Free Development of Low- Fat Fried Fish using protein based Edible Coating Dissertation Example

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Development of Low- Fat Fried Fish using protein based Edible Coating

Category: Agriculture

Subcategory: Art

Level: Masters

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Development of Low- Fat Fried Fish using protein-based Edible Coating
Student’s Name
Institution’s Name
Frying is a commonly used method of food preparation; this is because it is both cost-effective and fast; restaurants prefer this mode of cooking (Bengtson, 2006). Deep frying is not only limited to fish, French fries, and chicken, depending on one’s preference; anything can go into the deep fryer. As much as there are the cost and time aspect attached to deep frying, they come at the expense of the consumer’s health. Fried foods are high in calories and Trans fats, they predispose the consumer to heart diseases, diabetes, prostate, and obesity (Stott-Miller, Neuhouser & Stanford, 2013). Studies indicate that fried foods tend to have acrylamide. Acrylamide forms when meals get cooked under high temperatures; during the high-temperature cooking, chemical reactions occur between sugars and the amino acid asparagine leading to the formation of the toxic substance acrylamide (McDonell, 2017).
Edible coatings are not a new phenomenon to culinary art. Martelli et al. (2008) sought to exhibit that by using edible coatings, there would be less oil uptake during the deep frying exercise. Martelli et al. (2008) applied edible coatings solution to the chicken before battering. The researchers then analyzed the contents of the pre-fried and fried chicken nuggets to determine the amount of water, color, and texture of the fried nuggets. Martelli et al. (2008) found out that, the edible coatings did not alter the amount of water retention for the fried nuggets, but they exhibited oil intake reduction. The coated samples had a bright yellow color, and they were easy to shear.
In another study, Usawakesmanee et al. (2008) established that breaded shrimps had less fat as compared to those breaded but did not get immersed in the edible coating. Just like Martelli et al. (2008), Usawakesmanee et al. (2008) asserted that treated food samples were easy to shear and there was lowered crust hardness as compared to untreated shrimps. Usawakesmanee et al. (2008) did not find any difference in appearance, color, flavor, taste, and texture. However, the investigated consumers were in approval of the breaded shrimp.
It is against the backdrop of the dangers associated with deep frying foods that researchers and food enthusiasts have come up with ways of reducing the effects of the process. Hydrocolloids of protein in nature get utilized in the preparation of fried foods to reduce the calories and fat intake during cooking. This study concerns itself with the development of a low far fried fish using a protein-based coating. While developing the cores of the topic, the paper will explore the below objectives.
1. Isolate the proteins from fish processing by-products and come up with edible coatings2. Determine the effect of edible coating on reducing the fat-uptake of fried fish3. Evaluate the physicochemical properties of the fried fish4. Analyze sensory attributes of the fried fish
Methods
In this study, the fish to be used is whiting fillets and merlangius merlangus, any of them would suffice to demonstrate the objectives of the paper. In coming up with the fish fillets, there would be plenty of byproducts that would go into the development of the protein coating. The fish will have to undergo immersion in a protein coating made from fish; after that, they would undergo deep frying. The coatings would be of different concentrations, this would allow for the determination of what solution is fit for the reduction of fat uptake during frying. After application of protein coating, the fish would be battered and breaded before frying. The samples as coated with different protein concentrations would be allowed to stand for 10 minutes before proceeding to sensory panelists who would evaluate the appearance, odor, and texture.
Literature review
Coming up with whiting fillets would mean that only 43% of the fish would get directly consumed as food, the backbone, skin, liver, head, and cutoffs would undergo processing to either make any of the following products, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, functional foods, healthy foods, feeds, and raw materials. Fish frames, backbones, collars, and tails are used to come up with fish protein isolate and fish protein hydrolysate (Dangaran, Tomasula & Qi, 2009). However, only fish protein isolate would get utilized while preparing a protein concentrate. The fish protein contains less than 1% of fat or oil, thus the ideal choice (Oğur & Erkan, 2015). Protein Isolate comes about from the pH-shift process. Diluted and finely homogenized fish meat gets subjected to either very low pH (2.5-3) or very high pH (10.8-11.2) at low temperatures to produce fish protein isolate. Centrifugation helps in the removal of solids such as bones, scales, and neutral fat. Lastly, the soluble protein undergoes precipitation by adjusting the pH to myofibrillary point to make the protein isolate (Shiku, Yamaguchi & Tanaka, 2003).
In the past, edible films have been utilized for postharvest purposes in addition to culinary applications (Khan et al., 2013). The materials are known to be eco-friendly since biopolymers do not pose any danger to the environment (Šuput et al., 2015). Due to the nature of biopolymers, they may get invoked during cooking to protect foods from oxidation and microbial spoilage (Idun-Acquah, Obeng & Mensah, 2016). The fish protein solution obtained from the process can be utilized as a dipping solution in battering and breading to reduce fat uptake during frying (Phule & Annapure, 2013). The fish protein Isolate would get mixed with wheat flour at different concentrations to make the coating that fish would get immersed in before frying as suggested by Jónsson & Vidarsson, (2016). However, it is not necessary, as the protein isolate would still work to meet the anticipated results.
Usawakesmanee et al. (2005) while studying the effect of coatings on fried potato found out that the coatings led to reduced fat and moisture intake. The same is the likely outcome when fish gets immersed in a protein coating before deep frying. However, the moisture and fat uptake varied from one potato to the other depending on the concentration in which the potatoes got immersed. Bakar et al. (2010) did find out that breaded fish fillets absorbed less fat as compared to the other fish with no bread. From the studies of Bakar et al. (2010); Yazdan et al. (2009) and Usawakesmanee et al. (2005) it would suffice the assumption that, the use of coatings and does reduce the amount of moisture and fat uptake for deep-fried foods. Yazdan et al. (2009) led an investigation in which wetness, fat content, and fatty acid makeup in breaded and non-breaded deep-fried meals got determined. The findings of Yazdan et al. (2009) indicate that breaded fish fillets were lacking fatty acids as a consequence of deep frying as compared to non-breaded fillets that had fatty acids. Also, the amount of fat uptake for the fried fish as recorded in Yazden’s study correlates with the concentration of coatings and breading materials.
From literature on the impact of coating and use of protein solutions as a measure to stop excessive fat uptake during the frying process, it is the expectation of the researcher that the coatings do not alter the quality of fried fish as a desirable source of quality amino acids and minerals for the consumers (Baldwin, Hagenmaier & Bai, 2011). However, there is a likelihood that fat fried fish using protein-based coating are would be rich in desirable physiochemical properties as compared to fish that do not get coated during the frying process. Fish fried under the criteria set out in this paper is likely to have a desirable microstructure, fat absorption, and color. The difference may be minimal, but it is the slight chemical composition that is vital to the general health and nutrition of the consumers. Zhelyazkov and Stratev (2018) indicate that for fried fish, the water content is of negligible quantity.
Studies indicate that deep frying leads disintegration of the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of fats used in frying (Diop et al., 2014). Deteriorated frying fat may result in the production of volatile such as aldehydes which may evaporate leaving behind polyaromatic hydrocarbons which may prompt carcinogenic effects on the consumer (Diop et al., 2014). Given the character of frying fat, the use of the edible coating on fish would help ward off the adulterations imminent in fats (Diop et al., 2014). Going by the assumption of deteriorating frying fat, use of edible coatings would assure that the fried fish is safe for human consumption.
Shaviklo et al. (2010) studied the sensory attributes of Haddock fish balls after adding fish protein isolate. In the same light, the study of Shaviklo et al. (2010) could be used to forecast the sensory attributes of fat fried fish applying a protein-based edible coating. Shavikl et al. (2010) report that the fish balls were spicy, also there were instances of uneven color on the outside. The panelists of the study of Shaviklo et al. (2010) described the fish balls as having a juicy texture. Adherence to what literature supports as the best practice when it comes to preparation of edible coatings and undertaking proven fat uptake reduction ways, the sensory attributes of the fried fish would not be any different from the ordinary frying process. The only difference will be on the fat uptake of the fish; which is a desirable aspect.
Protein-based food coatings seem to be the best when it comes to controlling of fat uptake during deep frying; this is an observation going by the literature cited in this paper. The use of protein isolate to stop excess fat intake for fish during deep frying would help in achieving the desired and anticipated outcomes since it has worked when applied to other foods such as chicken. There is a likelihood that the coated fish would be like the untreated fish, apart from the amount of fat in each. Also, the concentration of the protein isolate would determine the amount of fat uptake during the deep frying exercise.

References
Bakar, J., Moradi, Y., Man, Y. C., & Kharidah, S. (2010). Fat uptake evaluation in fried fish fillet by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 9(2), 327-336.
Baldwin, E. A., Hagenmaier, R., & Bai, J. (Eds.). (2011). Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. CRC Press.
Bengtson, R. J. (2006). The Effect of Novel Frying Methods on Quality of Breaded Fried Foods (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).
Dangaran, K., Tomasula, P. M., & Qi, P. (2009). Structure and function of protein-based edible films and coatings. In Edible films and coatings for food applications (pp. 25-56). Springer New York.
Diop, A., Sarr, S. O., Ndao, S., Cissé, M., Baldé, M., Ndiaye, B., & Diop, Y. M. (2014). Effect of deep-fat frying on chemical properties of edible vegetable oils used by Senegalese households. African journal of food, agriculture, nutrition and development, 14(6), 2218-2238.
Idun-Acquah, N., Obeng, G. Y., & Mensah, E. (2016). Repetitive Use of Vegetable Cooking Oil and Effects on Physico-Chemical Properties–Case of Frying with Redfish (Lutjanus fulgens). Science and Technology, 6(1), 8-14.
Jónsson, Á., & Vidarsson, J. R. (2016). By products from whitefish processing. Skyrsla Matis. USA. 36p.
Khan, M. I., Adrees, M. N., Tariq, M. R., & Sohaib, M. (2013). Application of edible coating for improving meat quality: A review. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences, 23(2), 71-79.
Martelli, M. R., Carvalho, R. A., Sobral, P. A., & Santos, J. S. (2008). Reduction Of Oil Uptake In Deep Fat Fried Chicken Nuggets Using Edible Coatings Based On Cassava Starch And Methylcellulose. Italian Journal of Food Science, 20(1), 111-117.
McDonell, K. (2017). Why Are Fried Foods Bad For You? Retrieved June 20, 2018, from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/why-fried-foods-are-bad
Oğur, S., & Erkan, N. (2015). The Physicochemical Properties of Edible Protein Films. Italian Journal of Food Science, 27(1), 1-10.
Phule, A. S., & Annapure, U. S. (2013). Effect of coating of hydrocolloids on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata) splits during deep fat frying. International Food Research Journal, 20(2).
Shaviklo, G. R., Arason, S., Thorkelsson, G., Sveinsdottir, K., & Martinsdottir, E. (2010). Sensory attributes of haddock balls affected by added fish protein isolate and frozen storage. Journal of sensory studies, 25(3), 316-331.
Shiku, Y., Yamaguchi, P. Y., & Tanaka, M. (2003). Effect of pH on the preparation of edible films based on fish myofibrillar proteins. Fisheries Science, 69(5), 1026. doi:10.1046/j.1444-2906.2003.00722.x
Stott-Miller, M., Neuhouser, M. L., & Stanford, J. L. (2013). Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancer. The Prostate, 73(9), 960–969. http://doi.org/10.1002/pros.22643Šuput, D. Z., Lazić, V. L., Popović, S. Z., & Hromiš, N. M. (2015). Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application. Food and Feed Research, 42(1), 11-22.
Usawakesmanee, W., Chinnan, M. S., Wuttijumnong, P., Jangchud, A., & Raksakulthai, N. (2008). Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into pre-dusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product. Songklanakarin Journal Of Science & Technology, 3025-34.
Usawakesmanee, W., Wuttijumnong, P., Chinnan, M. S., Jangchud, R. N., & Raksakulthai, N. (2005). The effects of edible coating ingredient as a barrier to moisture and fat of fried breaded potato. Kasetsart Journal National Science, 39(1), 98-108.
Yazdan, M., Jamilah, B., Yaakob, C. M., & Sharifah, K. (2009). Moisture, fat content and fatty acid composition in breaded and non-breaded deep-fried black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) fillets. International Food Research Journal, 16, 225-231.
Zhelyazkov, G., & Stratev, D. (2018). Some Physicochemical Characteristics of Fish Products Sampled from Bulgarian Retail Markets. Journal of food quality and hazards control, 5(1), 33-36.

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