International responsibility to protect
INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
A comparative examination of the human rights justifications for intervening in Afghanistan and Libya and the inaction in Syria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc533269413 h 5Dedication PAGEREF _Toc533269414 h 6Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc533269415 h 7Abstract PAGEREF _Toc533269416 h 8ACRONYMS LIST PAGEREF _Toc533269417 h 9CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc533269418 h 10Introduction PAGEREF _Toc533269419 h 10Study Questions PAGEREF _Toc533269420 h 12Aims and Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc533269427 h 12Research Methodologies and Materials PAGEREF _Toc533269429 h 13Thesis Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc533269430 h 13CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc533269431 h 14Arab spring PAGEREF _Toc533269432 h 14CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc533269433 h 19The Responsibility to Protect PAGEREF _Toc533269434 h 19The theory and practice behind the responsibility to protect PAGEREF _Toc533269435 h 19R2P PAGEREF _Toc533269436 h 21Crisis for the application of the R2P principle PAGEREF _Toc533269437 h 23Responsibility to protect application proceedings PAGEREF _Toc533269438 h 25Some limitations for the responsibility to protect PAGEREF _Toc533269439 h 28Arab spring PAGEREF _Toc533269446 h 38Afghanistan war PAGEREF _Toc533269447 h 39Application of the R2P in relation to the USA invasion of Afghanistan PAGEREF _Toc533269448 h 44Legal reasons for the use of force against Afghanistan PAGEREF _Toc533269449 h 45CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc533269450 h 49Syria and Libya with the R2P. PAGEREF _Toc533269451 h 49Intervention in Libya PAGEREF _Toc533269452 h 50Agenda for the intervention: Peace and security PAGEREF _Toc533269453 h 51Resolution 1970 PAGEREF _Toc533269454 h 51Resolution 1973 PAGEREF _Toc533269455 h 51Syria PAGEREF _Toc533269456 h 54Report about the situation in Syria PAGEREF _Toc533269457 h 55Rights in the Arab Republic of Syria PAGEREF _Toc533269458 h 56Resolution 2042 PAGEREF _Toc533269459 h 56Six-Point Proposal done by the Special Envoy to the UN and the Arab league PAGEREF _Toc533269460 h 57Resolution 2043 PAGEREF _Toc533269461 h 58CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc533269462 h 59COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc533269463 h 59Echoes of the Vetoes PAGEREF _Toc533269464 h 61CHAPTER SIX PAGEREF _Toc533269480 h 101CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc533269481 h 101RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc533269482 h 103Recommendations for successful application of rights to protect (R2P) PAGEREF _Toc533269483 h 103Recommendation 1: A complete reform of the Security Council PAGEREF _Toc533269484 h 103Recommendation two: A cautious application of the responsibility to protect (R2P) PAGEREF _Toc533269485 h 104Recommendation three: Acting on the rules outside the United Nations PAGEREF _Toc533269486 h 105Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc533269487 h 107Appendix PAGEREF _Toc533269488 h 111
DeclarationI would like to declare that the work that is contained in this thesis is my original work and have not been submitted for the purposes of obtaining a degree or a certificate at any academic institution. Apart from this, I would like to declare that the work contained here make references to other scholars and other documentation that have been done in the past. However, they have been duly cited in accordance with the demands of academic standards. In case there’s any work from any other author, they are duly cited and credit is given to the author as required by the academic codes of ethics.
DedicationI would like to dedicate this work to the people who have suffered in the hands of authoritarian regimes and have lost friends, relatives, and families as a result of misunderstandings in the society. I wish them all the best as the struggle against human atrocities continues. I would like to dedicate this work to friends and family who have also been part of this research and have been touched by their findings in it especially those that involve atrocities. I would also like to dedicate this work to my supervisor who suggested this topic to me and approve it successfully to allow performing research on this thesis
AcknowledgmentI would like to acknowledge the following people and organizations for giving me support and guidelines necessary to complete this master’s thesis. First of all, I would like to thank God for giving me the strength to conduct this thesis to completion. Without his knowledge and guidance, it would not have been possible to complete this study successfully. I am grateful to him for his power and strength that has enabled me to endure through the night and complete this job as required. I would also like to pass my regards to the institution that have approved my proposal and enabled me to conduct a study on a subject that I feel is of visual importance at an international level. I would like to take the head of the department and my supervisor for having seen me through this study and guiding me where necessary. In addition, I would like to take the support that I have received from my fellow students and my siblings who have stood by me and giving me the humble time necessary to do more research on this work.
Thank you all, And God bless.
AbstractThe whole world was shocked by the occurrences that took place during the Arab spring in the Arabic gulf. Most western countries were faced with questions as to whether they should intervene in most of these countries or not. In many countries, leaders and members of the public took advantage of the situations by looting and killing those who are protesting against them. The very common instances where the international community has been called include Libya, Afghanistan, and Syria. In these three scenarios, the application of the responsibility to protect (R2P) principles have been different. The case for Libya was a massive shock as the international community was actively involved in overthrowing Muammar Gadaffi’s government. The killing of Gaddafi was made that led to the change in leadership into power eventually. The situation faced criticism from several leaders across the globe. The same case applied in Afghanistan when the USA had to intervene as well.Nonetheless, the most shocking when it came to the application of R2P is in Syria. Just like in Libya, the Syrian government has been conducting killings and mass atrocities without interventions of the UN. This paper will analyze these situations. This paper will concentrate on the three cases with the basis of the Responsibility to protect principles guiding the interventions. It will analyze the reasons for the differences in the application of the R2P rule.
Keywords: UN, Afghanistan intervention, Human Right, NATO forces, Libya, USA, Gadaffi, Syria, Taliban.
ACRONYMS LISTAU African Union
BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South-Africa
CPO Causal-Process Observation
EU European Union
FSA Free Syrian Army
HRW Human Rights Watch ICC International Criminal Court
ICISS International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NLA National Liberation Army
NTCNational Transition Council
SNC Syrian National Council
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
OPCW Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
R2P Responsibility to Protect
RwP Responsibility while Protecting
UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission Rwanda
UNHCR United Nations Refugee Agency
UNGA United Nations General Assembly
UNSC United Nations Security Council
UNSG United Nations Secretary General
UNSMIS United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria
UNSML United Nations Support Mission in Libya
UPR Uniting for Peace Resolution
CHAPTER ONEIntroductionThe responsibility to protect, also known as RtoP and R2P in some countries is a global act that guides various countries having been endowed by the members of the UN. Everyone throughout the globe understands the effects of genocide and ethnic cleansing. This act addresses critical concepts in the globe by preventing genocide; a crime against humanity such as ethnic cleansing. Responsibility to protect is based on a principle that underlies the severity of various countries and bodies responsible for protecting the population in all the countries under the international community. It protects the members of the country from being killed by tyrant leaders. All human violations and population atrocities are protected by the responsibility to protect. Other principles such as ethics and international law underline this principle. Through security, peace and human rights, the United Nation has the role to protect and provide rules against armed conflicts throughout the members of the United Nations. This responsibility underlines various frameworks that are employed in case there is a condition that needs an intervention.
Some of the frameworks used include mediation process, economic sanctions as well as using various warning signs and mechanisms. Different frameworks that are meant to prevent atrocities and protect the citizen from mass killings by authority. The Security Council is the body that is in charge of these frameworks, and they are responsible for employing them by the best means possible to prevent mass atrocities. The responsibility to protect stopped raining better be respected by every member of the UN. The UN also has the ability to act while enforcing responsibility to protect is solely based on the Security Council. This measure is mainly considered as a last resort in case other peaceful negotiations have failed to bear fruits. Distress to protect have been debated over several works in regards to the implementation especially when applying to situations that are specific to the country. Examples of countries where the application of the right to protect having questioned includes Libya under own to Gaddafi, Syria, Sudan, Afghanistan among other countries.In the year 2011, Muammar Gaddafi, who was then the president of Libya was killed in a war that lasted for more than eight months within the country. The battle mainly existed between troops of Libya who are on the side of Gaddafi, the royalties and the tribesmen against the opposing forces who stood for the national transition. Protests in Libya was the main source of this revolution. It just followed after a real revolution within the Arab spring that had also involved several other countries, some which did not succeed such as Egypt and Tunisia. The same attempts were in other Arabic like Syrians Yemen people, as well as Moroccan people and the people of Jordan. The cause of war within the country of Libya was mainly caused by what was said to be for government performance and people living in poor conditions. It enables obligate states to respect human life. It prevents ethnic cleansing. As well, the cases of corruption which the government of Gaddafi was associated with.
Several people claimed that the country had failed to deliver what it had promised the people. Because of the situation, the international community intervened into the war. The decision to intervene was based on the resolution act and right to protect, even if other people questioned how fast the action took place. Humanitarian reasons were the main backing that was given as an explanation for the decision that was made hastily. It prevents people from having to suffer from their leaders. Responsibility to protect must be respected. This step was followed by various nations joining into the war in conjunction with NATO forces. When this action is compared to other humanitarian acts in countries that are faced with a similar or worse situation such as Syria, many people conclude that this was not just a humanitarian action but an organized war against Gaddafi. Gadhafi’s troops were defeated only 21 days after the protest had started.
However, a country such as Syria, President Bashar al Assad has been oppressing the people despite their ongoing revolt for more than seven years. They have never been humanitarian action or intervention into the situation. When it comes to Afghanistan, the situation was completely different from the two countries. In Afghanistan, the American forces imposed themselves into the country taking control after there had been a bomb blast attack in the USA. Oppression and terrorism were the main issues that were cited as being the reasons behind Afghanistan being controlled over by the USA. It ensures that everyone is safe from the oppressive government. The United Nations and the society members have to protect humans from the member countries from oppression by nondemocratic regimes. This was the main reason for intervening in Libya. In Syria, more than 1000 Protestants have been killed by the authoritarian government, and no effective foreign or international community focus on humanitarian interventions. This paper will discuss the rationale behind the lack of intervention in Syria and the massive intervention in Libya. It will also analyze the key reasons behind the USA control over Afghanistan. This study will identify various international laws that allow for intervention and why it is not effectively implemented in other situations. This thesis will cause focus on various research questions as guidelines as well as different objectives.
Study Questionsi) Should it be mandatory for those that the international community has the responsibility to protect have issues with the authoritarian regimes to intervene in situations that lead to mass killings in authoritarian regimes?
ii) some of the reasoning behind the application of the right to protect and the USA intervening into the case for Libya and being hesitant to intervene in a similar situation in Syria?iii) What is the main role of responsibility to protect and when does it apply in various situations?iv) What was the main reason behind the quick intervention that took place in Libya and why is it different in other states that have been faced with similar situations such as Syria?iv) What are some of the considerations made before acting on the responsibility to protect by the Security Council?v) Are there differences in the moral application when it comes to human interventions especially those that involve authoritarian regimes?
Aims and Objectives of the StudyThe main aim is to identify the operations of the responsibility to protect principle and how it applies to various situations. This study wills how some of the ideas that can propel the international community have the responsibility to protect those who have issues with the authoritarian regimes to intervene in authoritarian regimes to help the population. The dessrtation will also show whether it should be made mandatory for the Security Council always to act if they can specify that the situation in an authoritarian regime requires international or human intervention. Human rights are also key in R2P. This thesis will also analyze some of the failures of the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their authoritarian rights regimes especially countries like Syria and Afghanistan and where there is a different type of bias when applying these rules. This study will analyze the considerations before intervening into a communist country that exists peacefully. By analyzing the different cases of Afghanistan, and Libya, this disease will show reasons for different cases that are behind different interventions.
Research Methodologies and MaterialsThe main sources in this thesis will come from the website of the United Nations specifically from the UN charter that has been published in various sources. Different general assembly resolutions, as well as different reports submitted by the independent organizations to different countries, will also be used in this study. Another study that is based on three countries, publications from the same countries will also act as a source of literature. Everyone is concerned about the atrocities, especially the international communities. Apart from this, numerous scholars have talked about different intervention and the possible bias when it comes to the application of the responsibility to protect. Such sources will be used in this work. Also, there are several recordings on the internet that have shown the facts and figures behind the killings in Libya, another case that required the intervention of the international community. Such sources will be useful in this disease. Various laws in different countries will also apply to see the possibility of the existing laws against interventions of the international community.
Thesis Statement of the ProblemThe main idea behind this work responds to the application of the right to protect that is mainly enforced by the security council of the international community. The problem comes when people notice the various difference in the application of this principle. The case in Libya was one that showed the quick acting of the unit especially when they feel that the general public is threatened by an authoritarian regime government. Humanitarian interventions range from relief food and the actions of humanity . On the other hand, people breast problems that were associated with these interventions and whether they were right or wrong. When it comes to Afghanistan, the case was different as the intervention was mainly best all a counter-terrorist act that was done by the international community. Many people have also questioned this act and reasons why the international community allowed the USA to intervene in the Afghanistan situation. Furthermore, the situation in Afghanistan has not become better even after these interventions.t there are various international laws that are associated with the R2P. In Syria, the civilians have been killed for a long time with minimum interventions from international society. It is a problem as many scholars are questioning the reasons behind the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes reluctance to act on such a life-threatening situation. Through analyzing the ideas behind write protect principle, the researcher can understand the reason for the differences in these problems.
CHAPTER TWOArab springThe Arab spring, also known as Arab uprising is a movement that started in the year 2010 as a response to various authoritarian regimes in the regions union the Arabic Gulf. This does not include Asian countries such as India. Many Arab countries protested against the low standards of living that were offered by the authoritarian regimes. The protest started in Tunisia as it spread to other countries. Many people have attributed Arabic spring to the extensive use of social media that advocated for the revolution throughout the world. Social media has enabled many people to receive news and to see developments and economic experiences of other countries. After the world war, human atrocities have been a massive concern to the people. As a result of sharing these stories, the leaders within the USA took it unto themselves, and so they under-performance on many resumes that were in the country. Many governments and social institutions also so the importance that was attributed to social media. Due to the spread of news and hurtful information, most governments decided to block the internet completely as well as stopping some sites from being seen in those countries. There are moral obligations for the citizens as well
The social media was also used to organize for social rallies. On realizing the effects that social media had on the citizens, many governments decided to scrutinize all the discussion forums and those who created contents on Facebook and Twitter. The content creators were also accused of being the orchestrated of crimes that were unnecessary in those countries. Various states have been advocating for democratic elections. The actions of Arab spring led to people around the world knowing that it is easier to change a regime if the whole community come together to raise a concern. Arab spring has seen Tunisia change leadership and places such as Egypt Yemen and Libya having a revolutionary impact that will last forever. There are those that have seen leadership being toppled or violence that eventually leads to civil wars. The wave fitted in the middle of 2012 while in other places it is still ongoing strongly. Terrorism has to be prevented by people from all ways of life.
As a result, many of them tried to shut down social media groups while suppressing any form of discussion that discussed or scrutinized the government. After the revolution became a success in Tunisia, it spread to five other countries within the Arabic Gulf. This country included Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The consequences of this uprising were simple. They want weather change at the regime or bring to life a major apprise as well as social violence. There were riots and civil wars that resulted from organized groups. In the Middle East, everyone was concerned about the regime change.Street demonstrations took place in countries such as Algeria, Morocco and quite. R2P ensures that protests are safer to the people. Other countries also experienced minor protest society Djibouti Mauritius and Western Sahara. The main slogan that was used by the people who were the most rating in Arabic world which was based on bringing down the regime.”Ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām” which was the main slogan that was used during the street protests in all the countries in the Arabic world. The initial stages of the revolutionary waves but faded in the middle of 2012. Libya was the most affected by these changes and protests.
Most of the demonstrators and protesters were met with violent responses from the people and government authorities. About from the government authorities, there are able government malicious that were prepared to crack down or the demonstrators and militaries that were meant to bring down the government. Other forms of attacks from the demonstrators why match with violence from these sites. The law guarantees a safe route for everyone. The large-scale conflicts resulted to be that led to the loss of many lives. Syria civil war, for example, leads to loss of mother 200000 people. After the civil war, there was their price of the Iraqi surgeons. The case of Kosovo was a major determinant in making the responsibility to protect. This was followed by the Egyptian crisis when the local citizens wanted to raise a coup to stop there reigning government.
The Libyan war followed where they are man civil war that followed later on. Being that most of the violence in the Arabic spring was met with great force from the ruling governments, most of them ceased to exist after various occasions of marriage from the local militia. Response to the Arab spring, a power struggle was the main outcome of the protests. The Bush doctrine gave an account of these events. 21 There were places where leadership had to be changed. Even though the regions were the ones that the international community pointed to be responsible, there are power vacuums that could be seen opening throughout caribou and. Religious elites’ also joined the movements and massive support for democracy in most of the states that are ruled by the Muslim majority. After the interventions in Kosovo, R2P became an easy decision for the international community. Many Arab world countries that are focusing on Arab spring hoped for and of corruption and increased political participation through popular movements. They also hope that it will bring about greater economic unity and equality.
Most of the Arabic countries have been ruled by the same people for a long time. For the Muslim pro countries, political participation has not been an issue. Most of the leaders have had the right for the thrones for a long time. An example, in this case, is Libya where the president of the country had served for more than forty years. The social media opened the eyes of the protesters as they saw a possibility of having increased political participation in case they join hands in the movement. They are also those people from democracy as most of the countries within the Arab world do not operate as it can be seen. Regional and military interventions what are the basic features of the Arab spring with destructive wars continuing in countries such as Syria. Despite all these movements, none have resulted in giving rise to a constitutional government or a democratic government except one in Tunisia. Sovereignty was still key to these changes.
The international community has the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes, and they also have been responsible for the life of humanity. The application of the right to protect to ensure that there is peaceful coexistence between different countries throughout the globe. After the WW1, the League of Nations was formed so that countries could find peaceful ways of resolving their differences. Peaceful states building is a key factor in all these. However, the League of Nations failed to deliver to its role and the Second World War took place. Many people lost their lives including women and children through the war making it a global concern.it was key to the discussion in the UN. As a result, the League of Nations was dismantled leading to the formation of the UN. The main focus of the Security Council in relation to the responsibility to protect was to ensure that various human rights are protected at all levels. Human laws were key issues here. The application of the right to protect has been made by the United States and the NATO bodies more often. The USA has been at the forefront when it had become the superpower at the end of the Second World War. The main ideas that were proposed in the meeting were to give some countries the supreme power to help in intervening in various situations.
Countries such as France, Russia, the USA, and the UK have numerous representatives within the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes, and they are responsible for decisions that are made at the international level. R2P is decided on by thee countries. However, they have been patients that are raised by countries that are less represented in the international community and have less representation at the stages of the decision-making process about the way they conduct their issues under matters dealing with security. The international community has the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes, and they also have some bodies that are most superior, and they can rule any decision that has been made by the general assembly. War on terrorism is crucial to the UN. The structure of the United Nations is also based on roles that are divided for different bodies. The general assembly is responsible for actions dealing with diplomacy and other matters at the international level. The Security Council is perceived in a crucial manner when it comes to interventions in various countries. However, in most cases, the decisions made by the Security Council have to go through various channels and approvals before they are implemented.
Many generations had been talking about Arab spring as it unfolded in front of the eyes. Most people referred to this Arab uprise as a peaceful rising for the young generation that was against all the oppressive and authoritarian regime. Mass atrocities are threats to international peace. It is widely believed that it was investigated by the dissatisfaction of the people especially the youths who are not happy about the local rulers and the leadership of their government. After several speculations, the Arab spring reached its height when it started and ethnic cleansing with different people from different supporters believing that they should rule. Many people against to the leaders whilst leaders themselves also had their supporters. Some people believe that Arab up rise had been closed by the economic recession in the countries involved. There are numerous activities which did badly in the programs that were sponsored by the US also founded by the endowment for democracy.
However, many people believe that the Arab spring was not instigated by the united state government. Nonetheless, there are those that have been massively sponsored by the United States government. Various factors have been attributed to this process including dictatorship. However, critics claim that absolute monarchy is the main cause of these issues. The US foreign policy is crucial to these. Others also claim that human relations, as well as political corruptions that had been demonstrated massively by the monarch government, were key to the Arab uprising. The economic decline, poverty, and basic demographics had been cited as the cause of these wars.
Catalysts to all the North African states within the Persian Gulf with mainly due to the people who had concentrated their wealth for a long time and why not concentrating on how to conduct their leadership more transparently. For several decades, these leaders have been subjecting their members of the population to poverty while they get rich. Corruption was also a major feature of these leaders. People have also questioned if this doctrine is performing its role. At the same time, the youths could not accept the status quo that had been rolling them for a long time. Some protesters saw the success that had been achieved within their Turkish system. Turkey has looked for a more democratic strategy, and they managed to secure a peaceful election. This ensures that the country realized the first growth of the economy and a secular constitution that could not concentrate on Islamism. Other analysts blamed the constant increase in food prices as well as their prices of petrol as the main agenda behind the protests. When asked about the reasons why they were on the street, some protesters claimed that they had been frustrated by the lack of employment and the increasing population that was continuously unemployed.
They also cited political regimes that were corrupt as the reason why they started their movements. As many people use social media to spread the news about openness and the operation of the status quo that should be changed within the Arab spring, it was automatic that many people are going to fall into this operation. Protests started over the internet with many people penetrating Facebook and sharing information about the need to come together to change the monarch leadership. Twitter Facebook and social media platforms ensure that Egypt another c countries such as Tunisia are their protesters creating awareness or their people. Like the preparation of young people were all determined to create Facebook pages where they will raise awareness and flame all the crimes against humanity that had been done. All the brutal forces especially actions of the police were recorded live and shared on Facebook so that people can notice the regime at the influence that it had on the people. His response on as many people who are determined to end at a gym where there were torture and operation. Some of the social media sites included the April youth movement and the progressive youth of the Arab world. These platforms should include police brutality with the people especially their neighbors who also determined to end police brutality or any other human injustice. Several scholars that have studied the timeline for the Arab spring. It started with Tunisia and followed by numerous other countries within the Arab spring.
CHAPTER THREEThe Responsibility to ProtectThe theory and practice behind the responsibility to protectThe main idea behind responsibility to protect is to respond to the real problem facing the international community. This problem has mainly been the constant inability of the international community to prevent genocide. Most of this genocide is this that is taking place after the Second World War in various countries thereby undermining the human rights standards. Therefore, the rights to protect is mainly meant to prevent mass crimes and atrocities that take place behind within the sovereign borders. The idea of race to protect came to a head after reports of horrific massacres that are taking place in Bosnia as well as in Rwanda Africa throughout the 1990s. The same case was observed in the Arabic Gulf. As well, there is a complete absence of the international human rights standards that could be applied throughout the globe after the Second World War. There was a void that had to be filled after a security council came to a consensus about the absence of an idea or preventing such atrocities. The Security Council decided to sponsor a humanitarian intervention in case they were troubled by such atrocities. Countries that were affected by these atrocities and ethnic cleansing were in the southern part of the globe, most of them were newly independent states. The states were also conscious of the impact of civilization interventions would have especially those of imperial powers of the past. Most of these countries were not acknowledging the willingness of the colonial to intervene. Because of the experiences that these countries had had with the past colonial, any form of military intervention that would help solve their differences. As a result, the most newly independent state was even reluctant to understand the idea behind the security cancel coming up with its possibility of having an intervention into the countries. However, it still left challenges that were not answered by the secretary-general.
Many countries saw the interventions as an assault to the sovereignty and therefore would not understand its operations. The main idea changed when Kofi Annan addressed the general assembly where most African countries were also in attendance. Also, the countries have its challenges regarding sovereignty. He questioned the idea behind people resisting humanitarian interventions. In his address, he stated that in case countries so interventions as an assault to so privately, then there be no way anyone could respond to cases that took place in Rwanda war in Bosnia. These acts hard resulted in many accuracies of killings including women and children. He also stated that must commit atrocities that a systematic human right violation that offended the whole of humanity. Every individual has the right to take care of the other especially at the international level. This was the main idea of protecting the entire human race from authoritarian regimes. In reports, he outlined the issues as below:
“…..Five years into the new millennium, we have it in our power to pass on to our children a brighter inheritance than that bequeathed to any previous generation. We can halve global poverty and halt the spread of major known diseases in the next ten years. We can reduce the prevalence of violent conflict and terrorism. We can increase respect for human dignity in every land. And we can forge a set of updated international institutions to help humanity achieve these noble goals. If we act boldly — and if we act together — we can make people everywhere more secure, more prosperous and better able to enjoy their fundamental human right ………”
R2PAfter the address to the international summit, the challenge was traced to try and help in building a political consensus that everyone in the society and ignore when accept. Canadian sponsored commission canopy the concept of responsibilities to protect. The right to protect was refined and induced by more than 150 presidents and heads of states that sat within the international community and the UN general assembly. The summit helps majored on humanitarian actions.In the 2005 world summit, they were adopted that was implemented having three main dimensions with a language that characterized issues that were known to be right and knows that was seemed to be wrong. It was not about having an ability to grow a military body but a responsibility of every state to ensure that they protect others. The protection is not mainly through having to act militarily, to ensure that the citizens and innocent civilians are not harmed by authoritarian regimes. Even though the responsibility was spread through the members of the United Nations, this state that is so frail to ensure that they protect the civilians from mass murder.
In addition to this, neighboring countries and others had the responsibility to help them ensure that there is peace in the country. However, in case a state had manifested elements of failures because it had an alien or it was incapable of protecting its people, the idea then becomes an international concern. The whole international community could act decisively they have an opportunity to do so. It has several political agendas. The officiating crew is also based on a wide range of responses. Even through humanitarian interventions which are mainly concerned with military reactions, the R2P idea has numerous methods of responding to mass atrocities. Some of these included prevention actions that can be a long or short time. There’s also a reaction that can be applied in case preventive actuals have failed.
On the other hand, it also involves rebuilding process after the crisis has tended to prevent a recurrence of the same issue. This preventive action may involve an arrest of the people involved in perpetrating injustice. R2P prevents genocide in counties. The head is also part of apple’s crisis rebuilding that would help judge people who are involved in such activities. The reaction begins with the persuasion of a country that is involved in the crisis. This may involve writing various letters to the hands of state telling them to protect their citizens and not conduct mass atrocities for ethnic cleansing.
Before a reaction gets to a military form, it follows several procedures that are lighter in their application. The reactions may intensify to threats of prosecution and various levels of intensities. Maybe also come to inform of the assumption that the entire country would face. In return, the responsibility to protect is spread through various states to ensure that everyone is protected. On sanctions and military interventions are all meant to protect the members of a particular country. Non-military forms of coercion are then filled with a military force contemplation in case there is a need for it despite being contemplated for a long time in early 2000, R2P growth its maturity between the years 2006 to the year 2011. There are also several new rules that have been implemented through that time. Various concepts that are holding its implementation were resolved especially when it came to political resistance as many countries felt that business the right way to go. Several pieces of evidence were debated through the annual general debate that took place from the year 2009. There has to be diplomacy in R2P. The new institutional mechanisms facilitated a gradual application is that it has more relevant and important from the year 2008 onwards. Its success was seen in Kenya when Kofi Annan leads a diplomatic and mission invoking the right to protect.
The case in Kenya was rapidly becoming similar to the case in wonder as most of the casualties and customers trophies were increasing day by day. Those protestors have to be protected. The intervention by Kofi Annan ensured that both two sides are coming together to realize a commoner ground where they could settle their differences. Eventually, the two sides of the political divide, the ruling party, and the opposition, came to an agreement where they could share power and will operate in the government. This was a case where responsibility to protect was successfully implemented by the United Nations and the African Union.
In the year 2011, the Security Council through the consultation of the undecided to take a military action citing the R2P rule. The cases that they wanted to implement the military action war in Ivory Coast and Libya. Many people say this as the first major implementation of the R2P role. Humanitarian actions help solve most of these crises. This was because there hard not be any time when the R2P had applied a military intervention into an occasion. It became an international concern as they acted in a surprising manner.
People also saw this as the coming of age of the R2P principle. From the start, the case in Libya should be a basic example of how R2P is supposed to be applied practically through military intervention. It was a case that involved a must atrocity situation that was unfolding in the eyes of the whole world. An anonymous condemnation and sanctioned was imposed as the main resolution for the case in Libya. R2P was key to this. It was clear to everyone that the atrocities were eminent that were being done by the authorities within the country. Hence, a military measure was the only intervention that was appropriate. Ii military intervention, the civilians and other members of the population could be protected under threat and attacks from the ruling government. Through this authorization, immediate action was taken through NATO true other acts of the massacre that was seen through the time. Peaceful intervention has been recommended. If the Security Council had done a similar thing in the year 1990, then more than 8000 Rwandese who was killed would have still been alive. This was the message that was on the lips of people who were believing in the R2P rule.
Crisis for the application of the R2P principleDespite the effective nature of these rules, there is the rise of criticisms with the maturity of R2P since the time it was applied in Libya. There have been numerous interventions down by the western countries that are facing criticism over organizations such as countries organized into bricks. These countries include Brazil, Russia India China, and South Africa. This country states that R2P rule has massively narrowed its application regarding protection mandate. The use of force has also been criticized by these countries, especially because it is applied to the selected countries. The use of force is not encouraged. These countries state that remedial of R2P is to have a resume change when sighting the claim, state that an example is the case of Gaddafi that took place in October 2011. When questioning the impact of military interventions in Libya had, it cannot be told as there is still ongoing with numerous rebellious group still killing each other. This means that the problem may not have been the Muammar Gaddafi regime but something that is deeply rooted in the society.it is not clearer whether the terrorism reasons were also behind most of these deployments. These must include warning interventions at first.
These challenges are presented on the Security Council summit:
“……Many countries have been torn apart and hollowed out by the violence of a different sort. HIV/AIDS, the plague of the modern world, has killed over 20 million men, women and children and the number of people infected have surged to over 40 million. The promise of the Millennium Development Goals remains distant for many. More than one billion people still live below the extreme poverty line of one dollar per day, and 20,000 die from poverty each day. Overall global wealth has grown but is less and less evenly distributed within countries, within regions and in the world as a whole. While there has been real progress towards some of the Goals in some countries, too few Governments — from both the developed and developing world — have taken sufficient action to reach the targets by 2015. And while important work has been done on issues as diverse as migration and climate change, the scale of such long-term challenges is far greater than our collective action to date to meet them…”
As a result, the hasty nature of the R2P rule application, especially when it comes to military intervention makes people question this principle and how it applies to that different occasions. In case the main aim of intervening into Libya was to help solve ethnic cleansing and to stop the resume from killing the local people, these countries have reasons why there is still an ongoing crisis in the country. This criticism has massively affected the operations of the Security Council leading to paralysis of most of its operation. The criticism has even increased due to the situation in Assyria. Many people have asked the Security Council to perform the same action that they did in Libya, true checking military interventions into Syria where the president has been killing civilians through its military bodies. Between the years 2011 to 2013, the situation in Syria had become worse when the regime in the country used chemical weapons to perform ethnic cleansings on the civilians. This has been listed as the most extreme level of crime and atrocity towards the citizens of a country. Agreements were quite difficult. The situation is even worse because there has not been any question of measures that are targeting Syria. Some of the acts that can be implemented include the eye member goes in the country and sanctions towards the performance of a government. International criminal court is the other issue that has come into heavy scrutiny due to its inability to prosecute people found with crimes. The main idea behind these criticisms is also the power of the P3 countries. This includes France, the UK and us. Many people are criticizing these three countries as the main orchestrators behind most of their attacks. The US is key to most of these decisions.
The P3 countries had always voiced their defense on the implementation of R2P possible when they intervened into Libya. They have stated that the main reason for intervening was because of humanitarian actions. However, countries like India and Brazil have also stated that it does not matter whether the intentions were there or not. The main idea is to overturn a ruling regime. This has created a massive defense and opposition against the application of the R2P rule in most countries such as Syria. The idea about being able to veto a major problem is also making it difficult to implement such rules. Medical trees are struggling to understand the idea behind the theatre. Countries such as Japan and India have always stated that countries should have equal rights in the Security Council. This has created numerous frictions within method countries especially those from Africa. Military plays a key role in these. List of the African states has also rebelled against accusations that they are mainly concerned with the security intervention. Arab world has been suffering from the atrocities. Some African state leaders are also bettering support to vote against the security concerns and to overturn the way things are being done in the council.
Responsibility to protect application proceedingsThe responsibility to protect articulated by all the members of the Security Council was adopted in the year 2005 during the world summit. The application of the R2P IS dependent on the paragraph 138 of the 2005 documentation of the world summit, the following document it is written:
“… Each State has the responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. This responsibility entails the prevention of such crimes, including their incitement, through appropriate and necessary means. We accept that responsibility and will act by it. The international community should as appropriate, encourage and help States to exercise this responsibility and support the international peace in establishing an early warning capability…”
This documentation is based on the responsibility that our state has to protect its citizens. Blur for all the members of the United Nations has the responsibility to no more members who undergo genocide. Other war crimes and different types of ethnic cleansing are not allowed in the international representation levels. This is because these crimes are against humanity. Crime against humanity is one of the major reasons for the formation of the intervention by the Security Council. Responsibility, therefore, prevents such crimes and ensure that the leaders do not incite their citizens.
There are different ways that various leaders in countries inside people to fight against each other for them to remain on power. This has been the main concern for many countries that operate on divide and rule policy. The international community has the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes, and they also accept the responsibility that comes with acting against injustices. These injustices had been documented by many organizations.The appropriate action will be taken so that the states have the responsibility to support the UN. Before conducting an intervention into a country, The international community has the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes, and they also have to ensure that they away all the rules that come with this act.
Apart from this, the world submits document outlays the responsibility of diplomatic actions and humanitarian actions in the peaceful coexistence of various country. According to chapter 5 and chapter 6 of the charter, ethnic cleansing and all the crimes that are said to be against humanity have to be intervened but most appropriately. Various ways that are used include diplomatic actions such as the one that took place in Kenya where the secretary general to the UN, Kofi Annan intervened between the two politicians. Chapter 5 of the submit document neatly corporation with relevant authorities that around the region affected by genocide. The corporation comes as a result of various regions coming together to form a coalition that will prevent any future crimes against humanity. Below is the statement according to this outcome.
“….The international community, through the UN, also has the responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other peaceful means, by Chapters VI and VIII of the Charter, to help protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In this context, they have to be prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner. Through the Security Council, following the Charter, Chapter VII, on a case-by-case basis and in cooperation with relevant regional organizations as appropriate, should peaceful means be inadequate and national authorities manifestly fail to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. We stress the need for the General Assembly to continue consideration of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and its implications, bearing in mind the principles of the Charter and international law. We also intend to commit ourselves, as necessary and appropriate, to helping States build capacity to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and to assisting those which are under stress before crises and conflicts break out….”
The international community can use appropriate means for peaceful coexistence that is stated in chapter 5 of the international community charter which diplomatic means have always been successful in the past. However, there are cases where diplomatic means have not successfully prevented war crimes and ethnic cleansing in these countries. In such a context, the international community through the application of the responsibility to protect prepare collective action. Action has to be primed in a manner that is decisive and acts according to the Security Council. The act can be done through the submission of various warnings. This took place when the Security Council sent letters to the heads of state that conduct ethnic cleansing advising them to stop crime against humanity or else they will act. The general assembly how to continuously consider all the responsibilities that they have to protect the population against ethnic cleansing and genocide. The members of the Security Council also stated that they have the responsibility to abide by the law while implementing the policies against authoritarian regimes.
States have to build a capacity to protect the population. If states fail to implement policies that may have stated in their rules to protect people against genocide, they will have no option but to act. The action does not necessarily mean increasing the war but may sometimes imply the application of diplomatic means.
These interventions of the security council documentations that were implemented in the year 2005 to allow all the members of the security council and the international community as a whole to protect their citizens from authoritarian regimes. Responsibility to protect however has faced various challenges in the recent past. Not many countries agree with the way these implementations are done and how they are applying in different cases. One example of such cases that have raised concern from various members of the Security Council is the application of Libya. Even if the application in Libya was a basic example of the complete application of responsibility to protect, the application has been biased in many cases. However, what many people do not understand is the limitations that the Responsibility to protect. Responsibility to protect only applies to some situations especially when it is approved.
Some limitations for the responsibility to protectResponse vision project is stated in the report to have several limitations and various scopes. Whether responsibility to protect was envisioned in the year 2001, it was regarded as one major item that would apply based on the severity of a country. It would also apply when there is an overwhelming catastrophe and they stayed concerned cannot cope with the situation. It is therefore after the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes and them also to ensure that our country can meet its demands especially when it concerns human rights. Humanitarian interventions can also be done at the country level. However, there are times that countries can call on the Security Council to step into a situation that they feel they cannot address. In most cases, the United Nation only intervened when it is necessary. However, some countries are not willing to co-operate with the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes and their efforts to stop ethnic cleansing and crime against humanity. The report that was issued by the secretary general in the year 2009 stated issues of application and when to apply the right and responsibility to protect. This report stated that a member state could prevent interventions by the international community to interfere in a country. It states that responsibility to protect can be applied in many ways but stops to work when a state decides that they do not want any interference. This is only different when there are specific violations of crimes against humanity. One of them is a crime of violence and genocide as well as ethnic cleansing. These two projects also apply to factors such as climatic change and natural hazards that affect people or kill members of a population.
The R2P interventionsThe literature above shows the level of difficulty that the Security Council have to undergo before intervening it a sovereign country. This means that numerous criticisms have to be put into perspective before joining a debate about intervening into the country which is independent. Even if the Security Council is willing to use a force against the country, there have to be reasons that are backed up by the report from the P5 nations. The differences research to various debates that are stated in different sections of the meetings. The case of Libya seems to be a clear example of a change that needed an intervention from the Security Council the united nation. People of also questioned why the p5 did not intervene before the USA, and NATO got involved with Libya. The condition of Gaddafi and his resume as an international leader prevented other countries such as China and Russia from intervening into it matters. In many cases, this was seen as revenge against a president who has always resisted issues to do with humanity. Responsibility to protect is based on the condition that a country is in.
Even though humanitarian interventions have been contentious, the concepts of military interventions are always the main issues that are attributed, R2P principle. To prevent large-scale violations of human rights, human interventions use force against other states. It is also claimed that they are unwritten exemptions that bring prohibitions to the use of force. This and written exemptions include the right to re-establish democracy in these countries. The second issue involves the right of intervening into the country based on the humanitarian grounds on incidences of genocide and mass deportation. This may also include systematic rape. Several people defend the unilateral interventions especially unilateral humanitarian interventions.
The United Nations Security Council have not authorized the unilateral humanitarian interventions because of the 1999 intervention that took place in Kosovo. One of the most important examples when it comes to the betting about humanitarian intervention is the action that took place in Kosovo due to the two principals. The main concern for these doctrines early involvement onto whether Kosovo was complying with the criteria for the Security Council to intervene or not. In this regard, the case for Kosovo places one of the key roles to determine the legitimacy of the doctrine. Interventions in Kosovo also contributes to arguments and concepts that give rulings on international law. The customary international law is one that is based on the decisions by a sovereign country on to whether its independence and internal proceedings should be intervened with by a foreign country or not. In the case of Kosovo, the Atlantic treaty organization, also known as NATO, said that the crisis in Yugoslavia is one of the justifications why they intervened in that situation. The human rights violations community in Yugoslavia and the military forces criticized the interventions. One of the most crucial issues about the cases in Kosovo that makes a justification is the basis of the intervention as well as the legal backings.
This is a feature that has brought a massive debate about the humanitarian interventions and the intentions of those who are actively involved in it. The most significant issue that has been discussed recently is the legitimacy of the regional organizations and militaries who intervene in these countries without being permitted by the Security Council. These countries claim that they are entering into a sovereign state to secure peace and order and to prevent any form of human right violations. The intervention cases in Kosovo were mainly undertaken by the NATO forces because the regional organizations were vetoed by the parliamentary members. Before the intervention into Kosovo operation, there were major issues that were mainly discussed including whether Naoto had the right to intervene using military forces in the internal affairs of a foreign country. This also brought up the questions as to whether who permits the responsibility to protect other than security concepts. A sovereign state has to be independent of interruptions of internal or external bodies. It is also necessary to look at the statements that were made by the Security Council charter that indicated the issues about green states attacking other sovereign states. According to the United Nations, a sovereign state does not have any right to interfere into operations of another sovereign state.
Also, they cannot get in to another state to start a war with them only in case there is a case of self-defense. If an action does not call for self-defense, it is not appropriate to venture into the operations of a sovereign state to the extent of starting a war. However, when it gets to such matters, matters that deal with humanitarian actions do not qualify to be called internal affairs. The United Nation-states that other countries should not interfere with the internal affairs of a foreign country. On the contrary, matters that deal with human rights abuse are not part of the internal affairs of a country and therefore leads to a massive influx of refugees. Because human rights abuse usually makes countries leave to other countries, it is an international responsibility to ensure that the number of refugees that deliver country produced. The ratio of refugees is one of the most significant issues in the international community. Refugees usually come with expenses some of them end up dying through the long journeys. It is therefore important to ensure that the international community differentiates between their role in interfering with the internal affairs and when they are supposed to carb a crime against humanity. Issues dealing with international conventions have always been a problem to the entire globe. However, international interventions were given a new meaning after the cold war. There was a new world order that was passed to provide various experiences for states that have been undergrad for a long time.
Due to its international concern, preventing crimes against humanity is an international concern as it prevents the massive refugee influx that is not allowed. This is why countries such as Rwanda, Somalia, Afghanistan, and Bosnia who kept it low key with experiences of massive refugee influx. The intensity of international intervention has also changed as a result of these countries. Before the cold war, there were several other classic peacemaking techniques. These peacemaking techniques are currently inoperative. The post-conflict reconstruction that takes place in a country takes place as a result of geopolitical reasons. However, it is also a humanitarian intervention. Post-conflict reconstruction is increasingly gaining interest from various countries around the globe.
When it comes to the development of the R2P principle, it came up as a report that was issued in the year 2001 by the international commission of sovereign states. Coffee and a have been massively cited as the major advocated for responsibility to protect, especially when it uses military interventions. This act had been discussed through the 1990s but was first applied in Kosovo in the year 1999 when NATO intervened into the country. The concept was first developed as an obligation that was seen to help in various situations. The commission also suggested that there was a clash of rights when intervening in a country. The rights of those who are intervening as well as the rights of sovereign countries have always proven to develop a misunderstanding. When analyzing documents that underline the operations of R2P, the basic practice of the responsibility to protect and its practicality has proven to be challenging to understand. The concepts of the basic practice are something that has been difficult to even the implementers or responsibility to protect.
Intervention and state sovereigntyAirport on the responsibility to protect conveys humanitarian interventions that were reached before NATO intervened into Kosovo. The report given by the international commission shows various controversies that went to a peak status during the process. The report also shows that the intervention into Kosovo caused more damage to the situation than the prevention that it gave. NATO received numerous criticisms on the process of conducting this intervention. The external military interventions have always been controversial including those that were done in countries such as Bosnia Somalia and even the failing attempts that were done in Rwanda. This is due to the controversial issues that arise from these cases. The basic principle about this concept is mostly cited as the main reason for intervention. However, the sovereign state usually comes up with the response stating that it is the responsibility to ensure that they protect their national issues. They also state that protecting their nationalities and their people is in their hands. In case citizens of a country are exposed to severe damages that comes as a result of a civil war or repression, it is seen to be a state failure. If there is repression and the state does not want to stop it, then the principle of nonintervention is likely to yield an international responsibility to protect.
On its application, responsibility to protect goes through three stages. The first stage is their responsibility to prevent. The second stage is the responsibility of reacting to a situation while the third one is the responsibility to rebuild. The first one of responsibility to prevent is ensuring that the world does not start in a country. In case the international community the possibility of a war happening in a country, they have the responsibility to implement strategies and prevent a war from happening. This also includes issues such as ethnic cleansing and mass immigration when it comes to the second step which is the responsibility to react. The international community has the responsibility to react to a situation that is already taking place. This is where responsibility to protect is at its most controversial stage. This is because it is not easy to determine whether the methods that are intended to be applied are appropriate or not. The possibility to react can be in the form of military intervention or through negotiation. The country leaders who are mostly authoritarian are told of the ways to prevent the war.
Many issues take place in this stage. On the third stage of R2P implementation, the international community has the responsibility to rebuild after everything has been settled. Prevention of internal conflicts and the possibility of having a humanitarian crisis are also part of the right to protect. Responsibility to react to cases is also embodied in the obligations of taking actions as a last resort. Actions can be taken in the form of sanctions, prosecution of perpetrators at the international level as well as putting military interventions as the main resort. During the last stages of elementary recovery, military intervention is addressed especially if it goes along with reconciliation and reconstruction.
Most often, preventive measures are the key dimensions in the R2P principle. One has to explore the options before settling for one of them. The impacts that they will have is also considered during the time of negotiation. Trying to exercise their responsibility to prevent is the second option that involves approaches that are less coercive to prevent the possibility of using a more coercive method. This threshold entails larger scale of life loss that comes from state actions that are deliberately neglecting the ability to act and help solve the situation. The states are mostly failing through promoting ethnic cleansing and performing forced expansions.
The most appropriate body to authorize a military intervention is the Security Council. However, they only have this authority in case it involves a humanitarian purpose. This council also works effectively through other five members of the council who have to agree on a resort to where to enforce and action. Humanitarian actions in the past, as well as other issues involved in the international arena, are part of the prerogatives that prevents meeting their expectations. R2P is not something that has been developed to interfere with the serenity of the states. However, the sovereignty of the state itself entails protecting its citizens.
Military interventions include economic sanctions as decisions that are made at extreme and exceptional cases. The most important issue is to ensure that no harm has been done. This is because the interventions have a possibility of causing a threat to international peace. This is a security concern that has to be avoided. As a result of the evidence that is needed to justify the intentions of the international community to get involved, other rules have to be played by other international organizations including the Red Cross. Rebuilding involved keeping peace, security, and reconciliation. The commission also has a capricious veto power that is generated as a consequence of the humanitarian crisis. This idea has more political issues especially if it concerns as a brain state.
A secure world with more shared responsibilitiesThe United Nations issued a challenge on the responsibility to protect that focused on threats challenges, and changes that are significant were moving forward and desired year. Chapter 7 addresses the internal threat and responsibility to protect. The underlying facts behind this report are clear especially when it comes to human life-saving. Genocide convention states that the non-intervention principle is invalid when actions are a threat to international security. An example of this is the genocide act and massacre violations that calls for the responsibility to protect. In such cases, it is the role of the Security Council to ensure that the violations of the law are stopped. They are criteria that are used before performing a legal intervention. These include serious threats, proper purpose and the last resort.
Freedom towards development security and human rightsA report released by the secretary general shows that everyday state has a preventive responsibility. Report by secretary general also emphasizes the corporation as well as the significance of acting on R2P. This is done concerning the past atrocities and the possibility of getting involved in the other two cities. The report also indicates that many sovereign states are responsible for their nationalities and they have to prevent any form of catastrophe including genocide, rape, and crime against humanity. In the 2005 world summit, there were various outcomes in relation to the R2P concept. Article 138 states that a country should not be allowed to expose its population to genocide another form of crime against humanity. Article 139 goes on to states the role of the international community saying that it is responsible for helping protect populations against war crimes in a manner that is timely and effective. Is done through Security Council according to chapter six of the chatter. The decision is supposed to be done on a case-by-case basis and in conjunction with other relevant organizations within the region. In case there is no solution that has been achieved through peaceful means, then there are other methods recommended to be used as long as it is going to protect the population against mass atrocities.
Security Council Resolution 1674
This is a resolution that is responsible for the protection of the civilians against any form of armed conflicts. It is a resolution that reaffirms the provisions that are given in paragraph 138 of the world summit. The implementation of the responsibility to protect is listed as a timely intervention that is effective in many ways. The key factor is there timing of this intervention and how effective they are. R2P states the responsibilities of the states to protect their citizens through the assistance of the international community. Persistence comes in the form of capacity building and making responses that are decisive. Through following certain sequences and notes assuming that our lives are more important than the others it becomes important to ensure that every society has equal rights to enjoy the freedom and their rights. Structures to protect relies on equality and y beauty of life support. Using early warnings can be used to assess the implementation of the responsibility to protect.
In an airport that addresses the limitation of responsibility to protect, matters dealing with implementation addressed concepts and gaps that exist in capacity-building. The early warning mechanisms can help in ensuring that must murder does not take place as it can be addressed at its earliest possible time. This report of early mornings can come from regions that are likely to suffer intense violations of human rights. Crimes that are specified in their right to protect principle can be identified before they develop during the early periods of development. Some signs that can be used include the possibility of telling where the society had already gone through war or ethnic cleansing. In such cases, there are factors that can be used especially those that developed earlier in the first instance.
To prevent such occasions, the international community and use information gathered from the neighboring societies to act before the situation gets worse. Studies done on R2P give suggestions four interventions on to basis. This includes interventions that prevent and those that are in response. Prevention interventions include a broad range of activities best rust from pointing to the various routes sources of political conflicts as well as possible economic conflicts. Afraid edifying these roots, prevention intervention and shows that there is possible diplomacy that can be achieved through meditation and attribution. Prevention actions also include efforts suggestions especially before conflict development with maturity. These are despotic leaders who mainly use easy ways to silence their critics by killing them.
It is therefore difficult for the government to adjust for the changes when it is possible that a crime is likely to occur against civilians. These are the changes that have been seen in countries such as Libya and Egypt. Syria and Yemen have also witnessed cases where leaders have failed to make changes especially knowing that they are crimes that are likely to develop. Many governments are always seeking to prioritize the interest of the nation and ignore conflicts with their citizens and thereby failing to protect them. The main test for the R2P documentation was in the Arab league and Darfur. The cases of Libya and Syria are displaying the same features and the terms that are used in the R2P. The following section will give the processes the standard solutions adapted for the two different attitudes.
Authoritarian regimesThe term authoritarian regimes are used instead of oppressive regimes since some of the leaders were clinging on power without necessarily oppressing their subjects. Cases such as Tunisia had leaders cling to power for long without putting the population to any oppression. The definition of an authoritarian regime is based on a universally accepted definition. These are countries where practices and laws are meant to lead to inequalities and to oppress particular groups of people in the society. An authoritarian regime is characterized by a continuous abuse of human rights sometimes leading to the death of a particular tribe. Several characteristics lead to a country or a leadership being classified as an authoritarian regime. One of them is that there is the likelihood of having ethnic cleansing as a result of favoritism and people protesting against to the particular leadership.
Authoritarian leaders are always lacking their democratic presidents for being accountable for what is happening in their countries. In many cases, authoritarian regimes are the main reasons why the country’s protest against the sitting rulers. Authoritarian leaders erosive land developers as resources are not evenly distributed towards people. They also punish those who go against them and are administered authoritarian regimes. Civil societies are less common in authoritarian regimes as they are not allowed to air their voices in any way. The prosecution is a common feature of many tyrannical leaders as they do not like to be challenged on how they run this country.
Many authoritarian regimes also does not allow the public to access the information about their leadership. This is because they are different factors associated with their leadership that may not please the public. Authoritarian leaders also prevent the media from accessing their sources. In many countries, there’s a complete shutdown of the media making it difficult to access the various places. Political rights, freedom of speech and expression are some of the characteristics of people who rebel against authoritarian regimes. Oppressive and authoritarian regimes are the reasons why there was an uprising in the Arab spring. Individual rights is also another reason why many members of the social protest against the authoritarian ruling regimes. In the year 2016, there was a ranking that was done by freedom ho-use that identified the worst countries when it comes to political rights and civil rights. These two factors were the ones used to qualified nations for the day belongs to authoritarian regimes.
A country such as Syria, Somalia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia what seems to be the worst when it came to political rights. Other such as Sudan and Sahara as well as North Korea also seem to be victims of authoritarian regimes. The liberal democratic ranking also gives a fair distribution of countries that Iran oppressively. This body ranks countries based on issues such as gender equality, economic growth, and environmental health. Countries that have the lowest scores in environmental health and knowledge include Syria, ivory, coast Togo, Nigeria. China also ranks among the performing poorly regarding environmental health. Authoritarian regimes are also against humanitarian interventions and actions. In the case of Libya, the government of Muammar Gaddafi was accused of being authoritarian and conducting ethnic cleansing in the people. This our judges and claims that are highly held by the United Nations humanitarian bodies. Most authoritarian regimes are against opposing citizens, and they usually use they are military powers to conduct mass atrocities against those who opposed the rule and leadership. In Libya, there were those who were against the Gaddafi government.
It is also claimed that the government was using its powers to conduct mass atrocities against those who opposed it. Authoritarian regimes are also characterized by poor economic performance. Economic growth also makes more people to suffer living to death from hunger. Mustafa received rulers do not take in considerations on equal distribution of resources. In most cases, this will only sources are very few allied members of the society who are also on good terms with their leadership in the country. This makes it difficult for other societies that do not support the government to survive.
Authoritarian leaders have the partial selection or places where the resources of the country are taken too. This contributes to urban development in the country. During the Arab spring, the members of the society were able to look and read through the development that took place in other Arabic countries. After seeing this, they realized that they were missing in most of the items that they should not be missing. As a result, the use the social media to conduct various surveys and how people are responding to the existing government. Most countries have been ruled by Muslim leaders who have been in power for a long time. This is the next feature of authoritarian regimes. Authoritarian rulers do not leave the seats and any circumstance as they do not allow for democratic elections.
As a result, impressive leaders may rule for more than 50 years. It is always up to society to stop an authoritarian regime and to have a more open democratic election while electing the leaders. Tunisia is a case example of the massive impact of the Arab spring. The country did not have a democratic leader before the protests against to the existing review. On realizing their case in Egypt, Libya, and others, Tunisia to protest to the streets which eventually bore fruits as the country held its first ever democratic election. Authoritarian regimes are mostly overdrawn true-false or gorilla war. This is because most of the leaders also took leadership through force. Some of these cases were the evolution and the revolution in afrca where the leaders always have problems with leaving their positions. In such countries, accurate and fair democratic election and never succeed. This is because most of these leaders as a result from communal pools making it challenging to have a free and fair election. The lack of fair elections has also been the cause for concern for most authoritarian regimes.
The international community has been witnessing various massacres without taking the responsibility to act on such occasions. This has been one of the main challenges and one of a significant highlight of humanity in recent history. Many decisions have been under severe scrutiny through the international law that concerns atrocities that are made in various countries throughout the globe. These controversies come from the concept and contradictions in different countries based on their practices. The most concern that has increased debate is their idea about intervention. The intervention itself has been a continuous concerned through history as many people associated with the military. Human intervention on the vegetarian actions in sovereign countries will always remain a topic of discussion.
Afghanistan warThe war of Afghanistan can be traced back to the year 2001 when the United States intervened into the situation. The excuse for the United States to enter into a sovereign country was mainly attributed to. Reformation of land policies was also an agenda for this new party. The innovation was mainly supported by the allies of the United States. Many people refer to this innovation as American flicked that existed between the United States of America in Afghanistan. The globe has to take responsibility to protect each other. Even though the main aim of this inversion was to stop they are kind of group, many link it to operations that were based on revenge. The United States also wanted to make sure that al Qaeda was not part of their terrorist attack on their country. As a key ally to the United States, the UK offered military support so that the operation could be very successful. Afghanistan war took place between the years 1986 to 2001. Humanitarian interventions are key. The war was mainly between the Taliban group and the northern alliances over leadership and control of the region. By the time, the Taliban have 90% of the country to control.
President George w bush who was then president of the United States wanted an immediate submission from the al-Qaeda group. Osama bin Laden was accused of being the main mastermind and wanted the Taliban to expend the entire al-Qaeda. Many people still say that responsibility to protect was key to the interventions. This time was when the FBI had been looking for Osama since early 1998. Despite this demand by us, the Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Laden. On their defense, the Taliban demanded that the United States had to provide the evidence that linked bin Laden to his involvement on the accusations. The USA was sure that the main mastermind behind the September 11 attack was Osama bin Laden. However, the Taliban declined to say that they had to be convinced about the involvement. Some countries act impulse to these ideas. As a result, they ignored the diamond to hand over the terrorist suspect or to stop military bases that were associated with terrorism. On their side, the United States declined the request by al-Qaeda saying that they could not negotiate with terrorists.
The tactics were also deemed meaningless by the USA as they started lodging operations in the year 2001 together with the UK. Many people seemed to suffer from these ideas. Other members of the United Nations later joined the two allies. Forces such as the northern alliance decided to help the United States as they felt that the Taliban was addressed to the whole nation as well as the entire globe. The rapid growth of the invasion by the United States spreads throughout the country driving away the entire Taliban group from power on December 2001. Some of the police had been rejected worldwide. Later on the United States military belt a military base at the center of the Taliban together with other cities across the country. Members of al Qaeda and Taliban were not captured as they escape to the neighboring countries such as Pakistan. Others retreated to the remote and rural mountains in a battle that was known as Tora Bora.
At the start of December the same year 2001, the Security Council came up with international assistance first. The security intervention was meant to oversee numerous operations within Afghanistan as well as offer training to Afghanistan national forces in charge of security. The bone conference took place in the year 2001 well Hamid Karzai was given the post of heading the Afghanistan interim administration in Kabul because he was elected a president in the year 2004 after the majority of the people agreed on his policies. Currently, force is the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan that was headed by Kaiser. In the year 2003, NATO was much involved in the alliance taking charge of the Islamic public. The officials of the United States forces operating in Afghanistan that was then under NATO has been the same. Despite these interventions, other Taliban leaders have risen against the government in an insurgency that is continuing to this date.
History of the Afghan crisis is back a long way even though the war can be traced back to the year 2001 when a great plague struck the whole of Arab nationalism. It was at a time when the revolution took place in the country. Broken his soldiers executed the first president of the country Muhammad Khan. It is recorded that for a long time, more than fifty thousand people were killed by the communist who was then our gym later on. Afghanistan was interested in the Soviet army which invaded the place to help this communist establish a regime that was soviet based. Invention turns out to have been the size of a ten-year cold war that led to the loss of innocent civilians died. The Security Council is responsible for the various genocides. The various villages were burned down with children being executed as well as others being burnt alive. It was also noted that the forces such as mujahedeen relied more on the support of the US.
The US was giving mujahedeen munitions and other firearms to fight against the pro-soviet forces. They also relied on the USA to provide them with support and intelligence. Hotels within China nailed through Pakistan to Afghanistan others coming from the US to go into the hands of mujahideen groups. Responsibility to protect us ensures that refugees are protected. At the time also, China and Saudi Arabia also involved with mujahedeen as they offered their support to them. The rise and fall of Kabul who was the most renounce communist also vanished with the careless rocking the country in all directions. Mujahedin group took up the fight with the Soviet invasion who are now supporting their communists. The mujahidin group won most of the battles forcing the Soviet Union to withdraw their troops allowing the government that had been formed to fall. Political parties decided to agree on the peacemaking procedures and thereby establishing an Islamic state of Afghanistan. An interim head of state and head of government was then established after the agreement between mujahedeen and the communists. Those who have been suffering from violence also suffer mentally even if they survived the war. There was the other militia that opposed the government from outside the camps.
A country such as Iraq and Pakistan also influenced the decisions by these local protesters and rebels to continue fighting. The Taliban group emerged in the year 1994 which leads to unrest in the country called the Taliban. People have been questioning the procedures of voting on whether they are taking care of the situation or not. The Taliban group created a dressed in the country causing even more death this time leading to thousands of civilians being killed. The Taliban launched a significant attack on the powerful government causing them to lose the battles as Kabul forces were able to resist them entirely. Many people believed that this was the end of the Taliban. However, they were wrong as the Taliban group just went into instinct preparing for another launch. The group reorganizes themselves to launch another attack in the year 1996. This time around, they were mainly backed by Pakistan and money from Saudi Arabia. Taliban have remained one of the deadliest forces in Afghanistan up to today.
The Taliban is made up of a collection of extreme clerics who are brainwashed students and people in trained to kill people. It is a movement which is of secured itself, and it emerged out of relics after the cold war. The main aim was to shock the world with their draconian teachings that are best in Islamic background. Powerful states have been taking advantage of these situations. Most of their beliefs and teachings are Islamic. Taliban have refused to surrender and have remained concourse to their vision always reinventing themselves and disturb the variations in Afghanistan as they always pledged to threaten. They always wanted the US, and other European countries to ensure that the Islamic emirates are given the power to rule Afghanistan. This has remained the challenge and a phenomenon that they have always worked towards.
Even though the US is also culpable for the misfortunes that took place in Afghanistan, the Taliban group was the main culprit for the events at the misfortunes in the country. India 1996, the setup an Islamic emirate in the country as they saw the country for sanctioning their configurations. It is important to note that present institutions of war work as parastatals. China has a massive role to play in these decisions. Amazing world of lady business issues. Police forces and judicial structures in Afghanistan have always had power struggles and have not allowed the government to perform its duties as required. Humorous atrocities by individuals of different fractions. Apart from this, there is skills and lawlessness, and numerous cases of human rights abuse that have been reported by the United Nations and other bodies of human rights watch in Afghanistan. On realizing the power of the Taliban, the Islamic front decided to initiate a resistant Malaysia that was politically driven to tackle the challenges posed by Taliban emirates. Cases of al-Qaeda have also been reported in Afghanistan leading to more chaos that the government has to deal with.
Different NGO report has been accusing the Afghanistan government human rights violation. Various people were part of these interventions. These minority groups are also used as tools of war to impose death threats and interventions against today regime government. There are various critics who said that there is another war within the UN. Accusations have also been made against American soldiers who rape innocent Afghanistan especially those who have been held in Bagram prisons. After the September 11th attacks on the US, the Taliban group managed to, however, fear and terrorism around the region. This accident inbreeding terrorism in the region. Osama bin Laden who was a veteran and a fighter against the soviet was the leading figure of the al-Qaeda and all the terrorist organizations. Al Qaeda has remained an Islamic terror group in the world creating fear on various members of the society and throughout the globe. Al-Qaeda group have participated in almost all the Arabic was including the crisis in Syria. Pakistan war, Iraqi uprising and the civil war in Somalia and latest in Afghanistan. There was also an al-Qaeda uprising in Yemen. To expand their global prominence, al-Qaeda has been involved in various ways throughout the globe.
The Security Council, the EU, and USA have marked al-Qaeda as a terrorist group. Al-Qaeda has also mounted and executed civilians with military objectives in many nations. They have attacked countries such as the US, Kenya, and Afghanistan. Nonetheless, the main reason for the US to invade into Afghanistan was the US bombing that took place on September 11th, 1998. The national security and the agencies in Afghanistan have been accused of running thereon prisons where they torture various suspects and journalists who deliver information. Security first Malaysia has also been accused of using their forces to kill innocent civilians.
Local security forces also torture and kill people as they also run their groups where they feel that they are in charge government and other civilian forces are limiting freedom of speech and have frequently conducted media breakdown and crackdowns to stop airing of any issues taking place internally. With your friends and forces refused to hand over Osama bin Laden as the primary suspect for September 11 attack, united states were backed by other forces to intervene into the situation and capture the perpetrator of the attack on the international trade center. The United States and their allies launched about against the Taliban forces. Dead by Afghanistan forces. In the year 2001, mini Security Council members were determined to overthrow Taliban which meant that they had to intervene and end corporate Afghanistan forces to invade into the territory through the support of the united nation. Many critics’ steps that issues that took place in Libya should never take place again. This was an offensive war against the al Qaeda group through the Security Council. It was also the concern for many people because the Security Council authorized the US and NATO to intervene in to a sovereign country. During this innovation, the USA was also running a military operation that was geared towards anti-terrorism in the year 2002, UN and found a mission where they wanted to establish a humanitarian relief to reconstruct and recover the position of Afghanistan before the innovations.
Reconstruction is a basic requirement within the united nation. Because many people had suffered in Afghanistan as a result of many forces going against each other, they had the responsibility to turn things back to healthy ways. It was, therefore, essential to use the opportunity when the US intervened into Afghanistan to also express their humanitarian concerns. The burden of war is felt by countries throughout the globe.Despite the innovation, Afghanistan has remained in the state where many forces are an uprising against each other. Afghanistan has also suffered from the rivalry that it receives from the foreign military forces. The country has been left disarray of various forces and persistent rebellion and resistance from the local people. It is, therefore, a question of whether the innovation by the United States was made for a useful purpose for it was just a cause for revenge. Having authorized the invasion of the united states does being questioned as to whether the subject was taken to the united states or the security council to determine whether it was right to intervene or not. Some of the legal scholars have also accused the united states of taking matters into their own hands without consideration. Responsibility to protect has been a significant concern, especially in Afghanistan as their case did not directly involve military intervention.
Application of the R2P in relation to the USA invasion of AfghanistanOne of the most controversial decisions that have been questioned by members of different countries is the decision to allow the USA to invade into Afghanistan. The invention is to Afghanistan took place in September 2001 after various allies of the USA joined the war into the country. This conflict had been developing for a long time and had been documented by various politicians and scholars in the USA and Afghanistan. The main aim of the UN and the intervention of the USA into Afghanistan was to stop al Qaeda. Al Qaeda was a force that was being accused of being responsible to the attack in the USA on September 11th. Another result, the USA invaded the country to remain a unique business where the Taliban was operating. The Taliban leader, Osama bin Laden has been accused of being the chief perpetrator of the September 11th bombing of the USA. In the invasion, the UK was the main ally to the USA as it gives support and military interventions to prepare effectively for this intervention.
Legal reasons for the use of force against AfghanistanAccording to the second article of the United Nations charter, every member state has the responded to settle all the disputes at an internal level. The means of settling the disputes must also be in a peaceful manner and one that embraces peace and security as well as justice. Apart from this, the methods of resolving the dispute have to embrace humanitarian actions and should not result in two people losing their lives. Also, the internal government has to ensure that ethnic cleansing is not allowed. However, for the case of Afghanistan, there have been questions that arise as to reasons why the US took the measures silently through the support of the Security Council. Many people have wondered why the settling of disputes was not left in the hands of the Afghanistan people, and they are resumes to settle their dispute. There are those who have criticized countries such as Russia for not doing enough to help. It, therefore, leads to emphasis about the day of attack when an ambassador of Taliban declared that Osama bin Laden would be put under trial.
Even though the evidence that was received in America it was clear that Osama bin Laden, is accused of being the leader and the perpetrator of the September 11th attack will be arraigned in court according to the Islamic law. However, these sentiments were not appreciated by the former president of the US George w bush. As a result, President Bush demanded that Osama bin Laden should have surrendered and that a trial should be done in a third-party country if the bombings showed evidence of Osama bin Laden’s involvement in the September attack, President Bush declared that no one was innocent or guilty unless proven otherwise. It was known that bila deni was guilty and was responsible for the attacks. The US has also been criticized for being biased in most of these decisions.The US did not want to give out the evidence to the Afghanistan forces who are protecting Osama bin Laden. The US versus about ready to bring bin Laden to justice by putting him in prison. They are concerned that bin Laden had learned so much to be given any form of trial and therefore should be killed instantly. This was also a case that could be witnessed when several years later through president Obama, Osama bin Laden was killed in his place.
After the Taliban group had a demanded approval of Osama bin Laden’s involvement in the September 11th attack, they could not negotiate with the US. Asking for evidence from the USA also proved to be a problem to President Bush as it showed lack of respect from the al-Qaeda group it was assured that al Qaeda groups the USA and the intelligence of the UN. Through the support of the Security Council, USA did not want to sell the matter more diplomatically, that other states have advocated for. The international criminal court also outlines the rules for self-defense and the right for a country to send his forces into other countries. The US has always mentioned R2P as the main object. The right of self-defense replies when responding to the group. Nonetheless, the armed attack car between estate and nonfactors of the estate. It is therefore necessary to note of Afghanistan forces who are not involved in the September 11 attack.
The US also used to this opportunity to flex their muscle and show the whole world that they are untouchable in cases such as this. By letting Osama bin laden to-go free or by imprisoning him, sure the weaknesses in the US system and that they do not take care of their civilians. Authoritarian regimes are different on how they execute their authorities. Terrorists are also individuals and are not part of a state. Bin Laden was not a political officer in Afghanistan and therefore did not hold any authority to be protected by the supreme law of Afghanistan. There was, therefore, no legal basis for political backing that supported Osama bin Laden from his local people. Critical interventions are supposed to be achieved through a powerful state that is working on behalf of the others. By the United States showing other people that they are touchable, it is a sign and a warning for others not to get involved in such issues especially if it involves a powerful state such as the United States. It is also a warning of the issues surrounding the Security Council and how they can only act on some situations through resolutions.
The Afghanistan bombing that was done by the US was also supported by NATO forces. Never, bombings have always been illegal. This is because it let around appeared as if the people responsible for bombings were arrested. The September 11 perpetrators who arrested and reprimanded who are not Afghanistan citizens. This was also another evidence that showed that the invention into Afghanistan was a political strategy and does not have any legal backing. Aside from the debates that are politically based, any human right violations were recorded when the invasion took place by the US. Many leaders that have come after the US have pulled they suggest out of Afghanistan have tried to defend their version. Some of the claims that they make include prevention of a second attack through a debate. Political leaders have also claimed that the United Nations was responsible and authorized the USA to attack into Afghanistan. The strategies by the US work most of the time.
This means that international legitimacy was used when the attacks took place. Imperatively, it is essential to state the role that has been played by the Security Council in opening resolutions while ignoring to mention any form of resolution that was used against Afghanistan. Resolution 1373 was an affirmation about terrorism being an issue that demanded and attention and confrontation. It was a resolution that the United Nations supported at an international level with its root causes being an expression against Italian group. These resolutions did not state as to whether intervening into a foreign government that has not been part of terrorism was justified. It also did not include any approval of a military intervention to be used by the NATO forces and USA forces against Afghanistan state. The European convention of human rights are also determined to end these wars. Some scholars have stated that the war on Afghanistan had been authorized by the security council to help the entire globe from suffering in the hands of the Taliban and al Qaeda., the question has remained a store whether the steps taken by the US to penalize innocent people was right. It’s also clear that there is a political underscore about the war of Afghanistan and how it benefits the US and the Security Council. Most of these obstacles sound cannot be solved. Innovation into Afghanistan forcefully showed that the US was still the supreme power and did not need any approval to act especially if an issue involving their internal security. The United States also have their eternal rules that guide their invasions into other countries. During the Vietnam War and other was that the United States had been involved in.
Having realized the dress that is presented by the Taliban to the whole globe, it can be stated that the United Nations and the Security Council who are massively benefiting from the interventions of the United States. It was proving to be an issue as many of the international communities were being victims of al-Qaeda, Taliban, and Osama bin Laden. As a result, the united nations were well aware of the threats that were posted by the Taliban and Osama bin Laden. They have been looking for ways of how to get rid of Osama bin Laden so that his continuous terrorism activities why out of the picture. On the other hand, all these issues were allegations another one did not give an exact definition of humor Taliban is and whether Osama bin Laden was continuously targeting specific nations. As the threats to the UN continuously developed, it became a case as to who would step up to the plate and capture or kill bin Laden if possible. As a result, the united nations have been silent over the invasions of the US into Afghanistan. There have been no serious allegations against the forces of America or even NATO for that matter.
This means that the September 11 attack was just an excuse that could be used by the UN and USA to get into a country that had its sovereign rights. The invention is still debatable to date and has not been overlooked by the Arab leaders and other people throughout the globe. These inventions can also be argued from a mediation point of view. There had been people who had proper that more kills in Afghanistan than they are a killer group. Before the invasion, Afghanistan had been facing civil war under continuous rebellion against the supreme or the reigning government. Al-Qaeda themselves have been a group that is continuously challenging the reigning force of the reigning government.
The other sides of the party were undermining the traditional order and provoking opposition from the Islamic leaders. This led to the start of a rebellion that led to another coup in 1979. The Soviet Union intervenes in this group to attempt to bring peace into the society. However, the entry of Soviet Union in the United 79 led to a start-up of cold war between countries such as us, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia supporting rebel groups that fought against a soviet union that backed the democratic republic of Afghanistan. At the time, the Soviet Union was close to the government while other allies such as China, USA, and Saudi Arabia supported the opposition in Afghanistan. Contrary to the secular socialite government control in the cities, the Islamic groups tried to sway much of the countryside. This prompted the CIA to work closely with the intelligence service that supported the foreigners in the country. The war was attracted other Arabic melodious so just for summer bin laden.
CHAPTER THREESyria and Libya with the R2P.The problem with Syria and Libya are related to Arab spring.This is one of the main reasons why pieces sometimes take too long to be decided upon. The case for Muammar Gaddafi became as a prize to the whole universe as it was acted upon in a quick manner leading to people asking whether they are intentionally or forces behind the attack. In Afghanistan, the USA intervene in to the country after it was alleged that the leader of a Taliban group in Afghanistan, bin Laden had been the mastermind of a bomb blast that took play in the USA. Various states demanded the release of Osama bin Laden so that they could arrest him on their own. As a result of the failure of Afghanistan to act on this matter, the USA took matters into their own hands and invaded Afghanistan. Reason for intervention and this innovation was to ensure that they captured Osama bin Laden and was to make him face the law for their lives and deaths that he had caused. The fact that the R2P application through the US and NATO did not act upon realizing that the USA had intervened in Afghanistan shows the business of the partisan nature of the situation. USA patent the September 11th killing as the main reason why they had to intervene in the cases.
Eventually, USA was not banished personalized due to the interventions into Afghanistan. On the hand, it happened that moment Gaddafi was a major target for the USA. This was because of the antics that he had with the forces of USA. Muammar Gaddafi was a major critique of the actions of the USA in Africa. They also criticize some European countries who were exploring into the continent climbing that Africa should be left free from the dimensions of the international community have the responsibility to protect those who are being killed or denied their rights by the authoritarian regimes and the USA. Gaddafi was also targeted for his criticism of immigrants that had come to Libya. This made him an international enemy who could not be supported by other countries. However, the case for Syria has been different regarding its application and execution. President Bashir al-Assad had posted for a long time by his people for his actions against humanity. President Bashir has also been killing those who are opposing hair by using excessive force on the civilians.
The question then arises as to the reasons why the international bodies through the Security Council have been reluctant to intervene in the situation for Bashir al-Assad. To successfully look into this matter, raise the need to have a broad understanding of the interventions and the various responsibilities that exist within the UN. Several issues are defined and concepts such as criteria and reasons for intervening into a foreign country. The chatter also explains some of the processes that are undergoing the members of the Security Council before a decision is reached. The whole process shows how crucial and important it is for many countries to implement a rule successfully. United Nation is a collection of bodies that have to come into an understanding when a decision is supposed to be meh. This is especially true when it comes to decisions that involve life and death as well as the destruction of properties. States such as Germany and the Republic of China also have to have a massive say on these issues and they live with intervention. In the past three decades, various states used a concept of serenity or a shield that prevented any foreign intervention including the one for the UN. Seychelles against an intervention provided a loophole in various governments especially those that operated under oppression. The shield enables this government to conduct genocide and have a mass atrocity against his innocent civilians. Through the nation’s Security Council, the United Nation is supposed to protect states who have failed to protect their populations.
For authoritarian governments that are imposing themselves of their citizens, the Security Council through the application of the responsibility to protects has the right to intervene in Tunisia situations. There have been several occasions where the icon tree has to undergo various changes before they find the right leadership. Such situations even include guerrilla wars where are various countries men are fighting against themselves. In most countries, the existing government must have gotten into the leadership position from a military perspective. This has always been the case in most African countries. As a result, it is easier to operate as an authoritarian regime as the leadership itself was acquired through the operation and fighting against each other. These are some of the mindset that many countries have especially if they feel that they do not need an intervention from an outer body.
Intervention in LibyaNew condition in Libya slowly developed into a conflict that was fully-fledged especially at both domestic and international level. There are several other violence instances that result in serious repression by the security of the state to respond to the uprising unrest — the initial social-political issues are taking place in Benghazi that developed into conflicts between the local people and the ruling regime that had been on power for a long time. These challenges and conflicts developed into a level of conflicts after three months. Interventions that took place in this country have still remained subject to debate especially when examining the resulting outcomes — the situation of still being used as an opportunity to justify humanitarian interventions especially those that use military into a country. In such a situation, the government in the country experienced explicit power, and there was a reliable opposition with ugly extras strategy and a task that is well placed and well defined. This is a perfect scenario for the expression of the R2P role. Resolution for the Libya situation can be broken down into various sections through examining the clear exit strategy and resolution.
Agenda for the intervention: Peace and securityThe Security Council held a brief meeting in the year 2011 where they warned that there was a peace and security situation in Libya. The situation put the security of the people at stake, especially in the Jamahiriya. The Security Council act consideration for a concrete action that will be used to stop the violence as well as the use of force that the government was exposing the people too. These recommendations were meant to ensure that there is complete protection of the civilians that could take place with an immediate effect.
Resolution 1970This is a solution of been used to explain the actions behind the intervention. At this resolution, adopted anonymously in 2011, the Security Council sent the message to the government of Libya winning them and reminding them of their responsibility to protect their people. They also called for action by the government in relation to human rights and the international law prepare the safety of the civilians was not only a concern of the local people but a concern of the whole international community. This resolution of verified the case of Libya in an international criminal court where the prosecution of imposing embargoes. At the international criminal court, it was decided that there should be a ban of the authorities from leaving the country thereby freezing all the assets for the people in power.
Resolution 1973Resolution of the year 1973 was adopted as it was passed with ten votes that favored intervention. However, there was absenteeism from countries such as Brazil Russia China India and Germany. Their assentation formed the legal basis for this intervention. Issues that were included intervening into the situation as a surprise to many people. From the operations of the responsibility to protect, these countries have the power to stop any voting and therefore prevent any possibility of having an intervention.
Russia and China have a huge influence as they have prominent membership making them responsible for most of the decisions. However, when they pull out of their decisions, it becomes easier for other members to pass the vote for intervention. The p5 countries how to vote at least three of their members in favor of an intervention. This is what have always been decisive controversies and issues with the countries that require intervention from the international community. The voting in Libya included intervention into the country from the air and sea so as to protect our civilians from being harmed. Interventions through the sea and air for the USA to ensure that the process of Muammar Gaddafi who are neutralized. The answer, the resolution stated that producing ready and willing to comply with resolutions of 1970 on the 26th of February the year 2011. As a result, it was stated that the situation in Libya was a massive threat to not only the local people but to the international society as a whole. It was also a big dress to the international peace and that in this context actions have to be taken according to chapter 7 of the United Nations charter.
The no-fly zone version of the air charter demanded that all flights in the country have to be banned except those that operated in the air spaces in Libya for the purposes of humanitarian actions. The civilians were supposed to be protected from the national government by excluding any external force. The R2P concept for that estate has the responsibility to protect their nationalities from atrocities. The differences could all be seen with the civilian reactions and the differences in reaction. The government officials who are also part of the violence always have to be aware and react if there is a force that is used against themselves. It is commonly agreed that the case
In Libya was as a result of a series of disagreements between the government and the local. Disputes have been raised over the involvement of NATO. The western countries had arisen to intervene because they were saving the lives of the civilians. If this is the case for analyzing the case of intervention, it can be stated that it was a catastrophic failure. It is a catastrophic failure in the fact that there were still mass murders that took place. Otto could not protect the civilians and even resulted in more deaths without endangering the lives of its own process. These interventions usually use false whereby people use arms to fight against each other. In the process of implementing the strategy, there are numerous lives that are lost unnecessarily. Libya is also a country that is significant to the western powers. This is because of its location that is strategically placed in an area that is important when it comes to commercial.
The interest that Libya races throughout the globe is great due to the fact that it is one of the leading producers of oil, an international commodity value to every measure. In the Arab world, there have been various issues that have been raised including different interpretations of the case in Libya. Many people see this as a massive threat to the independence of a society. It is also seen as an intervention where western powers are threatening the sovereignty of a country. The intervention of USA has affected a massive struggle in the country as a whole. Despite the various ambergris that was instilled such as no-fly zone, the NATO forces reacted massively against Gaddafi forces. Their argument was based on international law even if it involved the loss of lives. When referring to the dissolution of the year 1973, there are various parties that have defended his actions.
In this manner, they have noted that civilians were under a massive threat from the forces of Gaddafi and therefore the forces had to be neutralized. Without neutralizing the process of Muammar Gaddafi, the civilian school potentially be harmed or lose their lives. Other people maintain that this was not the case as the resulting solution was a different one. In this case, it eventually leads to the rebels being on power. It can be concluded that the NATO forces were supporting their rebels. Because of the support for the rebels, this was not a solution that was contextualized to translate to humanitarian intervention. It was rather a force against Muammar Gaddafi who was to be removed from power and his allies. Those who opposed him were to be given the power to rule the country. This is a suspicious case as there was a massive regime change. People have questioned the intentions of the NATO forces and the US as the main result of the intervention was a recent change. Even before the case in Libya was concluded, there are other cases such as Syria that were noted for a long time as it involved bloodshed and events that leads to their loss of lives. It can, therefore, be concluded that the reason for intervening into Libya was for the right and responsibility to protect.
The Security Council in conjunction with the United States and the international community stated that without intervening, there was a possibility of an increase in blood shared and mass murder of the Libyan citizens. On the other hand, there are those who criticize their interventions by stating that the forces did the opposite by even increasing the number of deaths for the Libyan people. This included the Libyan authorities as well as the civilians who lost their lives during that wrangles between the Gaddafi’s army and the rebels. Scholars have cited the strategic location of Libya as the main reason for intervention.
This is a country that is a commercial hub and one that has oil in abundance. It is therefore easy to target by the international communities who are also interested in the commercials success as well as the wealth of the country. When it comes to the changes in regime, the NATO forces handed the rebels a regime change which was unnecessary. If the main action was meant to protect the civilians, the outcome of the change should not result in a regime change. The changing regime does not also translate to a better rule or leadership. Conspiracy theorists also maintain that Gaddafi had his own issues with the international community.
Gaddafi was a man who did not take seriously international allies. It is this reason why his case could not be helped by the VETO as countries such as Russia and China were not on good terms with Gaddafi as a head of state. This claims also states that such countries would have gladly accepted the removal of Gaddafi from power. These cases can be compared to what happened in Bosnia. Consequently, the main idea behind responsibility to protect is therefore questioned. According to the Security Council, they had a responsibility to protect the citizens from being exploited or killed by the authoritarian regime.
Records show that the demonstration in Syria started in the year 2011. However, the significance and intensity of these demonstrations took a while before it became an international concern. The main reason for the demonstration is there social and political structure especially those that are based on ethnic background. Bashar al Assad, the president was accused of using his authority to stay on as the president of the country for a long time. The country has had a longtime political relationship with nations such as Iran.
Russia and China had a major role to play in this. The Arabic uprise or Arab spring also arrived in Syria where the local citizens felt that they needed a change and they needed development just like the other Arabic countries. The first demonstrations that were done in Syria was instigated by a young man who set himself on fire in al Masaka town. The man was known as Kurdish. Majority of the population in this area had been complaining to the government and have been for a long time. The situation could also be forged and organized through the social media. On January 2011, the same things that took place in Tunisia ignited the Arab awakening throughout the Middle East. It intensified throughout ar- Raqqah to suggest interference with Kurdish origin. Later on, the president of Tunisia was overthrown by the protesters. During this time, President Bashar al-Assad sent a message through the use of the wall street journal stating that there was no need to call for reforms and that it was too late to attempt anything unusual. He meant that the time for reforms was over when Tunisia and Egypt were undergoing the revolution. This was the initial stages of the revolutions and protests.
Al-Assad also claimed that if the citizens were protesting to make a change because of things that took place in Tunisia and Egypt, then it is not a revolution but more of a reaction. Because people were reacting, it was bound to fail according to him. Al- Asaad, therefore, proposed different parts as he found it important that reform had to take place when is necessary. He was therefore not concerned about the protests and did not favor any quick concessions with the protesters. He encouraged more requests from the Protestants and revealed that they are witnesses in his regime. Many people say this was the start of something that was developing, the protesters maintained that they could not stop at anything except for a regime change. Throughout the time, the local citizens remained focused on the development of the Arab revolution in other countries. They saw what happened in Tunisia as a country that had successfully implemented the revolution. Tunisia managed to achieve a democratic election as a result of the enlightenment that came from social media.
The situation in Syria still remained critical up to the year 2012. There are several international organizations that documented the issues of violations and mass murder in the country. The forces of Syria managed to get away with killing as everyone was opposed to the authoritarian regime. Events of armed violence also developed through the country where civilians and Protestants were able to acquire ammunitions of the A1. It later on turned into a civil war. The Syrian forces were committing crimes against humanity by executing people who they suspected to be against al Assad’s regime. When the Security Council and the UN performed various assessments of the situation, they came up with a report that was quite different from the one in Libya. The following discussion shows the contents of the report and how the responsibility to protect applied in this issue in a different w ay to others such as Libya.
Report about the situation in SyriaThis report was given on February 2012. The resolution stressed that they are human right violations in Syria that had reached a severe proportion. Many people had been killed, and their political situation in Syria needed an immediate intervention under solution through a peaceful means. It, therefore, called for a processor free negotiation without violence or threats. Therefore, an intervention is needed that will be free from threats or extremity through the president of Syria who is also taking concerns of the people into consideration. In this resolution, it was highlighted that the Arab league was supporting the transition period that was taking place throughout the Arabic Gulf. They also supported the transition and under the government of Syria with recommendations of the Syrian government supporting human aid transportations. Because everyone was aware of the situation in Libya, they demanded that the United Nations should give a report about the condition of the people in Syria and at the same time state a report that concerns any enforcement.
Rights in the Arab Republic of SyriaWhen referring to the human right council and their resolutions, the general assembly of the United Nations stated that the government of Syria did not implement the action plan that had been given by the Arab league. The Arab league had recommended solutions to the situation anyway. The most concern was against the alarming death rate of its own people and condemned the government of the country for not solving the situation. It also called the government of Syria to terminate this situation so as to fulfill the action plan that was given by the Arab league without any delay. The resolution also requested the secretary-general to suctions in Syria so as to ensure that there is a peaceful transition in case it is necessary. As can be seen, the report of the United Nations about Syria was different from the report that was developed by the United Nations in Libya on the same situation. The situation in Libya was classified as a human atrocity against the civilians that was done by the government. On the other hand, the situation in Syria was calling for the government to stop the actions that it was going through but at the same time called for help from the Arab league and the secretary-general. Many people questioned why the secretary-general had to be for assistance while the same issue was not done in Libya.
Resolution 2042The most important draft when it came to a resolution in Syria was resolution 2042 that read as follows:
“…Noting the Syrian government’s commitment on 25 March 2012 to implement the six-point proposal of the Joint, Special Envoy of the United Nations and the League of Arab States, and to implement, urgently and visibly its commitments, as it agreed to do in its communication to the Envoy of 1 April 2012…”
This resolution gives the primary responsibility to the government of Syria. It is a different case in other states where the responsibility of the United Nations and the Security Council is to secure the safety of the local citizens. In this case, it was stated that the Syrian government had all the responsibility to ensure that they comply with the recommendations that had been given by the Arab league. Why Libya was not given such responsibility to take care of its people without being asked in to resume change. On the other hand, they are also protesters in Syria just like the people who are helped by NATO forces.
Scholars are questioning why the United Nations should not take the responsibility the way they took in Libya so as to overthrow the government. It can be seen that way government of Syria through its president Bashar al-Assad have fields to take care of human rights. On their part, the Arab league played a crucial role as they put a lot of pressure on Syria. On April the same year, the Arab League issued a stern warning and a statement that condemned any use of force against demonstrators in all the Arabic countries. Therefore, the pro-democratic protesters were protected in several Arab countries through the Arab league that garnered support stating that those who were protesting deserved to be supported but not to be killed. However, these statements by the Arab league did not purposefully name Syria in their statement. There was, therefore, no concrete measures that could be used to end the human rights abuse taking place in Syria. Arab league was therefore not close 2 ending the violence in Syria. Many people including the directors of human rights acting in Syria stated that the Arab league had the responsibility to ensure that they participate in protecting their local people. They wanted Arab league to state the names of people who are directly connected to perpetrating mass murder of the civilians. If the Arab league are to form a joint force against human right abuse, then the government of Syria through the president Bashar al Assad must stop mass killings through his soldiers.
Six-Point Proposal done by the Special Envoy to the UN and the Arab leagueThe Arab league played one of the most critical roles in putting too much pressure on Syria about the way they were treating their citizens. In April the same year, the Arab League issued a stern warning that condemned the use of emulations against protesters. This protesters deserved support from the people and should not have been exposed to the bullet. However, the statements did not mean anything for the Syrian government.
This is the only reason why it was stated that the Arab league did not intend to win the Syrian government. The fact that they did not name the people involved in the crime against humanity show that they were either afraid or ignoring the conditions in the country. Bill Clinton, former president of the US emphasized the importance of the Arab league and its position. Bill Clinton realized that the Arab league did not have any intention or seeking authority or persuading military intervention. Many people look for ways of getting towards their solution by trying to find how to convince the Arab league to talk to the president of Syria so that they could stop killing their own people. Also, the Arab league is in a good position to send a clear message that would help find a clear solution to this problem.
Resolution 2043To fully emphasize the proceedings and actions that were gone through by the people were trying to find the solution, it is crucial to emphasize the resolution 2043. This resolution is one that added to the retardation of the basic points that had been made by the resolution 2042. It was a brush over or an endpoint to the issues that are being created within the first resolution. The first resolution was meant to help the Arab league to lead with the president of Syria so that the people can be saved from their ongoing atrocities. Because of the continuous massacre and internal conflict, resolution 2043 related most of the points made so as to establish the initial periods. During the United Nations supervision. The negotiation was done under the chief of the military observers who is working on the issues going on in Syria. The situation in Syria was also cited in the statement that was made in May the year 2012 by the UN commissioner for human rights. According to the commissioner, these are acts of violence in the Republic of Syria that amounts to a massive outcome, crime against humanity and other issues that are related to international crimes. All these actions were a systematic indication of the widespread attacks that were being done against the civilian only population.
These are all against the population were perpetrated in a manner that could be emphasized as impunity. It also shows the violence that is directly targeting women and children. It has also affected many people living through the flow of asylum seekers from the country to the countries that are bothering Syria. There is the use of excessive force as well as weapons and air power that is involving the population, especially those who live near the Syrian government offices.
International community stated that the organizations should be responsible for defending human rights especially the Arab states that were responsible for making sure that there is stability. Apart from the Arab states, it was stated that the western countries should contribute towards the situation and would also recommend an immediate R2P application. Contrary to this recommendation, the Arab league as well as other states in the Arabic gulf had different opinion towards there the situation, a state that was quite different from how it was established in Libya. When compared to the situation in Syria, Arab leagues had a different attitude towards Libya. Even to the suspended are members of Syria from the league, they did not advocate for foreign intervention. They also did not state whether the massacre was happening or not. Apart from this, they did not have pass table position where to put President Bashar al Assad.
There are also western countries such as the USA and France that could initiate an action against president Bashir al-Assad serious over human rights abuse. Countries believe that the intervention could be conducted by NATO without any official sanction. However, this was a different case unlike what happened in Kosovo country. It was also thought that the US, France, and NATO did not have to get an authorization from the United Nations before they acted on Syria. The assumption about what happened in Kosovo was too much excessive especially when people expected naturally to act without permission.
After the civil war had taken place for more than one month, the president of NATO decided to declare a peaceful intervention by stating that NATO did not believe in military intervention, especially against an internal conflict. NATO did not want to wage war against the Syrian regime as there was already had peace between the Syrian rebels and protesters against the ruling government that was led by President Bashar al Assad. The unit statement that was given by the secretary general of NATO. It was stated that the best way to move forward in the situation such as Syria is to find a solution that has a political background. A political solution will also ensure that a case like the one that happened in Libya does not take place the second time. The international community was therefore added to send a strong message that will bring unity to the people. Instead of advocating for military interventions, the military and other forces advocated for peaceful reconciliation under political solution. Their position was therefore and changed as they advocated for a better solution.
CHAPTER FIVECOMPARATIVE ANALYSISIn light of these two different cases, there is a general opinion that can state when it comes to holding the position of R2P. It can be stated that R2P may not be judged in relation to the response done by military interventions in Libya. There are numerous challenges that come from the differences in opinion. Also, the United Nations system can be questioned in various ways and how it can be applied in cases differently. It can be said that Libya also found part of one of the Arabic countries.
It has always been a concern why the information given to the Arabic league was different case to the one in Syria. In Syria, the president of the country had to be talked to so as to solve the situation in a calm manner. The secretary general of NATO himself stated that there is no possibility of using a military intervention into Syria. Considering how hasty it was for the situation in Libya to be intervened using a military authority, claiming that it is not the responsibility of not to venture into a foreign country makes it even more complex.
According to their report given in 2001 by access, protection of civilians under consideration for military intervention is always the last resort to a country with the crisis. International solutions have to be looked at in the same way especially when it involves a country where people. In the Syrian case, it is not associated with R2P and military intervention. There are other means of protecting the people through the use of services and other humanitarian corridors. Safe zones are used as hideouts for people who cannot get places of hiding.
Humanitarian corridors provide the civilians with the places where they can hide. Arab league pop-up service suggested that an armed group or people who are concerned about the situation should increase pressure on the president. They did this by showing the responsibility and for coming up with a solution that will make the president and the act of violence in the country. This was done through a means of negotiation and series of talks most of which did not succeed. There are people who miss interpreting these concepts. However, those who misinterpreted the concepts cause more damage to the information that is existing. China and Russia is the main issue that is punishing the credibility of the united nation.
The fact that China and Russia have close link and connection with the president of Syria makes it a questionable decision by the united nation. For a long time, president Bashir al-Assad has always maintained their trading ties with the people China and Russia. Most of these connections are as a result of the exchange of firearms and provider market for goods and services. These close connections cannot allow federation of Russia and Republic of China to break their close ties, especially at the time of need. The international community together with the United Nation have to set an effective course that is meaningful, and one that highlights the necessary actions against mass murder and situations that are life-threatening.
These are these are cases that can help the United Nations been back their credibility that it had lost. Also, the fact that the resolution has not changed means that the national interest is determined by the reaction of the domestic crisis and the communities involved. It is also a situation that involves Russia and China but is not specific to these two nations. The united nations have numerous forms of veto that are blocking any motion of consensus in cases such as Israeli settlement. United Nations have also been a stand against the four permanent members and the other ten non-permanent members who belong to the council. The council members who are also unwilling to make a decision that favors the retention of the voting for the veto system. Research development of also pointed out questioning the system and their studies that concerns the two issues of Libya and Syria.
Echoes of the VetoesThe case for Syria has undergone numerous items of vetoes. According to the reaction of the international community, it was clear that there was nothing they could do with a case in Syria. Because in Syria also highlighted the floors that are in the Security Council. It showed that the Security Council has numerous holes that have to be filled. The reaction of the United Nations was a testament to a necessary change in the system. When they responded to the three vetoes resolutions, the security cancel through the secretary stated that more than two thousand people had died because Russia and China had voted against the last resolution that was done. More than 6000 people died within the ten months following the fair price. In addition, more people had been tortured by the government.
The foreign secretary also questioned how many people Russia and China needed to die before they could vote to allow for one intervention. The opposing Security Council new national account for the Syrian people for their actions and they will not do anything to help bring an end to the violence that had revealed the country for more than ten months. According to these remarks, it was clear that many people had good intentions for Syria. The differences in opinion from the larger empires was also another concern. However, there was nothing that could not be done due to the power that Russia and China had. Being permanent members of the Security Council, only two votes are enough to stop a resolution from taking place.
Resolution 2043 called for an immediate intervention into the country to stop president Bashir al-Assad from killing his people. It was just a concern by the increasing number that grieves day-by-day. Within ten months, more than six thousand people had been killed. This was a massive blow to the international community that had focused on the crimes against humanity in other countries. There are countries where the international community had acted even without consulting the Security Council. An example of such a case was in Kosovo. It was a question of whether the international community was prepared to risk everything and save the lives of innocent people. However, it proved to be difficult as the power does not only rest on a few individuals, but it is also affected by the relationship between the heads of states. From the start, the Syrian people who are reacting towards the poor governorship and the relationship that Syria had in China. The people of Syria felt that their president was using them and was misusing his position to determine who they traded with. This was a form of poor leadership that they had to resist.
As a consequence of their actions, China used to the power that it has as a p5 member to influence the decisions of the United Nations Security Council. The following is the statement and the report given by the Security Council foreign secretary:
“…More than 2,000 people have died since Russia and China vetoed the last draft resolution In October 2011. Over 6,000 people have died in the ten months since the uprising began. Many more have been tortured and detained. How many more need to die before Russia and China allow the UN Security Council to act? Those opposing UN Security Council action will have to account to the Syrian people for their actions which do nothing. To help bring an end to the violence that is ravaging the country he draft resolution, tabled by Morocco, supported Arab League efforts to resolve the crisis in Syria and called for an immediate end to all violence. It did not impose any sanctions, nor did it authorize military action …”
This statement was clear about the intentions of the Security Council members. However, the statement also showed that the Security Council is affected by two powerful authorities that have the power to cancel anything. China especially was very reluctant to respond to the accusations that were made against them. Pressure on their part did not respond as well, and it was clear of their relationship with their head of state that was responsible for mass atrocities. Several years, the Security Council have always stood for good and always campaigned against or crimes against humanity. They have always fart war crimes that are done by the heads of states who wanted to cling on power at the expense of their people. It was also clear that the case in Syria was complete impunity against innocent citizens. What was the concern is the weak rhetoric that every state had been giving on the situation of Syria.
This rhetoric ensures that there is a failed attempt to achieve any form of justice for people who had suffered for more than ten months. Human violations continued in Syria because of the actions that had been done by the people who are in charge. Being in power is also a responsibility that is recognized by every stage around the globe. Human violators have used the rights in Syria to take away human rights from the people and have gone free for a long time by continuously committing these serious crimes, and the international community was doing nothing to stop it. International law did not hold any ground just for the continuous attempt and a failure by other countries to get involved with the situation. This sent a disturbing message to those who believed in the United Nations and its powers to stop internal conflicts.
It became a concern for those who have faith in the United Nations and believed in it for a long time. International community starting being scared because it was not a guarantee whether a similar situation that took place in Libya could happen anywhere else. It also opened the door for other heads of states who had hesitated to commit finished humanity on their people to continuously do so because they know the consequences are not to be faced if they act in a right manner. The UN have the right to act on the atrocities committed. Acting in the right manner implies that one head of state has to from alchemy to me fishing ship with powerful members of the Security Council.
The statements that were given by the representatives of the United Nations in New York was as follows:
“…for almost two years, the Security Council has stood by as crimes against humanity, as Well as war crimes after the internal armed conflict began, have been committed with Complete impunity against the Syrian people. . . .The Security Council’s weak rhetoric on Syria has failed to achieve any justice for victims and has given human rights violator’s free rein to carry on committing serious crimes under international law without facing any consequences. The continued failure to act would send a disturbing message that the international the community has lost the will to protect civilians from harm in conflict…”
After numerous cases of presentations and lack of trust allegations that was placed on Russia, they had to respond on their side about the situation in Syria. However, the ambassador insisted that the draught that had been given by the Security Council was massively lucky any form of balance. The resolution was also allocated not to have been directly linked to helping the situation in Syria. They also stated that they are being members within the Security Council who are not concerned about the international peace but are continuously pushing for a regime change. Russia was therefore not part of any association that wanted regime change in a country that was some rain and independent.
Russia also claimed that the resolution did not take care of the situation taking place in Syria. According to the ambassador of Russia, the resolution in Syria was more than a gym change. He stated that it was a situation instigated by the problems existing within the society. The president was therefore not responsible for the mass atrocities taking place in Syria. This was despite many evidence that showed the involvement of the government and how they used excessive force to kill that local civilian. The differences in application is always a problem. Chinese ambassador also claims of account productive allegations against to the resolution to intervene into Syria. According to them, it was not important to put pressure on the raining regime ore and possible change of regime. Therefore, there was no need of imposing a resolution that will not help save the situation in Syria in relation to the current conditions.
The following is a statement that was given by the ambassador of Russia on the way they draught resolution lacked balance to help in solving the situation in Syria:
“…Some influential members of the international community, unfortunately . . . have been undermining the opportunity for political settlement, calling for a regime change, pushing the oppositionists to power…,”
On their part, China pulsar insisted that it would not help to impose a regime change in Syria.
“…China maintains that, under the current circumstances, to put undue emphasis on pressuring the Syrian government . . . or impose any solution will not help resolve the Syrian issue…..”
From these two cases, it can be seen that the two countries have different opinions from the analysis of the international community. It is also clear that the differences are not appreciated by other members that have no close ties with Syria. Importantly, they have an authority to affect the decisions that could have been made by many members of the Security Council. Russia claimed that the report on the resolution lacked any balance. It states that it was not aimed at fixing the problems in Syria. Tripoli Oakland right it was a draft meant for two basic problems. It was important to impose the condition of dialogue and to measure their influence of the government and the armed group. From their point of view, the situation in Libya had an impact on their decision. The pressure was concerned and vowed to do anything within their power to prevent a similar situation that took place in Libya from happening in Syria.
According to them, the international community made a massive mistake by intervening in Libya. This is because it all resulted into a regime change and hooded power from one of the routers to another. It did not solve the root cause of the killings and the possibility of having a permanent solution in Libya. The situation in Libya was, therefore, the main focus for Russia in making their decision to vote against a resolution to intervene into Syria. An intervention into Syria would translate differentially as it involved the head of state who had closed eyes and relationship with pressure.
However, Russia claimed that the decision was not based on any allies that they had, and it is for the common good international community together with the people of Syria. Russia also assured the international community and other people that an attempt to get involved with the matters of a sovereign country is not right especially if it involves a complete regime change. Libya was a shadow that was still hanging on the head of the international community. It was a mistake that they should not commit the second time. The resolutions on Syria have a massive difference to the one in Russia. China also stated on their stance and the reason why they had voted against the resolution to solve this situation. Insisted that all the issues that have been proposed in the resolution do not directly address the problem in Syria. China was completely against a regime change in a foreign country that the situation had not yielded a solution in Libya.
It was a so proposed that there should be a possibility of having a force that is different from the one given by NATO. The first by NATO was responsible for preventing violence. However, having a backup plan for a backup solution for any military intervention can help prevent any civil war and outbreak of conflict. The disputes about concept within Libya were also surfacing especially during the discussions to help so the situation in Syria. Even though the international community has made numerous steps to curb humanitarian crisis in various countries, in most cases it has just basic data without action. This can be seen in the continuous and extensive conflict in Syria that has not been solved.
The continuous lack of action has caused duality even before starting to act on the disputes because of the concept of the equation. The decisions that are made in regards to humanitarian interventions have been questioned because of the lack of action in Syria. The development of R2P was also influenced by the dispute in the first place. From its early days of implementation, R2P ensured there was a reduced level of violence in countries that had been rocked by the need for a continuous regime change.
Some countries did not need an intervention for them to solve the issues. A country like Tunisia managed to get a good result from the protests that was done by the local people. Other countries could not have any impact by going to the streets and protesting against the Iranian regime. This was because of the lack of action from the leaders who had planned to stay on there
Power for a long time. It is reluctant to involve any dialogue or negotiation with the local people. Humanitarian actions and interventions have been associated with the military before the emergence of other concepts such as dialogue. This also gives the impression that humanitarian actions had been designed differently. When people call for an intervention by the United Nations and other communities, it has always thought of as a major intervention that is likely to change a regime and prevent it from hurting its people. All the actions that are done by the government about preventing human rights is an issue of international concern. The attempts to implement humanitarian interventions even made it difficult for authoritarian governments to continuously act through oppressing the people knowing that there is a possibility of conducting a military intervention against them.
Even though this was successfully done in Syria, it has not been a success due to controversies and the struggle for power as well as other political associations that are within the decision-making process. It is also clear that the relevant report has frequently highlighted the significance of preventing crises that have a humanitarian basis. It is a point that the concept and the future of R2P are always pushed to test and to question. The lack of harmony and the theory of practicing, they will always cause problems and suspicions within those who are in power to implement the R2P. This dispute comes as a result of and settlements and lack of harmony within the powerful countries.
Countries such as France, USA, and United Kingdom are always less hesitant to act against humanitarian action. It is this reason why they have approved of an intervention in Syria even without thinking about the consequences. However, a country such as Russia and China powerful members of the permanent five countries in the Security Council makes it difficult for other countries to implement a humanitarian intervention. The politics within the Security Council also makes people question their capabilities of the United Nations especially when it involves a crisis where lives are lost.
Every decision that has been made against intervention, it is a test against R2P. These tests are what is making the decisions by the United Nations and reliable and inconsistent. At this point, it is best to come up with international law that addresses the problems within the Security Council. However, there have been problems with changes of people who belong to the permanent five members. As stated earlier, the prominent members include the US, the UK, France, Russia, and China. Other members of the Security Council are always changed on a regular basis. However, this v have all the power especially when it comes to implementing military interventions. Many states especially developing states such as India, Brazil and Japan have always wanted a continuous change in the permanent five members. However, these proposals have always been voted against by the same members who had implemented this decision. It becomes difficult to implement rules by those who did not participate in their making.
Those who succeeded in the Second World War have the power to determine what happens in other countries. This has been one of the controversies that are laid against to the permanent five members. In one way, this is seen as an action against countries that lost the world war especially since they cannot have any say within the United Nations. Scholars have also questioned the reasons why other members should not be given the power to express their views especially if they have heads of states who have interests of humanity at heart. There are many heads of states who are concerned about their actions in Syria and would not hesitate to act in case it is necessary. It is oh so much of concern when considering the poor records that are existing in the United Nations and NATO. But, the USA had demand responsibility are always distinguished from the people who implement them.
Besides, changing the perception that is humanitarian intervention does not necessarily involve military actions is also an issue. Many heads of state think that any monetary an intervention have to involve a regime change and possibly the military war against the existing government. However, humanitarian interventions are more than just simple military interventions to overthrow a government. The three stages of intervention start with predicting that outcome of the conflict is likely to take place. This initial stage does not necessarily involve a military war or NATO getting involved in the war against an existing regime.
The second phase of implementing and R2P rule against human rights abuse involve warnings and sanctions against the government. This includes imposing sanctions in countries that do not want to stop mass murders by their leaders. Country leaders are not allowed to travel to countries other than theirs to ensure that they remain in their countries. An example of a country that has been imposed with such assumption is the president of Sudan who is not allowed to travel to any country other than Sudan. Sanctions also include economic sanctions whereby a country is given certain types of economic restrictions and cannot trade with their other members of the united nation.
This is the second step and is meant to allow the leader to integrate negotiations to prevent possible ethnic cleansing and crime against humanity. In most cases, the second phase of the application of R2P does not succeed as most country leaders ignore the sanctions and continue to impose their will on the people. It is at this point whereby the Security Council recommends the third step which may involve a military intervention or a negotiation through the secretary general of the UN. By implementing a military intervention, it is always felt that the leader does not need any form of negotiation and has continuously been forcing the country to get into ethnic cleansing. What other countries do not understand is that because issues are also part of the R2P as they also ensure that the people are protected through negotiation with their leaders. Introduction of R2P in Libya case was not an immediate concept that resulted from a disagreement. Apart from the allegations about the use of interventions to justify for the rooms that the UN forces did with the country, many people stated that R2P is always stated to make sure that everything is covered from that public.
However, it is stated that the main purpose of intervening into Libya was for regime change. Several factors could have resulted in the need for the international community delete regime change in the country. One of them is the position or location of Libya. As a country that is strategically located, Libya is a place that can easily be targeted because of trade. Its strategic location makes it an easy root for trading in Africa and other European countries. However, the president of the country at the time was not willing to negotiate with most of the European countries. It is alleged that this annoyed most of the European countries making them willing to do anything to overthrow the Gaddafi regime. Being that the country was a home for oil, which is a basic commodity traverse the globe. It made many people interested in the leadership of Libya. Just as the case in Syria and China have the responsibility to ensure that they do things right especially when it comes to military intervention. They had an option of doing a veto against the military intervention in Libya. However, this was not done unlike the case in Syria. It is alleged that by the time voting was being done; there are heads of states that did not attend the meeting allowing the few who were in the meeting to vote for the resolution which was a military intervention in Libya. Apart from this, countries such as China and Russia who have continuously protected President Bashir al Assad of Syria did not do so against Muammar Gaddafi of Libya.
This shows the differences in the relationship between the heads of states. It is also a testament on how it is important for a head of state to befriend some of the most powerful country leaders in the world. It is this power that has made many African countries to form coalition and collaboration with China. Knowing that they are likely to benefit from the relationship, many African countries and South American countries are forming train relations to ensure that the leaders of the states are together in most of the decisions. It is also eminent that without these relationships, it is not easy to defend yourself especially when it comes to the voting process in the UN. The relationship between the president of Libya and Russia head of state was also questioned even though it appeared as if Gaddafi had a good relationship with Putin. However, it was claimed that their relationship had ended due to allegations of trade misunderstandings.
These issues have eroded the concept of R2P in many ways. The nature of the crisis in Syria makes it a very compelling issue. It is also complicated and is not as direct as the cases in Egypt, labia for the successful one in Tunisia. The position of Syria and its relationship with other states that are important within the uncoupled with the multi-facet structures and their ethnic backgrounds makes it difficult to help their negotiations for an intervention. Syria is also catalyzed by many religious backgrounds creating disagreements that are not easy to solve. The existence of other factors makes this cases complicated and discontinuous as atrocities for the people continuously take place while discussions are also online.
International community how always learned from the past experiences and they have made the situations difficult as they have to ask him question to avoid the issues that took place in Libya. What makes the Libyan situation difficult is the fact that despite the intervention to stop the loss of lives, many lives were lost. People still died from the atrocities especially when the military interventions started to take place. It is a case that has prevented further actions from being implemented.
The Russian federation ministers game report about foreign interventions in matters of sovereign countries. According to the latest report, they stated that it was acceptable for other countries to use force while doing international relations. This was also true especially basing their facts on civilization. Reading to them, countries that consider campaigners of civilization should embrace peace and not use force while performing international regulations. Ministers and leaders in the United Kingdom and France have been pushing for intervention to prevent the continuous bloodshed in Syria that is a concern for the whole globe. Other people have been rebuking such missions stating that there is nothing that can be achieved through failure negotiation.
It was also a proof that Bashar al Assad we stopped through other means other than humanitarian intervention through responsibility to protect. Nonetheless, the future of responsibility to protect is also not certain. The urine had drawn the issues covered within the responsibility to protect after the 1990 wars that took place in Bosnia and Rwanda. Because these countries were faced with Astor cities and genocide, it was followed that is to be hard to be adopted to deal with conflicts that were affecting people and civilians. The language of R2P has also been invoked directly to justify what the French did in Ivory Coast in the year 2011. Earlier the same year, learn to lead a fly zone in Mali which also was followed by Libya. In such cases, the conflicts were supposed to be entered through the use of arms. Facing a precise problem that is similar to this too in Syria have been addressed to everyone. The conflict has been documented, and no one has been brave enough to intervene in the case of Syria.
The USA and the UK have been examining other efforts that can be used differently from the military options. The main effects are based on humanitarian grounds claiming that it is not necessary to always use force for countries that are also advocating for civilization. It also created morals of self-interest editor realism. Others argue that by not acting, these powerful countries are losing their credibility, and therefore it is threatening the ability to use force in the future. The use of military have been done in the past but have also failed tremendously. Iraq and Afghanistan alongside Libya Mali and Ivory Coast have witnessed interventions through the citation of R2P where powerful countries are using military means to stop the war from happening in these regions.
However, great openings r variant when it comes to an intervention in Syria which is a complex political problem. The problem itself involved in rebelling who are fighting against jihadist. None of the R2P principles have been applied even in their initial stages. For those who are defending against the lack of action, cases, and killings in Bosnia and Rwanda, USA interventions that were made by difficulties. Atrocities and curves were stopped but on the grounds of more killings being done. Even in Libya, the number of people who lost their lives after NATO had intervened in Libya was even more than people who were being killed before the intervention.
For the case in Russia, Libya objectives the application of R2P in the first place. Countries such as South Africa have backed the principal, and have supported it for its success in preventing atrocities. Brazilians as stating that either UN should allow future military interventions especially if it is on the grounds of humanitarian actions. They insist that there should be an assessment that is done practically to come up with the desires of the regime government and whether they are willing to agree with the United Nations or not. They were not willing to come to an agreement; there is no option but to start an intervention where people can be saved. The patient comes as to whom the power will be given to after an intervention is done. It is also not a guaranteed issue that when a division is done, it will completely stop killings from happening or it will give a leader who is willing to lead the people the peace.
From this literature about the responsibility to protect, it can be stated that the responsibility to protect an international known that only became into existence in the year 2005. It is also true that the responsibility to protect was implemented by the United Nations and was mainly meant to stipulate various conditions under which an intervention can be done by the United Nations. Its main focus is to address the issues of the victims and help member states avoid atrocities towards their citizens. Some rules and guidelines have been stated in the R2P guidelines. Rules help the Security Council to determine when to intervene in defines the victims who have been suffering from the authoritarian regions. Rubinstein overdue limitation, the Security Council, voted for the favor of a military intervention mainly laid by NATO. The world became fully focused when the responsibility to protect was implemented in Libya to halt the civil war that was taking place in that country.
It was, however, a surprise to many people when they considered the relatively short time that it took to implement these procedures. It is also true that the implementation of the responsibility to protect allow to the people of Libya to eventually put in place a democratic regime under leadership which they had control over. Whether these proceedings have been made by sharp contrasts and criticism. They have also had relative success with numerous countries disagree on most of the decisions that have been met. The Security Council can also not agree on methods that they can use to impose sanctions or any form of military intervention in Syria. However, the ideas about the Security Council taking part in underperforming to remove chemical weaponry from the country. The deal has been struck by the members of the United Nations who are concerned about the chemical weapons that the government is using against the civilians. Despite obvious attempts, the war has always continued in Syria. Coast numerous questions to be asked of the capability of the United Nations and their application of responsibility to protect.
The UN at the Security Council has not been able to stop the massive loss of lives. Humanitarian crises are still continuously distracting properties, and for the people to kill themselves in ethnic cleansing in the country. The Security Council could not agree on whether to impose sanctions for a military intervention into Syria. But the most successful intervention so far in Syria has been the removal of chemical weapons that were owned by the government. Ministers have also been against the removal of the chemical weapons by the government stating that it is an injustice to an estate that is trying to take care of itself and to protect its people from foreign interventions.
The civil war has continued despite these attempts including various attempts from there nations. The humanitarian crisis, as well as the destruction of property in Syria, have been associated with the inability of the government to stop the civil war. United Nations efforts to solve these solutions have produced different outcomes in countries from this case study. Responsibility to protect and the status that it has in Libya and Syria have garnered interest from major state powers leading to divergence in application especially when it comes to the powers surrounding the Security Council. Biggest dates have also been willing to commit to the military resources needed for these countries to solve the issues.
However, humorous lessons that can be learned from the relationship that Russia and China have with these two countries. Lydia, on the other hand, has also produced the UN report on the Security Council and was surprised by the inactive nature that they cancel have had with the case in Syria. The role of opposition groups in various countries has also been questioned especially on their relationship with the Security Council. Most of the time, opposition leaders are given free power by an intermediate body. That took place in Libya allowing their positions to join hands with the foreign military to overthrow the reigning regime. Sufficient these moves are stating that it is not right to get into a country to support other position. Time, the position can be well related to the common people who have been oppressed for a long time. Want to be seen that these countries have suffered from long-grain of powers from people who do not want to leave office.
More than 30 years ago, different states had the freedom of using the serenity nature of their independence to shield themselves against foreign intervention who run interference from any foreign body. This allowed many heads of state to feel that their position is under no threat because they are protected and shield by the serenity. The sovereignty of the nation, therefore, have been using this shield to enforce their will on the people. Such acts have been leading to cases of genocide and cases of mass atrocities in many countries. These cases had been witnessed in many countries such as Kosovo, Rwanda, Sudan where leaders are using their authority to impose their will on the people.
Currently, the community is having acting through the power of the Security Council in the UN to prepare themselves and intervene in states that have failed to protect their populations from mass murder. The states which have been reported to be used in force against civilians. Nude music police or military in the country to torture and kill innocent civilians. International human rights that enable this to take place successfully is the responsibility to protect which was documented and brought to play in the year 2005. R2P have also been passed as international law, is meant to ensure that all heads of state have been held accountable for any actions that they do. Least this was the intention of R2P even if it has faced criticism. It was the responsibility, under the international community kept clean and clear watch and attention towards heads of states being accused of supporting genocide ethnic cleansing and any form of crime that is against humanity.
In the year 2005, the assembly adopted this rule and called for an international community to support it by ensuring that they are diplomatic means and humanitarian means as well as other means that can be used to protect the population around the globe from the various mass atrocities that have been witnessed in other countries. It was a massive concerned when tribalism and ethnicity were the main causes of deaths in countries where leaders have failed to protect their people.
R2P had been passed as an international law, is meant to ensure that all heads of state have been held accountable for any actions that they do. This was the intention of R2P even if it has faced criticism. It was the responsibility, under the international community kept watch and attention towards heads of states being accused of supporting genocide ethnic cleansing and any form of crime that is against humanity. The big bust in the year 2005, the assembly adopted this rule and called for an international community to support it by ensuring that they are diplomatic means and humanitarian means as well as other means that can be used to protect the population around the globe from the various mass atrocities that have been witnessed in other countries. It was a massive concerned when tribalism and ethnicity were the main causes of deaths in countries where leaders have failed to protect their people.
CRITICISMS FROM LIBYA AND SYRIAOne major criticism that stated mission has received in the recent past is the structure of its operation and how human right issues are always politicized. The rights and responsibility to protect is one area where the world globe features its rights and freedom on. Numerous states have had problems with human rights and have gotten away with it especially the leaders who cannot be punished. To make this matter based on many discussions was becoming a trend that many states are aware of how the Security Council operates. It is also clear on how the responsibility to protect has been operating through this time.
According to the majority of the people, the United Nations was formed as a body of superpowers who can control the entire globe. This can be seen to be true as there are members who are more powerful than the rest. There are countries such as Germany who have been overlooked in the United Nations. However, Germany still has the most powerful female on earth. Despite being overlooked by the United Nations, countries such as Germany, India, Brazil and even South Africa are willing to make decisions that can affect the suffering civilians. It has been proven over and over that the intentions of the United Nations are not to keep peace in the world but to maintain some specific countries on power. These countries include the UK, us, France, Russia, and China.
The whole world can be seen to be the beginning and the end of all the military interventions. It is the heads of states who have made people question their credibility of the R2P rule. Once a resolution has been made, these five powerful countries in the UN have to have a say as only two of them is enough to turn down a resolution. This has proven to be a big challenge especially for countries that are willing to step up and help solve issues at the international level. Human rights are something that has to be taken carefully and seriously. Most of their decisions made by the UN at the Security Council are routed on selfish alights who are proven to be untouchable and have a massive saying on peace. The politics within the UN and the Security Council have also undermined the performance of responsibility to protect. This is the main reason why the United Nations was quiet even if the US intervened in Afghanistan.
Despite claims of peace, it was still difficult to implement. It, therefore, means that the dimensions by the US to bring peace into a country that had been rocked by violence did not work at all. But this cannot be stated as it will undermine the actions that the responsibility of the Security Council. This is a politics that massively favors more powerful countries and is massively against to the smaller countries. It is also clear that the intervention of the US into Afghanistan had nothing to do with the 911 attack. The decision by the USA was unilaterally even if the United Nation is claiming to have supported it. They decided to invade Afghanistan to confirm that their countries are run by people and dictators who have resources to make decisions when they are willing to do so. It also undermines the other countries which are also lights and want to join the elite society.
In Libya, many people believe that Gaddafi was against to the powerful and lives such as Russia China and the US. Gaddafi did not have any support; he had to suffer the consequences of going against the elite in the world. The other major setbacks report obvious repertoires that have been doctored to suit the explanations of these superpowers. Without politicizing the issues in Libya Afghanistan and Syria, proofs have shown clearly that there are superpowers who are overrunning decisions that are made on behalf of an entire nation. For people to have a better world, the human rights council should be the one to replace the commission that is accountable for countries. This will ensure that there is valence everywhere at that everybody’s represented equally. Global human rights should be a body that caters for every country but not a handful of countries.
Even to the United Nations have proven to be working perfectly and has created a platform for helping lower region countries, it has failed when it matters the most. The failure is not necessarily due to the politics around the right to protect. However, the failure is mainly caused by the issues surrounding the decisions especially when it comes to vetoing. The heating system should be made in a way that it is not based on countries seem to be more powerful than the others. Countries such as Germany Brazil Japan and India should also be looked at especially when it comes to decisions of international concern. This will help in ensuring that there is a balance in power at that no country has more authority than the other. Global human rights should also be accountable for countries that are constantly killing their citizens. There are reports of mass murders that have not been reported even by the United Nations themselves. This is because of the reluctance that has always existed by the people responsible for these lesions. It is these powerful countries that have prevented an intervention in Syria even after numerous cases of death and must more. The president of China has always giving excuses as to the reasons why they have not approved the intervention into Syria. The case of Syria is also proving to be difficult especially when looking at other factors such as the voting process in the UN.
In the middle of the Arab spring, the council in charge of human rights was marked by the assembly to vote anonymously to suspend the membership of Syria from the United Nations. It also contains the human right violations that were taking place in Syria. At the same time, the majority of the people voted for an investigation to be done whether human rights are being violated in the country or not. These actions were seen to be legitimate at first because they were being supported by representatives from all over the world. It was a concern for everybody throughout the world of the atrocities that were being conducted in Libya.
Apart from the normal killings, the major issue was the constant influx of refugees who are living and joining other countries. Refugees is an international concern and therefore have to be treated as an international issue. Even though the cases were legitimate and laterally followed by extrajudicial issues and innovation, new and kept silent on the wider issue. Transparency is key especially when it is something that concerns and international representation. It seems as if the United Nation has not been transparent with most of their reports. This has been the key concern for many people who feel that there is no transparency within the Security Council. These lies r making people lose more faith in the Security Council and their ability to solve issues. For there to be trust and United Nation insecurity, transparency must be the first thing, and any revision has to follow all the jurisdictions that have been set. The body should not be silent especially when it has been questioned to back up the claims of extrajudicial killings. Also, the application of the law should not affect the countries more than the others.
Encouraging interaction between heads of state is one of the issues that have to be addressed by the new body which will be formed in case the Security Council loses its position. Many heads of states have to be called so that they can join in and speak a similar language especially when it comes to protecting human rights. They should be regular meetings where countries address the challenges and see how to solve the issues. It is not necessary to always use military interventions. The case in Libya has proven that military interventions only makes the situation was especially when it is not applied appropriately. When addressing concerns about human right, it is crucial to show both sides of the story and also to be concerned with everyone who is suffering in the nation. To achieve maximum peace brought the globe, people must believe in peace, and strong solutions of peacekeeping strategies have to be implemented. People have to be willing to sacrifice their political ambitions and help that the world achieve a peaceful status. Everybody must have a political will and ability to speak against corruption that is existing within the United Nations. This will help in achieving a better one.
After seeing the evidence in Libya, it was concluded that it should be put into practice. Many people predicted a change in the way international community could interpret serenity and that no one was safe in case they decided to conduct mass atrocity. After the resolution in 1973, Ban Ki-moon who was the and the secretary general of the United Nations declared that the decision was historic and that resolution 1973 would fulfill the humanitarian dream of protecting civilians from being exploited or being perpetrated violently by their government. This was in runway true as the people of Libya managed to form a democratic government which is in operation despite all the difficulties that it is facing. But a step towards a functional democracy is one method of respecting human rights.
Achieving democracy that not necessarily hinge on a successful government that respects everyone. As a country that had been struggling with a leader who has been in power for 50 years and above, it is crucial that they make the first step of having a democratic election even if it is not free and fair. The next step would be to achieve a free and fair election after laying the grounds for a democratic election. In this manner, the responsibility to protect performed its role and managed to change a country from an autocratic leader into a democratic leader. On the other hand, the United Nations Security Council have not acted for the case in Syria making the situation worse than day by day.
After killing the first step to give this tweet to place in the year 2011, and the troops have been used against civilians, and many protesters have been killed with the number rising to more than hundreds. Even to a draught of a solution and was introduced by countries such as Portugal, Germany, naked kingdom and France, its success has not been seen so far. The resolution condemned the government of Syria from the continuous human right abuse and also demanded that there should be an immediate ceasefire about the attacks. However, even do it obtained considered to be implemented in a 30-day. It did not last long, and the government does not act upon the sanctions.
In 2011, this resolution to interview into Syria was vetoed by two countries which are the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Russia and China have a massive impact on these decisions despite the reports which show that President Bashar al-Assad is for continuous killings, nothing has been done so far. The Security Council has not taken any action that is corporate, and I’ve not imposed a sanction as demanded by the norms of their responsibility to protect. Father resolutions by the Security Council also have binding resolutions and provisions that have been vetoed. The situation has also been escalating with devastating conditions and lives lost on a daily basis. Resolution 2039 was however first in the year 2014. The solution included condemnation of human right abuse, but no enforcement was tangible with the warnings. The potential of rights to protect is to ensure that everyone is safe.
According to the report given about today resolution that had been taken, action will be taken by the members following a case base case basis for special interests of the permanent members. The resolution didn’t specify military actions as a result of a rare convergence of power and special interest by the permanent five members. The complete regime change that Gaddafi had faced during the innovation had also highlighted flaws that exist in R2P. Read that the 405 members were slow to react to any action that would lead to a regime change. Additionally, various cases of disagreements on the original actors as well as rebel groups that made it difficult for international military intervention because it would still cause more conflict in the region. Being charged with decisions for the members of the United Nations, the Security Council have always implemented its roles according to the United Nations charter.
Chapter 4 and chapter 6 the charter states that the Security Council has the power to determine threats to peaceful existence to society and can decide on the best measures to restore peace. They can take actions on air see or in the land so that the peace is maintained. It is as important that the Security Council is also where of the conflict resolution processes and its proceedings. Fifteen members of the council are allowed to post this action and use force after a vote in favor what draft or resolution have been made. On the other hand, voting against the resolution is easy as there are permanent who have more power than the other ten members who are elected and changed continuously. Even though there are 15 member states of the council, the permanent five members at the forefront of every decision that is being made. The dynamics of the cold war also ensured that all the rivals for the US do not address any political violence that has taken place after the year 1990. When the cold war ended the US is the only active member that involves significant decisions as the most active member of the united nation.
R2P has three main pillars that are articulated by the official advisors for people were concerned about it. These pillars are highlighted in the charter as follows:
“….The State carries the primary responsibility for protecting populations from Genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, and their Incitement;
2. The International community has a responsibility to encourage and assist States
In fulfilling this responsibility; 3. The international community has a responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, Humanitarian and other means to protect populations from these crimes. If a state is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take collective action to protect populations, by the Charter of the United Nations…”
The core business of R2P is to prevent this atrocity that has repeatedly led to the loss of millions of lives. All states throughout the globe do not deny the importance of the first pillar and the duties that it has to protect the people. However, ideal to have a self-executing resume that protects his people and receives help from the outside forces if necessary. However many states cannot step forward and ask for help from the international community in case they are unable to contain the civil wars and violence in their countries. Sometimes the violence is not caused by the government but misunderstandings between various ethnic groups. In such cases, the government has the responsibility to ensure that the citizens are protected and are advised on the best methods that can be used to solve the differences. To prevent further occurrences of such losses, there are humanitarian relief actions that are done at an international level to help bridge the gap between these communities.
Various states voiced their concerns especially during the world summit that was held in the year 2005. Once stated that heads of state would use R2P as a pretext and will be used only by powerful states to intervene in weak states or for them to call a military intervention to violate their international rights. Such heads of states believe that the international community through the most powerful states can vote for intervention even if it is not necessary. This cannot be backed by the fact that the United Nations Security Council have powerful members who can always vote against the good or an intervention. This is a case that can easily Syria where atrocities are taking place, and there is no action done. Different from the case in Libya where everyone and all the powerful states were against the one powerful president. Gaddafi did not have any friends with other European nations and therefore could not be protected by them. It was easy for them to pass a ruling that would ensure that president Gaddafi loses his seat and possibly eliminated directly.
These allegations continue to develop, and they also maintain that R2P can also be used to disadvantage countries that are not willing to form relations with this powerful states. This has forced many African states to form collaborations with countries in Africa they can get protection in case are release candidate in their countries. The main reason why people in Syria are against the ruling regime is that they feel that the government is trading with China and Syria and taking advantage of them. This relationship has always protected President Bashar al Assad making him an ally of the Chinese people. As a result, the president of Syria has remained in power all this while and is untouchable because of the protection that he gets from China and Russia. In case Gaddafi could have formed allies with China and Russia, he would have maintained his position and vetoed could have been done where the resolution to intervene in the country could have been rejected. Many countries are taking advantage of the smaller countries who are already aware of the impact of R2P.
UN has a role to play in the right to a collection of various governmental organizations whose task is to maintain international peace and security. This is an addition have other roles such as creating and maintaining friendly relationships among different countries. The main aim of secondary relations is to achieve a corporation that is based on an international level and acts as the center of uniting all the nations and their actions. After replacing the League of Nations, this organization was established in the year 1945 after the world war it had ended. Its main aim since then is to prevent in different countries from getting into conflict and creating another war. At the start of the formation of the UN, it had 51 countries as its member states. However, the number has tremendously grown and is currently standing at 192.
The international community bodies have most of their headquarters the USA where they always meet to discuss some international concerns. It is located in Manhattan. However, the location in the USA is subject to various extraterritorial issues. The financial support that the international communities in charge of the humanitarian actions get comes from contributions that member states give. The objectives of the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions ranged from establishing a permanently international peace as well as ensuring that the human rights are protected. Other than that, it has a role in delivering humanitarian help for the countries that need it especially countries that have been hit by natural disasters. This organization is the most powerful in the world because of their capabilities that it has. In the year 1945, 50 governments decided to convene a meeting in San Francisco USA. The conference was made to draft international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions chapter to be adopted later on. The draft was signed in June 2 months later the same year 1945. In October the same year, this charter took effect, and the operations of the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions began to talk action.
The mission of the Security Council together with the international organizations is to ensure that the whole world is at peace. However, this mission was quite complicated during the early stages of its establishment as they were challenges coming from cold war. The cold war existed between the USA and the Soviet Union. The respective owners of these two nations usually came up with issues that paralyzed the actions of the Security Council. It also delayed the process of peacekeeping and maintaining stabilization and ceasefire actions as it became difficult as a result. In the beginning, the peacekeeping mission was supposed to come as a result of having observers from various countries who did not have military arms as well as having troops whose primary role is monitoring and reporting cases that are observed in the various countries. The organization was responsible for participating in the Korean War. The international community, at the beginning, help Korea as a country to repel several attempts of innovation from the neighboring country North Korea in the year 1950 when the war in the Republic of Congo took place in the 1960s, international communities, and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect established peacekeeping force known as ONUS. During its formation, it was bound by the declaration below.
“…subscribed to a common program of purposes and principles embodied in
The Joint Declaration of the President of the USA of America and the
Prime Minister of the UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Dated August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Charter…”
Together with other responsibilities, the resolution that called for the splitting of police team between the Jews and the Arabs. This was done in the year 1947. It is this splitting that led to the creation of Israel that was found by the Jews in the year 1948. After success with the splitting of Palestine and the Korean War, other nations that are present in as the number of international response to improve significantly. Because of the end of colonization that was taking place throughout the 1960s, many nations started to become independent and joining the united nation. From the time, for more than 80 colonies have gained independence and have joined the international community (Bellamy, 2018). Peacekeeping was too expensive in the 1970s for the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect maintain its budget for economic development as well as some of the social programs, but it was performing (Benitez, 2015). The end of world war, various concerns for the operations involves no more missions on peacekeeping and to perform other tasks that are based on peacekeeping missions.
Role of the United Nation in R2P principalThe United Nation have a massive role to play in the application of the responsibility to protect. United Nation is made up of six main organs that also have to be involved in the decisions that concern any form of humanitarian action. These events include the general assembly which is the main assembly that deliberate all the actions of the united nation. The second organ is the Security Council that has been seen to be the most crucial especially when decisions are dealing with peace and security. The UN Security Council resolutions as to whether to intervene in an economic or abuse crisis or not (Blackford, 2014). The other principal organ is the economic and social council that is charged with the responsibility of promoting social corporations and development in the country. The economic and social council is in charge of promoting economic development and social cooperation between different countries within the member states. When there is corporation among nations, it provides a safe environment for organizations to conduct their businesses. The other organ that has been established in the international communities and organizations charged with humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect is the trusteeship council.
However, this organ has been inactive from the year 1994. One of the most issues in the lobe today is to ensure that there is peaceful coexistence within the member countries is the international criminal court. International criminal court has been acting as the main judicial organ for the member countries. The international criminal court has been an active organ especially when it comes to prosecuting authoritarian leaders and leaders who promote tribalism and mass atrocities to the citizens. The international criminal court has been successful to the various extent as it is the one that is in charge of prosecuting the criminal offenders (Bloomfield, 2017). Nonetheless, the international criminal court has also faced challenges especially when it comes to getting evidence to prosecute the perpetrators of criminal injustice. Also, the lack of cooperation from the member countries especially those that are involved in humanity violations makes it difficult for the international criminal court to conduct its jurisdiction as a judicial boa the secretariat is the other active body of the international organizations.
The Secretariat facilitates all the other actions of the Security Council as it provides studies and information in various agencies. Some of the agencies of the international community include the World Bank that is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that there is financial stability in all the member countries. The World Bank as an organ or agency of the United Nationals ensures that there is a financial help to various countries so that they can sustain their economic development. The World Bank also gives loans to poor countries to ensure that they can reach a sustainable goal. Apart from this, the World Bank group and she was that the states maintain their value especially those attached to the national currency and other advisors on how to process and make use of their currencies. The world health organization is also a body that concentrates on ensuring that relief and humanitarian aid is given to various countries that I need about it. World health organization have been mainly concerned with global diseases such as IV and aids. Why did the organization also give specific information about different countries that are undergoing various stages of diseases.
Apart from this agencies, other key agencies promote peaceful existence between the member’s states. One of these is the world food program that ensures that there are sufficient food supply regions where people are suffering. World food programmer also ensures that most goods that are consumed are safe for human consumption. Enesco and UNICEF are also global brands that promote peaceful coexistence and humanitarian relief services to different countries. These agencies exist in most countries that belong to the united nation’s umbrella. As the most prominent officer in the international community, the secretary-general is in charge of most of the employees within the international community. The office was held by former African union promoter Kofi Annan. Currently, Antonio Gutierrez is the one in charge of the office as a Portuguese politician. He assumed the office in the year 2017 after the death of the late Kofi Annan. Episodes as an agency are made up of various non-governmental organizations that offer consultative services to members of the international community.
As a peaceful organization, application of the responsibility to protect has successfully prevented another war from taking place as the world has been a peaceful place with it. However, saluting its effectiveness have received mixed reactions from different people and humanitarians. Various communicators and scholars believe that the organization does not perform its role well and is biased in most of its operation.
Limitations of the Security Council in relation to the responsibility to protectIf the council comes to decision making and peaceful interventions into the country. The council is also in charge of accepting new member countries that would want to decide on the humanitarian actions. They also approved possible changes that can take place within the international charter. This makes it the most crucial organ within the Security Council. The power of the Security Council includes the establishment of international sanctions as well as peacekeeping missions. The cancel authorizes any military actions that can take place through a resolution. If the Security Council resolve to a military intervention into a sovereign country, it is the Security Council that has allowed it to take place. The Security Council seat down to evaluate the situation in a foreign country and decide whether there is the need of using an external force or resolving to military intervention.
International sanctions also come as a result of punishments that the Security Council can impose on a country. All these take place through the Security Council. The first session of the Security Council was held in the year 1946 when they were contemplating the idea about military intervention.
How to make an appropriate humanitarian intervention based on the Responsibility to protect It is always difficult to act on the responsibility to protect. Just like the other organs of the united nation, the Security Council came up as a result of world war two after the failure of the League of Nations to stop the war. Maintenance of peace involves numerous actions that can result in a diplomatic intervention or a military intervention. The Security Council and have for a long time been accused of being but is not in most of its operation. This is the one area where the whole power of the United Nation lies. For the case of Libya, the responsibility to protect had to make a decision that was already made by the Security Council. The cold war had also polarized the actions of the Security Council as various challenges came from the two sides of the countries involved in the cold war.
These protests came from the USSR and the USA. Despite its challenges, the first intervention that was authorized by the Security Council was the one made in Korea war as well as intervention in the Congo crisis. There have been other calls for interventions in countries such as Syria and west guinea where the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect have intervened into a peacekeeping mission. Other countries where the Security Council have intervened include Cambodia, Sudan and the democratic public of Congo.
The Security Council is made up of 15 members. However, the victims of World War II have found the five permanent members of the council. These great powerful countries include the Soviet Union which is now the Russian Federation, the USA of America, the UK, China, and France. These five countries from what is known as p5. They are the most powerful of all the other members and influenced most of the decisions. One of the major characteristics of the p5 or permanent is that they have the power to vote against any resolution done by the Security Council. This has been one of the reasons for major controversies that exist in the Security Council. Veto allows these countries a massive power over all the other 90 members making it difficult to pass most of the resolutions. They also have the power to stop any member country from joining the Security Council. Apart from the five permanent me, the Security Council also have ten additional members who are known as non-permanent members.
The ten other non-permanent members are elected based on the regions where the countries are coming from. The presidency of the body also revolves around their members as it goes around on a monthly basis. That means that a country can be the president of the Security Council for a month while the next month there will be another one. In the past, countries have formed alliances with members of the p5 countries so that they can vote on their favorites. For a long time, this has been one of the most complex situations, especially where there is a decision that is supposed to be acted upon urgently.
As a result of the protesting nature of most nations, booting process within the Security Council can take numerous months or even years. This has been one of the reasons why he does insurance towards countries such as Syria have delayed. One of the reasons that have been cited for the reluctance of the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect act is that the members of the p5 cannot agree to vote on this situation. China has always had a massive effect on their voting process within the Security Council. On the other hand, China has close ties with the rulers of the Syrian country. This makes it difficult for them to intervene it was situated that will put the state of the country in jeopardy. The same issue applies with Russia whose members have close ties with Syria. The situation in Syria is a complex one because of the anonymity in the p5 section of the Security Council. Before an intervention is done, the members of the p5 have to agree even if all the other 90 members have agreed upon intervention.
It, therefore, makes it difficult even if genocide and mass killings are involved. To get involved in a sovereign country is also a complex procedure that not many countries would want to have. Because of the status that Libya brought and the attention that it came with, members of the Security Council as a whole are too reluctant to act similarly. This is because Gaddafi was killed, but the situation of a country has not improved. Responsibility to protect also makes it difficult to determine who is right and who is wrong especially when it comes to internal protests in a country. It is never a guarantee that opposition or a protest is right leading to military intervention against an existing power. This makes it difficult to intervene in the affairs of the democratic and sovereign nations.
The application of the responsibility to protect and the intervention into LibyaOn the 18th of March the year 2011, there was a military intervention in Libya played by natural military state. The intervention was supposed to carry out Security Council resolution of the year 1973 about the responsibility to protect. This was after a resolution was made that Muammar Gaddafi, president of Libya was oppressing the member countries are not allowing them to express themselves. It became an international concern as other issues surrounded the war in Libya.
Resolution of the year 1973 states that the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect through the Security Council have the responsibility to protect members of a foreign country if they are being oppressed by a ruler. The operation comes regarding killing innocent civilians and instigating tribal cleansing, Gaddafi and his people were accused of corruption and other inhuman atrocities by the local people. As a result, there are Libyan forces that rose against Gaddafi. President Gaddafi on his side also had his military which was also fighting against the protestors. The United Nation intended to bring peace and possibly over 30 and authoritarian regime that was resulting in the mass killing of the innocent people. There was voting made by the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect about an immediate ceasefire that was called in Libya.
It is also recommended an end to the killings that was ongoing as well as attacks that were done against the civilians. This was because the atrocities constituted to a crime against humanity. The Security Council also posts a ban on all the flights that was Libya. Originals also declared a no-fly zone with sanctions that were meant to overturn Muammar Gaddafi regime. By imposing sanctions on Libya, it was intended that the regime would suffer and eventually succumb to the ceasefire command by the united nation. This resolution was reached as a result of the events that led to the civil war in Libya. Various sources stated that the civil war started as a result of an authoritarian regime that was killing innocent civilians Apart from this, the Gaddafi regime was accused of corruption that leads to poverty and stamped economic growth in the country. Also, the regime was accused of being against humanitarian actions such as supporting refugees. Winter intervention started with the USA and Britain forces that had more than 100 missiles to the military base of Gaddafi and his people.
Various air force surges French air force, air force and Canadian air force all aimed at strongholds of Muammar Gaddafi throughout Libya in support of the opposition. The first attack was launched by the French yet. The Libyan army tank and vehicles. The Libyan forces were defeated as the forces of Gaddafi were unable to shoot even one plane that belonged to NATO. This was although the country has more than 30 missile batteries. The fight in Libya and had in October when Mama Gaddafi was killed. Not also stated that its operations in Libya would end at the end of October 2011.
The new government that was formed requested for an extension of its mission as well as an award for their not a mandate in this action. In the end, the referee was defeated, and a new government was formed from the former opposition leaders. At the end of this operation, scholars and various activists have questions that it is of the United Nation being backed by countries such as France, kingdom, and others. Many people also questioned the agency at which the actions against the nephew are conducted. Despite its success, many other countries have seen this as an operation that was meant to stop the derby has one of the most powerful leaders in the world. Various controversies and conspiracies have come up after Gaddafi had been killed. Gaddafi was once said to be at the forefront of the African unity that would also form a powerful alliance that would protest against the UN.
Apart from this, it has been highlighted that Gaddafi was not in the right frame of mind when it came to negotiation at international level. In contrast to other national leaders, Gaddafi was known to be a man who owes post various attempts by the international communities and organizations charged with the humanitarian interventions especially when it comes to the successful application of the responsibility to protect bring peace to the world. Because he was in charge of one of the richest countries in the globe regarding oil. This made him a major target for his enemies who felt that he was against most of the humanitarian actions. As a result, Muammar Gaddafi did not have an ally in the members of the p5 countries. This has been the main cause for concern especially when it comes to countries such as Syria. In Syria, the head of state is well proficient and is in good terms with the leaders of the Federation of Russia and the president of the Republic of China.
These two countries can veto against any military intervention in the country. Many people have accused of the United Nation of being partisan and supporting than the opposition that does not guarantee safety and improvement in political performance. This can be that by the fact that the situation in Libya has not changed at all. There are still various cases of civil war that are reported in the country. This means that the problem may not have been due to the authoritarian government but to the struggle of power that takes place in the country.
The reaction of other countries towards decisions in Libya and Syria and relation to AfghanistanDifferent countries have had essays on the decisions that have been made by the United Nations in response to the mass atrocities in Syria and Libya. Many have turned the difference in the application of the right to protect and how human rights apply to put the USA differently. The following section will show the differences in reaction to the countries involved in Syria and the reactions towards Libya.
China on LibyaThe main interests in China were the fact that they were too concerned about lack of intervention in international affairs. They did not want to interfere with international affairs or another state according to the principal. As a result, China has been reluctant to intervene in foreign currency. Also, in the past, China had a good relationship with Libya, especially when it came to trade. Jenna also did not have any vested interest in the situation in Libya as they did not have any agreed trade relations. Therefore did not enable them to protect Gaddafi when it came to the decisions of the Security Council. In addition, China had over 18 billion deals worth no property in Libya and more than 35000 Chinese who were living in Libya but relationships with the government of Libya by the time was supposed because of the economic interests that China had in Africa even do the crude oil in Libya was exported to China, Libyan blocks some of t items that t china brought to Libya. According to Gaddafi, he felt that China was trying to colonize Africa that the invasion was too much to be appreciated by them.
As a result, the relationship between China and Libya had broken completely. There are two reasons why China did not induce an assumption when it came to protecting Gaddafi against military intervention. This is why they did not mature enough lies all in regards to the resolution 1973 one of them is that China may have risked its isolation of importation within Libya. Gaddafi saw China as a threat to Africa. Therefore, it was a stamping blow to the bills that China was making with Africa especially when it came to exportation and importation of woods and properties. As a result, Gaddafi had to be moved out of the way so that China continues to implement their focus and trade relations in Africa. The second reason was that they did not find it necessary to get involved in the actions of the United Nations. This is according to the report that was given by the Chinese government about the inactivity and participating in voting. Being the outsiders, China represented the wish of some people but disappointed others by not decided to participate in the veto. Nonetheless, China have been criticizing the military intervention that was done in Libya.
The reaction of Russia to LibyaAs one of the strongest of the p5 countries and Russia was aware of the interventions that were led by western countries, this is why they kept close in relations with countries that enjoy it friendly connections. Olympic size. Prussia had with Gaddafi was seen to be growing especially before the prices had begun. However, Russia voted for resolution 1970 that allows military intervention and ideas to overthrow Gaddafi. The struggle for superiority had to do with these decisions. Russia allow these resolutions to take place because of their relationship with the Middle East countries and most of the African states. This was because they were not aware of the consequences that the interventions would pray. Libya had been closely related especially from the start of the Soviet Union days. Economic cooperation and a significant connection between the two countries.
President Putin had been conducting official visits to Libya and signing agreements for relationships between the two countries. The armed contracts between Libya and China was more than 10 billion and Libya provided and export markets to Russia which amounted to 12% of older and made in Russia. However, Gaddafi was just one of the customers for Russia and could not guarantee its relationship jeopardy with other countries. Because Russia was aware of the international concern about Libya, they did not want to jeopardize this relationship by getting in the way of an intervention that was supplied by most people throughout the globe. Just like China, the position of African Union and African an Arab league of nations supported the measures that would undermine.
Arab League of Nations mainly demanded that the Security Council should implement an intervention according to the responsibility to protect. Even after this pressure, was reserved in product based on the resolution 1973. Russia decided to become absent from expressing their view even if they secretly supported an intervention. Russian leaders have continuously status that had they known the outcome of Libya before the intervention, mitigate against heat and prevented it from taking place.
US position on LibyaThe position of the US is complicated as they were in the forefront of studying a military intervention. Table division was mainly based on humanitarian concerns and their position that they had faced in Gaddafi. There were several other lies to the united states that were concerned with the position of Gaddafi and the mass atrocities that were being done against the innocent civilians. The United States placed a high priority on methods that could be used to stop mass killings and have also been at the forefront of implementing the responsibility to protect. The relationship between the United States and Libya had been improving from the year 2003, these two countries hard not be afraid a long time.
Most American allies were pushing the United States to intervene and to help solve the situation in Libya. As a result, policies in the United States and shifted towards making sure that R2P is taken seriously and it was published as an international norm. The United States had blacklisted Libya as one of the states that had been sponsoring terrorist activities. The other accusation was largely beer was also responsible for supporting weapons of mass destruction. Each letter to the US is expelling all the diplomats from Libya in the year 1981. In addition, just shut down to Libyan jets that fired an aircraft over the Mediterranean Sea belonging to us. It was like that Libya was responsible for the bombing in Ballard which took place in the year 1986. The accusation that the US had in their records is the bombing of the passenger jet that belonged to the French. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of civilians including American citizens. As a result, subject to various entities are sanctioned by the United Nations and USA for many years. Even though the relationship has been improving from the time Libya termed to of its citizens to hand information to the bombings, the relationship was still not as strong as it appeared. The region and supports that the US had from the African Union as well as the Arab league made it an assurance and a guarantee that the US have to intervene in the existing problem.
France with LibyaThe relationship between France and started to deteriorate by the time, and air strike took place where several citizens of France were killed. Humanitarian concerns played a massive role in the involvement of the French government in Libya as they had always supported humanitarian actions. Therefore security and economy of a country is always an idea for strong national interest in France. France had always been debited of USA government from brutally killing people and revolting against international concerns and sanctions. For tourism that he had. As a result, the professor government was waiting for an opportunity of condemnation especially ones that concerned human right violations. They are also more likely to use this as an opportunity to get back at Libya after what they had done. This Gaddafi could have prevailed in the war that was against him; it would it erase the economy in French especially due to the fact that French had passed resolution 1970.
The government of France was concerned that they were the people who proposed and passed to their resolution and therefore would be seen as a failure would mean that they have failed in there a solution. Therefore, France had to participate directly in the world and ensure that Gaddafi was refuted. The refugee crisis that was in Libya closed and rested as it was a direct threat to France. Many Libyans and other people across the Mediterranean went to Europe as they were skipping domestic violence. If the violence could have continued over the refugee, France would continue to grow, and therefore it was a massive motivation for intervention. French people also believe that their prestige was at stake. The friends of friends were weakening in the region especially after certain degrees of India in Tunisia and Egypt. To regained disrespect in the northern African region, 802 security because France is considered to be an important member of African countries.
The United Kingdom in relation to LibyaThe United Kingdom played a major role in the campaign in intervening in Libya. They pushed for military intervention just like that other nations. When agent forgives interventions, the British government through the Prime Minister James Cameron stated that they supported any actual that would save humans from being massacred. The motivation was also due to the fact that Gaddafi had violated R2P and it was a national concern to the UK. Gaddafi was also a threat to refugees and supported terrorism, something that the United Kingdom did not agree with. Still, the motivation for the UK government as the bombing that Gaddafi was accused of performing genocide on his own people. Initially, UK was opposed to the sanctions than by the Security Council against Gaddafi and his government. Comedy when Gaddafi did not have the capacity to take care of the challenges presented to him his leadership. This was due to the increased operation that Gaddafi had with the British intelligence.
When the UK began actively speaking for and against Gaddafi, there was fear that Gaddafi would start supporting terrorism and therefore crush the opposition. France and Britain were also concerned about the threat of refugee that’s the support for Gaddafi had. Prime minister stated that inaction would, therefore, lead to a failed attempt and therefore they had to support the overthrow of Gaddafi.
China on Syria China has continuously emphasized on their non-interference principle that they have maintained. And even status of a non-interference international affairs of the sovereign states even with Libya. Another result, it had a strong stance when it came to Syria. China, therefore, did not want other countries to participate in regime change the way it has happened in Libya. It was even made important that Syria should not be faced with the outcomes that were realized after intervening into Libya. The position of China on, therefore, was influenced by other reasons especially the economic relationship that China had with the government of Syria. China was also disappointed due to the outcomes that were realized in Libya and therefore decided not to incline themselves in acquiring the same situation in Syria.
Expressed that concern and stated that not to complaints were too much and there were reacted therefore the United Nations Security Council should have taken a mandate to withdraw their soldiers. China did not want that western countries to be using R2P rule and an act origin change in different countries. They did not want a situation where western countries are determining regime change where they impose leaders whom they want. Also disappointed by the outcomes in Libya and should their absence in the case of Libya. As a result, being absent, China decided to veto against Syria in order to prevent legitimization of military intervention. They do not support a servant government from being removed from power even if it demanded that the more democratic election. China saw a democratic election as an invention being pushed into the Arabian Gulf as an intervention of the western world.
It is also important to note that China also have democratic issues especially when it deals with the political at the domestic level. Apart from this, have a friendly relationship that is connected by economic and political ties with the government of Syria. By the time the war was breaking in Syria, Libya was the third largest importer of Chinese properties and goods. As um, that causes USA to oppose president Bashar al-Assad idiot increasing violence in Syria made the Chinese government to release a statement by stating that they have a full relationship with Syria and therefore they supported the position of Syria to handle the issues especially when it came to human rights. Hence, the interest of China in Syria was just based on geopolitical relationship. China has been vetoing resolutions that are passed to condemn the government of Bashar al-Assad and have also condemned to any formal threats or sanctions. It is, therefore, seeking a political solution that would be beneficial to both sides in a manner that is peaceful. Five resolutions have already been rejected by China especially those ones that were meant to go against Bashir al-Assad.
Russia and Syria On their part, Russia have always supported the government of Bashar al-Assad. Russia was angered by the outcomes of NATO’s actions especially in Libya. As a result, Russia has always been supportive of all the allies of Syria and have remained critical of the other members of the European nations in situations especially in Libya. Also, they do not support a change in regime. If Russia could, therefore, form to be part of Syria, it had to be carefully attempted to maintain to the imbalance in such a situation. Russia also has close economic ties with Syria making them very close allies. It was obvious that the collapse of Syria would also lead to collapse with their regional allies that it has. Numerous friends throughout their Arabic gulf and almost all countries within the league of Arabs are friends with Russia and not to jeopardize their relationship with Bashir al-Assad’s government Russia was also part of countries that had added President Assad to step aside if they can.
NATO had also lacked any restrictions before they intervened into Libya. Because Russia is a natural enemy of the US, skeptical of any intervention even if it was an intervention that called for humanitarian intervention. The foreign policy stated that Russia did not support any legitimate overthrowing of a government but condemned atrocities that are done against the population. Apart from their economic ties with Syria, strong military connection and fears that in case there can be attitude change cover wheel lose its market in the Middle East especially those dealing with firearms. Series also home to one of Russia’s bases and former Soviet Union. It is concluded therefore that overthrowing Bashir al-Assad would mean that it will not solve the situation. The president was secretly being giving the element of material science even if there is a continuous conflict. Because it’d been the main supplier of firearms, Russia has sold more than 10 million firearms which were for more than four billion dollars within the year 2012. They have recently increased the supply of firearms into Syria and have also delivered and vehicles and aerial vehicles that can be used to fight against the reigning rebels.
The US on SyriaThe US is mostly motivated by humanitarian concerns. However, US also have their geopolitical reasons when it comes to Syria. For a long time, sad, poor relationship with the regime of Bashar al-Assad it has however not openly shared the conflict like the one Gaddafi had with United States. USA versus not pleased with the relationship that existed between Israel and their close ties with Iran. The protest in Syria was one that could give the United States an opportunity to overthrow one of its enemies. However, they have not been successful with the changing regime. The USA also condemned the regime of Bashar al-Assad uncalled for him to step aside so that another resume can take over.
However, the USA is also wary of the extreme groups within the opposition and how the UN has been reluctant to approve an intervention. The USA decided to incorporate R2P procedures in their foreign policies. R2P was part of the national security strategy that was passed in the year 2010 by the US. Preventing mass destruction and genocide is a major element of national interest and where for his arrest. It is, therefore, a mandate to create a band that would prevent atrocities. The USA, therefore, decided to respond to atrocities that were being committed the government of Syria against its people. This was done through issuing sanctions imposed on the government of Bashar al-Assad and senior officials who are responsible for human rights abuse. President Obama in many cases called for a resignation of president Bashar al-Assad based on their R2P principle, the USA have called for the government to end atrocities and to initiator democratic election so as to stop the killings of more civilians.
Syria has also been hostile to one of the allies of the US. Israel have continuously received support from the US. Latest of the USA is not served because of the increase in civil war and the fact that it may result into spill over to other countries. As a result, the USA have been reluctant to impose any rule because it may cause more damage than good. The process of extreme position together with the lack of support from the United Nations Security Council has made the US more reluctant to intervene in the case of Syria. Sofia that an action may be taken against the US especially for the allies of Syria. Some of the positions of Syria include Islamic radicals such as Iraq and al Qaeda. It could also be seen as terrorist organizations in the USA can decide to act without being supported, the opportunity for terrorist groups to venture into Syria and even cause more damage. Next the case in Syria more complicated than it is.
The UK and France on Syria Deposition of the UK on Syria is similar to the one of the US. However, it is more questions and is divided into honest opinions. France is similar to their motives are instigated by humanitarian issues as well as geopolitical concerns. UK have been the most outspoken opponent and rivals to the president of Syria Bashar al Assad from the time the conflict began. It was also the first that recognized that opposition was the main government of Syria. Both of these countries have their allies in this situation. Also condemned the regime of Bashir al Assad Adam called for interventions after it was alleged that Bashar al-Assad had your weapons against the innocent citizens. The UK and France are the main advocates that are leading military interventions when it comes to the application of R2P.
However, they are filled in numerous cases with their attempts to gain support for the resolution. When the conflict escalated in Syria, the UK started to look for other means of pressuring president Bashar al-Assad one of them was restoring them opposition groups and attempting to break the deadlock between the two forces. The UK also considered a military intervention into Syria necessary because of the chemical weapons that had used. Contrary to the campaign that this country did against Gaddafi, reverend of Syria has found it easy to go against the responsibility to protect the USA. This situation is more complicated. The United Kingdom is also wearing extreme groups and the hardest who could return to the UK after the experience in Syria. As a result, they want the situation to be sold, and stability restored so as to stop the influx of refugees.
Instigating a war will guarantee asylum seekers who are coming from Syria to Britain. This is the reason why they have refused to take part in knowing that they will suffer more and terrorists may be part of the asylum seekers. They are there for contempt with the interventions done by the USA on imposing sanctions and not intervening using military forces.
From this thesis, it can be concluded that examining the development of humanitarian intervention and responsibilities to protect are based on international law. They have given people the opportunity to have in monetary and interventions. Practices of states in the past have testified that these norms are necessary to avoid human conflicts.
However, what states are still struggling to adapts to the nation that serenity of a country prevents it from being interfered with especially in its operations. Such countries also maintained that internal conflicts are part and parcel all the operations in a country and therefore should not be an international concern. On the other hand, there are those who believe that it is the responsibility of the international community to ensure that everyone enjoys humanitarian rights and that leaders who are authoritarian in their actions have to be want to take care of their people. Implementing this rural support be easy as it calls for the sacrifice of friendship and in most cases leads to overthrowing a regime. This is what was witnessed in Syria and labia.
The case in Libya is a complex one because it involved overthrowing arraigning resume that had been in power for more than 30 years. However, violence had perpetuated the country making Gaddafi to be condemned for crimes against humanity and massive violations of human rights. These actions coerced the United Nations Security Council to invoke rights responsibility to protect against Gaddafi and his government. This dissertation have also briefly encountered various issues that influence the activities of trust to protect and the powers that are involved in it. China and Russia around the pole position and are responsible for actions that take place and those that do not come to fruition. It is also clear that natural intervened in Russia and used tactics that were extreme after it had been influenced by the responsibility to protect and the US Britain and France backed it. The differences in motivation for intervening into a country go beyond my reasons and there mass atrocities that takes place in a country. They go up to economic levels and geopolitical influence.
CHAPTER SIXCONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSIn conclusion, the international community always willing to use and apply responsibility to protect (R2P) to undertake any form of humanitarian activity or intervention. This is done when they suspect that there is the need to protect citizens from mass atrocities. However, the bombings that were done by NATO against Muammar Gaddafi have always raised questions because of the outcomes. The assaults that were launched against his convoy and militia making him flee from his residence. As a result, Gaddafi was overthrown, and it leads to his death. Attempts to establish democracy in the country have been achieved even though there are various challenges that the government is still facing. Even though it can be seen that while it has not ended in Libya, one of the basic steps that have been taken by the country is to embrace democracy by the opposition leaders who have taken over power from Gaddafi who has ruled for more than 30 years. This outcome in Libya resulted in a disagreement in most of the superpower countries.
Countries such as Russia and China wanted to avoid a repeat of things that happened in Libya to take place in another country in a similar manner. As a result, Syria has been a challenge to implement but similar outcomes that were done in Libya. Even though some scholars have argued that Gaddafi was a failure to any of the superpowers that that distracts worrying to the civilians Russia and China did not see the application of R2P as something that was of interest to the local people. China also alongside Russia did not support overthrowing reining government especially after undergoing numerous cases and challenges in the country. As a result, China and Russia are willing to take chances to ensure that they stand with the national interest and not intervene in the country in Libya in Syria, most western countries are determined to see that the government of Bashar al-Assad Kabila removed from power. This is because of their humanitarian actions and other due bulletin reasons that have been cited in many events. However, are numerous divergent interests that have led to a lack of action against the president of Syria. Various people have different views in this situation making it difficult to implement the right to protect successfully. Ban Ki-moon stated despite the principles that are presented by recalls ability to protect the UN have been responsible for a massive failure in preventing atrocities in the country.
As mentioned previously in the sections above, the current system will continue to take actions especially by the Security Council members based on their case-by-case focus after various evaluations done by members of different interests. The case of Syria of geopolitical calculations that are always tampering with the intervention. To successfully implement the responsibility to protect in future they are three recommendations that can be made. Below is the recommendation that can ensure that the ids are successful application and implementation of R2P and ensure that there is complete removal of the constant death threats and miscalculations.
RECOMMENDATIONSRecommendations for successful application of rights to protect (R2P)In summary, the following recommendations can be made
1. A complete reform of the UNSC. The reform will give power to the other states.
2. A cautious application of the responsibility to protect (R2P). By considering the different applications of ruling, it will favor states that have a different approach.
3.) Acting outside the United Nations (UN). There are some situation that the powerful countries need to take matters into their own hands and not follow the procedures of the UN.
Recommendation 1: A complete reform of the Security CouncilThe first recommendation and the one that is most critical is the reform that should be done to the United Nations Security Council. This week is a fundamental as it has been noted by almost all countries that are not members of the permanent 5 group. Many organizations have also been calling for these changes. The current structure of the Security Council places a significant amount of power over some states especially power those influence decisions that are critical to human rights. Most of the spyware is this appropriately mounted on the hands of the P5 members.
There are other emerging powers such as Japan India and even Brazil that have been left out of the decisions that are crucial and decisions that can influence an entire region including the South America and region like Africa. The structure that was formed in the year 1945 does not represent the geopolitical reality is especially considering that people are in the 21st century. Therefore, the recurrent structure has massively failed in taking actions that prevent international crimes because of the power position that many countries are in. Even to the reforms will not be easy, the widespread disagreements, to have reform, can be enacted. Also, it should be drafted on how the new Security Council within the UN should look like especially how it bases its power on the permanent members.
Decisions on members that will serve as permanent members will also be difficult as a vetting or a resolution have to be voted by the permanent members themselves. Also, every member of the permanent 5 has a veto to challenge any proposition on anything think that can change the position. The current system is massively serving the interests of the few people. Meditations to choose the permanent five members have been questioned for more than 30 years. Their approach to criminal law is unique because of the strategies that transpire lawlessness in a world where everyone is expected to abide by the law.
They should manage to keep their interest but also stay with the realities. Forms should be made in a way that other countries also have the power to influence the decision especially one that lives with a human right. Also, it should be proposed to that recommended her also have the responsibility to work for the benefit of the people or the entire globe and can be voted out in case they have personal interests in heart. This will affect the decisions done by countries such as Russia and China that have been using their interest to affect the decisions of the United Nations Security Council. The other recommendation is to reform include representatives from every continent. There are various approaches that can be used by these countries. A continent like Africa is not represented in the Security Council and decisions that affect the continent does not have to pass through an African leader. This should be changed as Africa is one of the largest continent with many people who are always under threat from authoritarian leaders. It will be best if they are also represented in the decisions that are affecting their continent.
Recommendation two: A cautious application of the responsibility to protect (R2P)Even though the Security Council has failed to act in the case of Syria, the responsibility to protect is still functional and by no means has it become dysfunction. Some people have claimed that responsibility to protect is also uncertain regarding its future. However, this is not true as the main focus of the responsibility to protect is to ensure that people are protected from mass atrocities. Also, people have to understand that the responsibility to protect is mainly focused on protecting people and does not necessarily mean military intervention. In essence, it advocates for procedures that and stating that there was that there is a negotiation between any government and the people.
If anything, the military is always the last resort as recommended in the R2P principle. In this manner, it can be seen that R2P is still useful and still recommends reconciliation and rebuilding procedures after the war has ended. United Nation Security Council have always invoked the responsibility to protect more than ten times after the intervention in Libya. This include occasion the Central African Republic and other nations. Bodybuilding wears humanitarian actions such as food aid are taken after a conflict has ended. The concept of this recommendation is that the Security Council have to take greater caution while implementing the responsibility to protect. It has to take care of the geopolitical consequences, and intervention involves military procedures.
Steps that can be used include writing a detailed explanation on how the resolution can be implemented and the people who are going to implement it successfully. The calls can be made to appreciate the affected countries.Automatic calls to regime change may lead to fear for countries especially those that lack relevant procedures in power change. Even though the lack of response may continue, equations application may be the only way to solve the recurrent situation suggest the one that we have in Syria.
Recommendation three: Acting on the rules outside the United NationsActing outside the United Nation is the most controversial issue especially when it comes to military action and issues that are of interest to the international community. States and regional organizations have to implement functions as well as other diplomatic interventions against an authoritarian government that is committing mass atrocities against the population. Most of the western countries and Arab Leagues issued sanctions on Syria to various capacities. However, they have not yielded any success as the government is still committing a crime against humanity.
There are other states that are giving protesters and rebel groups arms to encourage their protest and to protect themselves against the leadership of Bashar al-Assad based on the outside intervention for both Kosovo was an example of a case where the Security Council did not need approval for intervention. There have been other interventions that are led by none of that have been applied without acting on the rules within the United Nations. If an individual state can collaborate with an international community, it can create estate whereby there is no need for intervention but a collaboration between states where they solve their own problems without consulting the United Nations.
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AppendixMAP OF LIBYA
MAP OF SYRIA
MAP OF AFGHANISTAN
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