyzed based on themes and patterns. From an ontological perspective, interpretivism and positivism are subjective and objective respectively. However, this research employs interpretivism (subjectivism) because it deductively interprets data obtained from survey questionnaires. It relies on the themes and patterns in the responses of participants to answer the research questions.
According to Kumar et al. (2007, p.67), research design refers to the plan on where and how the collection of data is to be carried out. It also involves the researcher’s plan for testing the research hypothesis and answering the research questions. In this study, a deductive approach is used to assess the research question. The study begins by examining different pieces of literature on the topic to understand the general perception of the factors impacting the adoption of e-Services in developing countries, including Bahrain. The study establishes a theoretical framework based on what the literature says, and this is used to guide the research.
Ideally, research can be categorized based on its purpose or techniques used to conduct research. For instance, studies based on observation, survey, questionnaires, and empirical or experiments are among studies categorized by methods. However, studies that focus on showing the nature of the decision-making process represent studies based on purpose (Zikmund et al., 2013, 87). In this regard, the current research is categorized by its purpose and technique. Itrelies on survey questionnaires to achieve its goal, which is to examine factors that impacting the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain.
Many theories have been developed by scientists to study the adoption of different technologies in their environment. In literature, the model referred to as the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was developed by psychologists (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p.430). Their objective was to explain the behaviors of citizens towards the implementation of new technologies, and their attitudes towards these technologies. UTAUT introduces constructs based on four main determinants: effort expectancy, performance expectancy, facilitation conditions, and social influence. This theory aims at discovering factors that lead to the adoption and acceptance of ICT through the four key drivers. According to Ahmad et al. (2012, p.120), the four key constructs explain 70% of the usage behavior of citizens and their acceptance of new technological advancements.
Performance Expectancy (PE)
PE is the degree to which people perceive that using an accurate system or technology will improve their performance and lives. In the current study, PE is measured based on Bahrain citizens’ perception about the use of e-Government services with regard to it benefits such as effort, time, and money, how it facilitates their communication with government agencies, how it improves the quality of services rendered by the government, and how it provides people with equal opportunities to conduct their businesses with government agencies (AIAwadhi and Morris, 2009, p.586). To explain the PE of e-Services, the study hypothesizes that it will positively influence the acceptance of e-Services in Bahrain.
H1: Performance Expectancy positively impacts the acceptance and adoption of e-Government services among Bahrain citizens.
Effort Expectancy (EE)
EE is utilized to assess the degree of ease about the adoption of e-Government services. It identifies three critical constructs including ease of use, complexity, and perceived ease of usage (Venkatesh et al., 2003, p.434). These constructs are vital in determining the degree of acceptance of e-Government services. In the current research, EE is measured based on the Bahrain citizens’ perceptions of the program’s “easy to use” and how easy it is to learn how to use it. Therefore, the hypothesis is that effort expectancy positively impact the acceptance and adoption of e-Government services among citizens.
H2: Effort Expectancy positively impacts the acceptance and adoption of e-Government services among Bahrain citizens.
Social influence relates to the degree people’s perception of the importance of the new program and why they should accept it. For many countries, this is an essential factor in enabling people to understand the benefits of the latest technology and understand why using is critical for them. In the current research, the assumption is that social and cultural networks influence people’s behaviors. Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested is that social influence positively affects the acceptance of new technologies.
H3: Social Influence positively impacts the acceptance and adoption of e-Government services among Bahrain citizens.
Facilitation conditions entail the degree to which citizens believe the new inventions or services are implemented to support them and improve their lives. In the current research, the construct is measured based on individuals’ perception about their ability to use e-Government services. It also measures people the understanding of how the technology influences and fits their lifestyles. The current research hypothesizes that the facilitation conditions positively influence the acceptance e-Services.
H4: Facilitation Conditions positively impacts the acceptance e-Services among Bahrain citizens.
Independent and Dependent Variable
Choosing an appropriate method is an important step in any qualitative or quantitative research. For this study, questionnaires were used to establish the factors that impact the acceptance e-Services. This approach is used in both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The current study investigates the factors that affect the adoption of e-Government services in Bahrain from the views of Bahrain’s residents. The research will use a qualitative questionnaire approach. According to Hair et al. (2006, p.17), surveys can use both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires. Quantitative questionnaires use forced-choice questions to explore the perceptions of the participants.
On the other hand, qualitative questionnaires use open-ended questions to examine the perception of the participants- the former is more effective when the study aims to achieve a particular purpose. In this case, the study aims to understand whether the two factors (culture and trust) affect the acceptance and adoption of e-Services in Bahrain. Therefore, the research uses qualitative approach to carry out the study.
The use of multiple methods to collect data guarantees an in-depth understanding of the topic under study. Therefore, the current research will use three methods of data collection, and this will increase the study’s validity (Yin, 2009, p.35). According to Kripanont (2006, p.15), the use of more than one method of data collection in a qualitative or quantitative study is beneficial to the whole review. Where one way is weak, the other techniques compliment it. The two methods used in this research were survey questionnaires and content analysis of previous studies. For the content analysis, different pieces of literature that have explored the studied phenomenon were reviewed to establish the general perception about the acceptance and adoption of e-Services in developing nations. This technique helped in comparing Bahrain and other countries about their degree of approval and implementation of e-Government programs.
Questionnaires are data collection tools used by researchers to gather the thoughts and perceptions of the participants. The validity and reliability of the responses by the participants are determined by the appropriateness of the questions together with the questionnaire design. It is important to make the issues simple and easily understandable to extract the most appropriate and accurate response from the participants (Neuman, 2006, p.27). Ideally, the questionnaire is a standard data collection tool. It is considered more effective when the sample population is large, and when the researcher is planning to survey within a short period. A questionnaire is comprised of well-designed questions that the researcher uses to obtain answers or information from the participants/respondents in a bid to answer the research question (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016, p.51). In this study, a survey questionnaire was utilized to determine the factors that impact the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain. UTAUT model was used.
Neuman (2006, p.38) denotes that questionnaires need to be clear and precise- they should avoid ambiguity by focusing on the perspective of the participants and clarity of the questions. In this study, Leedy, and Ormrod (2005, p.6) used four guidelines to develop a clear questionnaire was followed: using precise and unambiguous language; achieving the research aim; development and planning, distribution, sampling, and collection of the distributed surveys; and creating a clear summary of the responses for analysis. The purpose of the questionnaire was to collect the information about the Bahrain government officials and citizens’ perception about the acceptance of e-Services in Bahrain. The main aim was to understand the needs of the technology and how the public can use it to interact or communicate with the government. The answers to the questions in the questionnaires were important in identifying the potential factors that impact the acceptance of e-Services among Bahrain citizens. Before distribution, the survey was pre-tested and changed to ensure they collected the relevant and most important data for the study. In short, it followed three procedures before its distribution among the participants: development and designing of the questions, modifying and pre-testing the issues, and producing a translation into Arabic to help in collecting data from the Bahrain citizens.
Development and Design of the Questionnaire
The primary data used to collect the data was through a questionnaire. Its design and development relied on the UTAUT model to come up with the most relevant questions that will determine the degree of e-Government services usage in Bahrain and the factors that impact its usage among members of the public. Subsequently, the questionnaire was divided into several other sections to make it easy for participants to read and complete it. Concerning the UTAUT model, the respondents were asked to answer the questions using the five-point scale with five levels: from strongly disagree to agree strongly. Likert scale is the most effective when a study measures the attitudes of respondents and their perceptions about a particular phenomenon. The questionnaire contained a cover letter detailing the aim and significance of the survey and the details of the study. It was written using precise language to make it easier for the respondents to understand and complete. It also emphasized the privacy and confidentiality of the participant’s information. It was separated into two major parts. Part one collected the demographic information of the participants and part two entailed UTAUT model questions used to measure the attitude of the Bahrain people towards the acceptance of e-Government services in Bahrain. A five-point scale was used to measure all the UTAUT constructs with possible responses including: strongly agree=5, agree=4, neutral=3, disagree=2, and strongly disagree=1. The answers to this section were aimed at understanding the perception of the participants regarding the adoption of e-Government in Bahrain and the factors that influenced this behavior among the citizens of Bahrain.
Pre-testing and Modifying of Questionnaires
It is important to ensure that the questionnaire items are clear and can be understood by any person without any difficulty (Sekaran, 2003, p.31). The process of pre-testing was used to ensure that the minimal errors in the questionnaire were reduced and the reliability and validity of the surveys were achieved (Hair et al., 2006, p.11). In the study, the process was carried out using the expert review method by checking the validity of the questionnaire using several ways. First, the questions that were used to measure the UTAUT model was based on and validated by studies that were done in the past such as Hess et al. (2007, p.262). However, the items in the questionnaires were modified to fit the research objective. Second, the questionnaire was also sent to other experts to assess its accuracy in answering questions and addressing the research questions. The experts and the focus group had extensive knowledge about the e-Government usage in developing countries, their application, and factors that influence their usage, and also the knowledge about Arabic culture and language. They reviewed the items both in the English and Arabic versions to make sure that the main focus of the questionnaire was capture in both versions. The items were then distributed to the participants.
Translation of Research questions into Arabic
The official language of Bahrain is Arabic. Most the citizens speak Arabic. Therefore, it was important to translate the questions into Arabic to ensure that each member of the public understood clearly what the items required and completed it without any language barrier. According to Sekaran (2003, p.50), it is important to choose a clear and easily understandable questionnaire language. In the current research, a back-translation procedure was used to translate English into Arabic. The method has been used before to translate surveys, questionnaires and other research instruments to achieve their purpose. It is used to provide quality check and verification of the translated devices by checking whether it captures the main objects and aim of the study. In other words, the questionnaire was first brought into Arabic and back to English to check for the clarity. This process was important because it helped in verifying the language used and whether it was clearly articulated and captured the main questions asked in a clear and understandable manner.
Table: Survey Questionnaire (Parts One and Two)
Part One: Indicate your appropriate response with a tick below the items
Demographic Information Responses
Are you male or female? Male
Female Are you a Bahrain citizen or not? Yes
No Are you working in (e-Government / other Government / NGO / Private / None)?
Are you (Below 18 / 18 – 30 / 31 – 45 / 46 – 59 / Above 59)?
Part Two: Indicate your appropriate response with a tick (The questionnaire is for non-governmental employees).
Constructs Definition Items Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Performance Expectancy (PE) PE is the degree to which people perceive that using an accurate system or technology will improve their performance and lives. Using e-Government services will save time and money for me. I will be able to access government department information when I need them: 24 hours a day, 7 days a week I prefer interacting with government agencies through e-offices than face-to-face. I prefer interacting with government agencies face-to-face over e-offices Effort Expectancy (EE) EE is utilized to assess the degree of ease about the adoption of e-Government services. Learning how to interact in e-Government services will be easy for me. My interaction with government agencies through e-Services would be understandable and clear. It would be easier for me to use e-Services than visit physical government offices. Interacting with government agencies through online offices would be helpful for me. It will not be easy for me to use e-offices to interact with government agencies Social Influence
Social influence relates to the degree people’s perception of the importance of the new program and why they should accept it. My close friends think I should use e-Services. If my friends use e-Services, I would also use it. If my friends use e-services, I would not use it. My friends and family think e-Services is helpful if I want to get quality services. Facilitation Conditions Facilitation conditions entail the degree to which citizens believe the new inventions or services are implemented to support them and improve their lives. I have a gadget necessary to access e-Government services. I have access to the internet to use e-Services. I have the guidance I need to use e-Services. I have pressure from my economic class to use e-Government services. I have the necessary internet experience to use e-Services. I do not have access to the internet to use e-Services Table 3: A list of the focus groups to be interviewed
1 Director of Service Delivery Deals with Service Delivery & Channel Enhancement
2 Project Manager Deals with Service Delivery &Channel Enhancement
3 Chief Channel Management Deals with service delivery and Channel Enhancement
4 Chief Customer Care Deals with customers directly.
5 Acting Director, Change Management & Business Process Reengineering Coordinate government agencies and citizens
Population and Sample
According to Gray (2013, p.27), population entails the number of possible participants the research wishes to be part of the study. The people of the current study consisted of two groups: the Bahrain citizens and staff from the government agencies (team holding key positions such as Project Managers, Heads of Departments, Chief of Staffs, Project Coordinators, among others). In essence, the study aims to target the three main pillars of the adoption of e-Services: the agents providing the services, those that consume or accept the service, and non-Bahrain. The two groups offer an all-inclusive viewpoint by drawing an inclusive picture of the government’s perception of the implementation of e-Government services. The population includes both male and female participants with a limit of 18 years implemented. The selection of the participants was random, and the survey questionnaires were sent through social media and taken to be indicative of the Bahrain government and the public.
Primarily, the questionnaires distributed were 200 in total, only 181 participants responded to the questionnaires. All the participants were above the age of 18 years, which is a requirement in any qualitative study. The collection of data was conducted in a diverse area in Bahrain. It was done in the capital city and the key government agencies responsible for providing the public with services. With a large number of population, conducting face-to-face interviews and phone interviews was not possible. It would not have been practical or economically to take the approach. Therefore, questionnaires were distributed among the 181 participants to collect their views and perception on the subject matter of the study. Thus, from the two groups of population, the study was able to obtain the opinions and perspective of the government officials, non-citizensand citizens about the acceptance of e-Services in Bahrain. The data provided by the participants helped in answering the question: what factors impact the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain.
Data Analysis Methods
Walliman (2005, p.330) explains data analysis as the process of examining, grouping, categorizing, recombining the raw data collected from participants to find answers to the study questions. The current research has qualitative data. Thus, it will involve a qualitative analyses.
Necessarily, the data collection methods involve the gathering of the perception and views of participants. The analysis of such data requires deductive approaches that conclude from the data presented. The conclusion drawn from the study should be rooted in the data collected and performed by the questionnaires. In essence, the analysis and conclusions are based on the evidence provided by the received data. Thus, the following assumptions guide a qualitative analysis technique:
The explanation given by the research about the data should rely on the careful and meticulous examination of the data. It involves interpreting the meaning of primary or raw data.
The researcher should also avoid unwarranted assumptions during the data analysis.
The raw data materials should be carefully analyzed by labeling where they are located.
Data analysis should rely on an iterative process.
In this study, the qualitative analysis was based on the responses of the participants. Because of the multiplicity of their responses, thematic analysis was used to analyze the most common themes in their responses. The issues were based on the UTAUT constructs and how they are connected tostudy questions. Therefore, the qualitative analysis process followed the following procedure:
The responses from the participants were read and investigated carefully.
The critical factors from the UTAUT model were compared with the responses of the participants to find the most common factors that influence e-Government service adoption.
The results were then used to confirm the hypothesis and support the qualitative research data.
Validity and Reliability
In any study, validity and reliability ate two of the most important elements to be considered. It determines whether the research and process involved have been successful. According to Walliman (2005, p.367), reliability refers to the level of accuracy of the data collected. For instance, a reliable study will produce the same results if repeated. However, in technology acceptance studies, reliability refers to the degree of stability and consistency within the different variables with the assumptions made about them by the researcher. In the current study, a reliability analysis was conducted for all the five UTAUT model constructs using descriptive analysis
Validity, in contrast, is reliant on whether the study answered the study question. It assesses, based on the study results, whether the author was focused on answering the question. In this regard, it demonstrates if the collected data and instruments used measured what they were meant to assess. According to Kripanont (2006, p.15), the test for validity involves content and constructs validity. The study achieved content validity by conducting a pre-test which produced content reliability and validity. Second, applying the confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory (EFA) techniques attain construct validity. Therefore, the research considered all the necessary factors to ensure the study was successful and productive.
Any research must conform to the ethical standards set by the code of ethics in social sciences. In this research, several measures were put in place to comply with the law of ethics. First, the participants were informed of what the investigation was about, its importance and what it aimed to achieve before being given an opportunity to participate. They were given an option of either accepting to participate in the study or not. In short, participation was voluntary. No participant was forced to take part in the research without their informed consent. They were free to withdraw from the process at any time, which means they had the discretion to decide whether to continue with the research or not. The study results were, therefore, obtained from willing and conscious participants.
Second, the study made sure that participants were above 18 years of age. According to the code of ethics, age limit for participants in social sciences is 18 years. Participants were university students and government staff and were above the age limit set by the code of ethics. They were informed that the UTAUT model would be utilized to determine the factors that impacted the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain and were reported that participation was voluntary. There confidentiality and privacy was also a priority. The true identity was concealed. Thus, the anonymity and voluntary participation make the study ethically conscious.
Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Findings
This chapter presents the results and analysis of the qualitative data collected from the survey questionnaires. Based on the data collected, descriptive data analysis was the most appropriate to analyze the descriptive questionnaire data. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for each variable; in this case the research questions. In the questionnaires, four constructs were used to measure the concepts of culture and trust: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitation condition. The questions were presented to the chosen participants. Each was expected to respond to the questions based on their understanding of the e-Services, and each response was based on the five-point Likert scale. Thus, section 4.2 provides an overview of the questionnaire with all questions presented to the participants, section 4.3 presents statistical analysis with descriptive analysis of thesresults and how each participant responded to the questions in the questionnaire, and section 4.4 provides a summary of the data analysis by highlighting the findings of the study based on the research questions.
Overview of Research Questionnaire
A questionnaire survey was carried out in Bahrain and distributed among citizens and non-citizens of Bahrain. The questionnaire began with a cover letter explaining to the participants the purpose of the study, the nature of questions, the contact information of the research team, the ethical considerations of the study and what the study is expected to achieve. As explained in the previous chapter, the questionnaire comprised two parts. The first part collected the demographic information of the participants and the second part presented to the participants UTAUT model statements that were aimed at measuring the attitude of Bahrain citizens and non-citizens towards e-Services. The UTAUT constructs: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitation condition, were measured on a five-point Likert scale. The responses were ordered as follows: 1=strongly Agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neutral, 4= Disagree and 5= Strongly Disagree. The questionnaires were distributed among 181 participants randomly chosen. The results were recorded and analyzed.
The data analysis included descriptive tests of the research evaluation based on the questions asked of the participants. The questions mainly aimed to test the four constructs: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitation condition. The random sample size was 200 participants. Only 181 participants actively participated in the research. For instance, the study distributed 200 questionnaires and only 181 questionnaires were returned. The questionnaires were usable in conducting statistical analysis of the UTAUT constructs to determine the attitude of Bahrain citizens towards the adoption of e-Services.
In the demographic part of the questionnaire, general information about the respondents were collected in four important steps namely gender, nationality, age group and area or organization of employment.
A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed among participants, only 181 were returned. Out of the 181 respondents, 114 were male while 67 were females, which translates to 63% males and 37% females (see table below).
Table: What gender are you?
Gender Frequency Gender Frequency
0 67 1 114
1 114 0 67
More 0 More 0
From the table above, the majority of the participants were males in all the departments. However, the selection was random. More illustration is shown in figure below, with 0 representing females and 1 representing males:
Figure: The number of participants by gender.
The study did not target Bahrains only, the selection was random targeting both citizens and non-citizens of Bahrain. Out of the 181 responses, 111 respondents indicated that they were citizens of Bahrain while 70 indicated they were non-citizens (see table below):
Table: Are you from Bahrain?
Bahraini Frequency Bahraini Frequency
1 111 1 111
2 70 2 70
More 0 More 0
Ideally, most responses came from Bahrain citizens, which reflect the opinions and perspectives of Bahrains. Because the selection of participants was random, the study aimed to understand the opinions of both citizens and non-citizens of Bahrain. More illustration is shown in the figure below:
Figure: Nationality of participants
Age group is also a vital factor in understanding the attitude and factors that influence adoption of e-Services in Bahrain. Among the participants, 4 were below the age of 18 years, 26 were aged between 18 and 30 years, 110 were aged between 31 and 45 years, 38 were aged between 46 and 60 years, and 2 were aged above 60 years (see table below):
Table: How old are you?
Age group Frequency Age group Frequency
0 4 2 110
1 26 3 38
2 110 1 26
3 38 0 4
4 2 4 2
More 0 More 0
From the responses, the majority of the participants were aged between 31 and 45 years, which reflect the group of people in employments. People in this age group understand the effects of technology and have had different experiences with new technologies. Therefore, they understand factors that influence their decsion to adopt e-Government services in Bahrain (see figure below):
Figure: Age groups of participants
The participants were asked if they are employed in: 1. Government agencies, 2. Not working, 3. E-Government, 4. Private sector, 5. NGOs, 6. Private employee, and 7. Government employee (see table below):
Table: Employment status
Employment Frequency Employment Frequency
1 59 1 59
2 33 2 33
3 27 4 30
4 30 3 27
5 3 6 18
6 18 7 10
7 10 5 3
More 0 More 0
The majority of the particopants were employed in government agencies. This means that they understand the need to adopt e-government services and also why people are slow in implementing these services. Therefore, as government employees, they are in a position to provide persepctives on the slow trend of e-government adoption in Bahrain.
Figure: Employment status of the participants
There were two independent variables and one dependent variable. The independent variables were trust and culture which were defined by the four UTAUT constructs while the dependent variable was the attitude of the Bahrain citizens towards the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain. Thus, in evaluating the dependent variable, fifteen questions were asked through the questionnaires to determine how the four constructs influence the dependent variable. The responses were recorded and analyzed as follows.
Services will be delivered through e-Government more efficiently and faster
This question aimed to test the performance expectancy construct, which is a component of culture. The aim was to measure the degree to which people perceived that using e-Government services would improve their performance and lives. From the responses of the participants, 81 agreed that they would use e-government services if they perceived it to be more effective and fast. 74 of the participants strongly agreed, nine did not know how to respond to the question six disagreed and eleven strongly disagreed (see the table below).
Table 1: Services will be delivered through e-government more efficiently and faster.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 74 2 81
2 81 1 74
3 9 5 11
4 6 3 9
5 11 4 6
More 0 More 0
Essentially, the results are interpreted to mean that culture majorly influences people’s attitude towards adopting e-Services. Culture is defined as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another” (Hofstede, 1993, p.21). It is through a culture that people perceive that certain technological advancement will improve their lives (Hazeem, 2010). For instance, people are used to their way of life. For them to accept the use of new inventions, they have to believe that the new technologies will positively impact their way of life. In short, they have to collectively program it in their minds that it will be better for them to use the e-Services. In this regard, they evaluate the performance aspect of the technology to determine what it is expected to achieve: performance expectancy. Therefore, from the results, the participants suggested that the major aspect that they consider when accepting new inventions or adopting the e-Services is the performance expectancy (Zahir & Gharleghi, 2015). In this regard, culture positively impacts Bahrain’s attitude toward the adoption of e-government services. When they believe that it will be efficient and fast, they believe that it will improve their lives, which is a major construct of culture. This is illustrated in the diagram below:
Diagram 1: Graph showing the responses of the participants to the first question
Using e-Government services increases the equity among all residents.
This question aimed to test the social influence construct which is a major component of culture. In any society, equity, which is the quality of being impartial and fair, must be guaranteed for citizens to change their perception about government services. Citizens believe that government services are unfairly rendered, with a high social class of individual favored over the lower social classes. However, when new technology is introduced, and the citizens believe that it will increase equity among citizens, their attitude towards that new technology will be positive. For example, from the responses of the participants, 75 participants agreed that they would adopt e-government services if it increased equity among all citizens, 64 strongly agreed, 28 were neutral, 7 disagreed, and 7 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 2: Using e-services increases the equity among all residents.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 64 2 75
2 75 1 64
3 28 3 28
4 7 4 7
5 7 5 7
More 0 More 0
Essentially, culture is a strong determinant in influencing people’s perception of e-Services. People only respond positively or accept new technologies if they believe it will ensure government services are rendered fairly and impartially. For instance, the culture is enshrined in the social influence constructs. It demonstrates how people collectively feel and think about their government about its distribution of resources and rendering essential services. Most societies experience unfair distribution of government services, with the rich and influential people given special treatment. In this regard, when e-Government services are perceived to eliminate this problem, people will most likely accept or adopt it because of their belief that it will increase equity and fairness in the government distribution of services and resources (Basu, 2004). Therefore, the majority of Bahrain’s citizens are influenced by the social influence of e-Government services and how it will affect their culture as demonstrated in the figure below:
Figure 2: Graph demonstrating people’s attitude towards e-Services if they increase equity among all residents
Interacting with e-Government service desks face to face will save time
Traditionally, the most common way of communicating with government agencies was through service desks. In short, citizens had to walk into the government offices and meet face to face with the service providers to discuss their concerns. However, e-Sevices aims to change this culture. The question to the participants was whether face-to-face communication with government agencies saves time compared to e-Services. Only 16 strongly agreed, 27 agreed, 24 were neutral, 81 disagreed, and 33 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 3: Interacting with government service desks face to face would save time.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 16 4 81
2 27 5 33
3 24 2 27
4 81 3 24
5 33 1 16
More 0 More 0
The concept here was whether face-to-face communication with government agencies was faster and more effective than e-Services. Face-to-face has been the traditional method of interacting with the government. It is part of Bahrain citizen’s culture. However, e-Services intend to change this culture and introduce a new method of interaction which does require citizens to visit the physical government offices. To accept this new method, the citizens must agree that the traditional method is slow and ineffective. In this regard, the responses of the participants demonstrated that Bahrain citizens do not believe traditional face-to-face interaction with the government is fast and effective. In this regard, they are more likely to accept or adopt the use of e-government services to make their communication faster and effective. The responses are illustrated by the graph below:
Diagram 3: Graph showing how Bahrain citizens feel about the traditional interaction methods
Using e-Services increases the quality of government services
The quality of service rendered by the government has a great influence on people’s perception of their methods of service delivery. As an aspect of performance expectancy, the citizen only accepts or adopts new technologies if they believe it will perform better than the traditional ones. When asked if e-Services increase the quality of government services, 73 strongly agreed, 84 agreed, 16 were neutral, 5 disagreed, and 3 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 4: Using e-services increases the quality of the government services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 73 2 84
2 84 1 73
3 16 3 16
4 5 4 5
5 3 5 3
More 0 More 0
Essentially, people will accept or adopt e-Government services if they believed it would increase the quality of government services. In short, they are influenced by the performance expectancy which is the degree to which people believe that using new technology will improve their lives. In this regard, their attitude towards e-Service is influenced by how they perceive it about its impact on the quality of government services (Al-Shafi, 2008). Therefore, culture is a major influence in shaping the attitude of Bahrain citizens’ attitude towards e-Services as illustrated in the diagram below:
Diagram 4: Graph showing people’s attitude towards e-Government services when with regard to the quality of government services
It is easy to learn e-government services
Effort expectancy is another major influence on people’s perception of e-Government services. It determines the degree to which citizens trust government services. For instance, when the participants were asked what would influence their acceptance of e-Government services, the effort expectancy demonstrated the aspect of trust between government agencies and citizens. The ease to use e-Government services showed: 44 participants strongly agreeing, 107 agreeing, 13 neutral, 13 disagreeing and 7 strongly disagreeing as shown in the table below:
Table 5: It is easy to learn government e-services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 41 2 107
2 107 1 41
3 13 3 13
4 13 4 13
5 7 5 7
More 0 More 0
Primarily, the ease to use e-Services influence people’s attitude towards adopting or accepting to use them. The majority of the participants confirmed that effort expectancy is an important aspect of their decision to use or adopt a technological innovation. If the services are easy to learn, they are likely to have a positive attitude towards its adoption, which will increase the acceptance level of citizens in Bahrain (Schuppan, 2009). Therefore, “easy to learn” is an important factor in determining whether citizens will adopt the e-Government services. In this study, it has been established that the majority of citizens will accept e-Service if it was easy to learn (the results are illustrated in the diagram below).
Diagram 5: Graph showing Bahrain citizens’ responses with regard to “easy to learn” aspect of e-Services
Using e-Government services is difficult
The study asked the participants if they would accept e-government services if using it was difficult. Only 5 participants strongly agreed, 21 agreed, 17 were neutral, 101 disagreed, and 37 strongly disagreed (see the table below). “Ease of use” is an important aspect e-government services. It falls under the construct of effort expectancy which also defines trust as a factor in influencing the adoption of e-Government services.
Table 6: Using government e-services are difficult.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 5 4 101
2 21 5 37
3 17 2 21
4 101 3 17
5 37 1 5
More 0 More 0
Ideally, the results show that Bahrain citizens are influenced by the ease of use of e-Government services. If the e-government is difficult to use, they are likely to have a negative attitude towards their adoption and acceptance. The effort used to implement the technology is expected among the citizens to be easy. If they are complicated and difficult, they are not likely to trust the new invention. Therefore, it is important to understand how e-Services should be made simple and easy to use to increase their chances of being accepted and adopted in Bahrain (this is demonstrated in the figure below):
Figure 6: Graph showing how “easy to use” aspect impacts the attitude of Bahrain citizens
It would be easier for me to use e-Services than visiting government services
The participants were asked to compare the new technology with traditional methods of interacting with government agencies. The question aimed to understand the perception of Bahrain citizens about the effectiveness of using e-Services to communicate with government agencies compared to face-to-face interactions. According to the findings, 111 strongly agreed that it would be easier to use e-Services than visiting government agencies, 60 agreed, 3 were neutral, 4 disagreed and 3 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 7: It would be easier for me to use e-Services than visiting government service centers.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 111 1 111
2 60 2 60
3 3 4 4
4 4 3 3
5 3 5 3
More 0 More 0
Ideally, e-Services make interaction with government agencies easier and faster. The belief that e-Services are better and effective than traditional ways of communicating with the government acts as a motivating factor in accepting e-government services. Therefore, the fact that e-Service is easier to use than visiting government agencies influences Bahrain citizens to adopt or accept e-government services (see figure below).
Figure 7: Graph showing people’s response towards a comparison between e-Services and traditional methods of government interaction with the citizens
People who are close to me think that I should use government e-Services
People are influenced by the social relationship they have with their friends. In short, social influence is a major factor in determining people’s attitude towards e-Services. It also defines how culture impacts the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain. When asked how people around them influenced their decision to use e-government services, 111 strongly agreed that they are influenced by people close to them to accept e-government services, 60 agreed, 3 were neutral, 4 disagreed and 3 strongly disagreed (see the table below):
Table 8: People who are close to me think that I should use government e-services
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 111 1 111
2 60 2 60
3 3 4 4
4 4 3 3
5 3 5 3
More 0 More 0
In essence, the result demonstrates that culture is a major determinant in changing people’s attitudes towards new technologies. The culture of being influenced by family and friend’s perception, defined as social influence, influence people to adopt new technologies (see figure below). In this regard, the study found that social influence, as a construct in this study, positively impacts people’s attitude towards the adoption of e-government services.
Figure 8: Graph showing how social relationship influence people’s attitude towards e-government services
If my friends and colleagues used government services, I would also use it
Through this question, the aim was to determine how work colleagues and friends would influence a person to use new technology. 40 participants strongly agreed that they would use e-government services if their friends and colleagues used it. Further 88 participants agreed, 24 were neutral, 20 disagreed and 9 strongly disagreed (see the table below):
Table 9: If my friends and colleagues used government e-services, I would also use it
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 40 2 88
2 88 1 40
3 24 3 24
4 20 4 20
5 9 5 9
More 0 More 0
In essence, the majority of the participants would be influenced by friends and work colleagues to use e-government services. It means that culture, defined by social influence, positively impacts the adoption of e-government services. Most people are influenced by the perceptions of other people about new technologies, In this regard, Bahrain citizens are likely to be influenced to accept or adopt e-government services if their friends and colleagues use the e-Services (see figure below):
Figure 9: Graph showing how friends and colleagues influence the adoption of e-government services among Bahrain citizens
People who influence my behavior think not use government e-Services
The question aimed at determining the extent to which people around them influence people’s behavior towards new technologies. The participants’ responses were as follows: 5 strongly agreed, 12 agreed, 32 were neutral, 85 disagreed, and 47 strongly disagreed (see table below). In short, the question asked whether people would be influenced by people around them not to use e-government services.
Table 10: People who influence my behavior think I should not use government e-services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 5 4 85
2 12 5 47
3 32 3 32
4 85 2 12
5 47 1 5
More 0 More 0
Essentially, the results show that Bahrain citizens are not influenced by people around them to use e-government services. The majority believes that their behavior towards the adoption of e-government services is not dependent on the negative opinion of other people (see figure below). In this regard, the citizens believe that e-government services are effective and any negative thoughts against it cannot influence their decision to adopt or fail to adopt e-government services.
Figure 10: Graph showing how people’s behaviors towards e-government services are influenced by the opinion of others
The government bodies encourage residents to use e-government services
The question aimed to determine whether the government’s mobilization of citizens influence their attitude towards the new technologies. The responses of the participants were as follows: 42 strongly agreed, 98 agreed, 27 were neutral, 10 disagreed and 4 strongly disagreed (see table below).
Table 11: The government bodies encourage residents to use government e-services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 42 2 98
2 98 1 42
3 27 3 27
4 10 4 10
5 4 5 4
More 0 More 0
Primarily, the main factor that hinders the adoption of e-government services is the trust between government agencies and citizens. The citizens want assurance that the new technologies such as e-government are safe and do not violate their privacy. In this regard, when the government bodies encourage them to use e-government services, they are likely to adopt it because of the assurance from the government (see figure below). Therefore, the involvement of government bodies in encouraging residents to use e-government services positively influences their decision.
Figure 11: Graph showing how government involvement influences adoption of e-government services.
I have a gadget necessary to use e-government services
The residents of Bahrain were asked if having gadgets necessary to use e-government services may influence their decision to adopt the technology. 75 strongly agreed, 89 agreed, 9 were neutral, 4 disagreed and 4 strongly disagreed (see table below).
Table 12: I have the gadgets necessary to use government e-services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 75 2 89
2 89 1 75
3 9 3 9
4 4 4 4
5 4 5 4
More 0 More 0
From the results of the study, the participants confirmed that having access to gadgets necessary to use e-government services influences people to use e-government services. The availability of these gadgets makes people accept or adopt e-government services because they know they have a way to access the services (see figure below). In this regard, the study showed how facilitation conditions influence people’s attitude towards e-government services.
Figure 12: Graph showing how availability of gadgets influence people’s decision to adopt e-government services
I have internet access to use e-government services
The participants were asked if having intenet access influenced their decision to accept e-government services. 94 strongly agreed, 78 agreed, 2 were neutral, 5 disagreed and 2 strongly disagreed (see table below)
Table 13: I have internet access to use e-Services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 94 1 94
2 78 2 78
3 2 4 5
4 5 3 2
5 2 5 2
More 0 More 0
. Having access to the internet influences people’s decision to adopt technological innovations. As a facilitation condition, the responses of the participants demonstrate that access to the internet is a significant determiner of citizen’s adoption of e-government services (see figure below). If people have access to the internet, they are likely to accept or adopt e-government services. Hence, trust, as defined by facilitation condition positively, influences the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain.
Figure 13: Graph showing the influence of access to the internet on adoption of e-government services.
I have the information I need to use e-government services
The question aimed at determining how being familiar with e-government services would influence its adoption among Baharian residents. 52 participants strongly agreed that having the information one needs positively influences them to accept or adopt e-government services, 95 agreed, 18 were neutral, 10 disagreed and 6 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 14: I have the information I need to use e-Services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 52 2 95
2 95 1 52
3 18 3 18
4 10 4 10
5 6 5 6
More 0 More 0
Ideally, being familiar with how technology works enhance one’s chances of using them. Bahrain residents confirmed that have the necessary information and knowledge about how e-government works influences their decision to adopt e-government services (see figure below). This is a facilitation condition that every citizen or resident considers when implementing the technology. It revolves around trusting government agencies with personal information. Thus, knowing how it works means they know that their data will be safe. It, therefore, influences their decision to adopt the technology.
Figure 14: Graph showing the influence of knowledge on the adoption of e-government services
I don’t have the necessary internet experience to use e-Services
The aim of the question was to determin the influence of internet experience on the adoption of e-government services. 6 participants strongly agreed that lack of necessary internet experience positively influences people to adopt e-government services, 19 people agreed, 8 were neutral, 55 disagreed and 93 strongly disagreed (see table below):
Table 15: I don’t have the necessary internet experience to use e-Services.
Bin Frequency Bin Frequency
1 6 5 93
2 19 4 55
3 8 2 19
4 55 3 8
5 93 1 6
More 0 More 0
Essentially, lack of internet experience hinders people’s desire to adopt e-government services. According to the results, the residents of Bahrain confirmed that if a person does not have the necessary internet experience to use e-government services, they will most likely fail to accept or adopt e-government services because of the lack of trust in the government agencies. Therefore, as a facilitation condition, lacking the necessary internet experience may hinder the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain.
Ideally, the demographic information of the participants shows a trend that demonstrates how culture and trust affect the adoption of e-Government services in Bahrain. For instance, people aged between 31 and 45 years were the majority respondents and demonstrated how trust and culture impact their acceptance of e-Government services. Also, both Bahrain citizens and non-citizens expressed their opinion regarding the adoption of e-Government services. However, Bahrain citizens demonstrated how performance expectancy and social influence impact their acceptance of new technologies including e-Services. Effort expectancy and facilitation conditions were also major factors that impacted their adoption of e-government services. Therefore, the four constructs defining culture and trust have a big impact on the adoption of e-Government services.
The results demonstrate how the concept of trust and culture impact the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain. The two concepts are defined by the four constructs that were tested using the fifteen questions. The constructs include performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitation conditions. Performance expectancy and social influence defined the concept of culture while facilitation conditions and effort expectancy defined the concept of trust. Based on the results, the participants (residents and citizens of Bahrain) believe that both culture and trust have a big influence on people’s attitude towards the adoption of e-government services (Kumar, Mukerji, Butt & Persaud, 2007). For instance, performance expectancy such as the effectiveness and efficiency of e-government services as well as whether it is fast and improves the lives of citizens positively influence Bahrain into adopting e-government services. Moreover, social influence factors such as the influence of people around a person including friends, family, and colleagues positively influence their decision to adopt e-government services. Effort expectancy factors such as “easy to use” and “easy to learn” also positively influence Bahrain to adopt e-government services. Lastly, facilitation conditions such as access to gadgets and the internet positively influence Bahrain into adopting e-government services.
Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the entire thesis. It comprises of the conclusion of the study which restates the thesis statement and highlights whether the purpose of the research has been achieved, recommendation for future research and for the Bahrain government, implications of the study which underscores how the findings of the study will impact the Bahrain government and other countries, limitations of the study which highlights the problems that were faced during the research and what should be addressed in future research.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that impact the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain. According to the results of the study, culture and trust are the major factors that impact the adoption of e-government in Bahrain. The culture was examined through two constructs: performance expectancy and social influence. It mainly focused on people’s perception of the e-government services and how relationship influence people to adopt e-government services. The study found that if people believe that e-government will improve their lives because of its efficiency, they will most likely adopt or accept the e-government services. Similarly, if people around them use the services, they are likely to be influenced to adopt its use. The concept of trust was also defined using two constructs: effort expectancy and facilitation condition. In short, people are influenced to use e-government services if they trust that the government will guarantee the privacy of their data, they are likely to be influenced to adopt e-government services. Effort expectancy is defined by how easy it is to use and learn the e-government services whereas facilitation condition is defined by the availability of facilitators such as gadgets and the internet. The availability of these factors positively influences Bahrain to adopt e-government services. Therefore, the concept of trust and culture are the major factors that influence the adoption of e-government services in Bahrain.
The results of the study recommend that the government should be intensely involved in explaining to people the benefits of using e-government services. The low level of e-government service adoption in Bahrain is due to the negative perceptions associated with culture and the lack of trust between citizens and government agencies (United Nations, 2016). The perception that traditional ways are more effective, fast and easy to use and learn to prevent people from accepting the e-government services. Also, the fear of exposing personal data also prevents people from adopting e-government services (Lopez-Sisniega, 2009). In this regard, the government of Bahrain should invest in educating the public about e-government services and raise their confidence levels. Also, the involvement of the government will assure the citizens that their data is safe and not exposed by using e-government services. Therefore, this will increase the level of e-government acceptance and adoption in Bahrain.
Implications of the Study
The results of the study provide insight into how people feel about new technologies in general. The study may be used in other sectors to ensure people accept the implementation of new technology. E-government service is a new technology that is currently used to improve the effectiveness and quality of government services (Nadi, 2012). Just like other new technologies, the implementation of new technology is always a challenge for countries and organizations. Therefore, it is important for countries to understand the factors that impact the adoption of e-government services to educate people on the benefits of adopting new technologies.
Limitations of the Study
Collecting data was a challenge. The data collected represents the entire Bahrain population. However, there was a challenge of determining the citizens and non-citizens. Therefore, the results may be a misrepresentation of the perceptions among Bahrain citizens because of the challenge of differentiating between citizens and non-citizens.
For future studies, research should focus on how governments can involve residents in the decision making process. In any implementation process in organizations, the involvement of employees always guarantees effective implementation. This process can be used by the government to help the citizens feel that they are part of the implementation process. It also increases the knowledge about the new technologies, which enhances acceptance among citizens and residents. Moreover, the major problem in the adoption of e-Government services is the lack of interactive dialogue between the government and citizens. Trust is built when the government interacts with e-Service users. Also, the credibility of the e-Services is achieved when the government creates awareness on how the services are used, and whether they guarantee the safety of personal data. This is achieved through interactive dialogue between the government agencies and users of the technological inventions. In this regard, future research should focus on how the government and e-Services users can improve their relationship to ensure they have an interactive dialogue to eliminate any possible doubts about new technologies. The dialogue will help in creating trust between the two parties. It will also help the government learn and understand the cultural perspectives of the citizens concerning the use of new technologies and enable them to devise strategies to facilitate effective implementation of these technologies. Therefore, there is still room for further research to help in enhancing the adoption of e-Services in Bahrain and other developing countries.
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