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Literature Review

Category: Business

Subcategory: Communication

Level: Masters

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Literature Review
The causes of resistance in the organizations have been one of the main topics in the recent research works (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 186). According to Pihlak, and Ruth, many researchers have been fascinated by the impacts that historical changes have on the leadership and organizational structures (Pihlak, and Ruth 224). Many of these findings that the two authors found include the changes in India that were well planned and compared them with the organizations that are found in India and those that are in Estonia (Pihlak, and Ruth 225). This literature is also supported by the works of Sopow (Sopow 20). In these research works, the organizations in these countries have been focused on due to the influence of the market transitions that took place in the year 1990 (Sopow 20). These changes also implied that most of these organizations were urged to adapt to the changes so that they are not left behind as stated by the research by (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 186). As well as the varied culture and backgrounds in history, India, China and Estonia all have liberation levels that are varied (Sopow 20). It is these factors that most authors have found interesting and have decided to compare the changes in management and human resource that they have had (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 189). The leadership styles that are used as well as the employee employment levels are entirely different in all if the three countries. According to Sopow, in India and China, the style that is used is aristocratic (Sopow 23). However, in Estonia, the technique used is using a variety of styles, and there are no correlations in their styles (Sopow 23). The other research that has backed these claims is by Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad that states that the Chinese organizations have proven to have the highest resistance level (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 187). It is also argued that the changes that are applied to resistance cannot be detailed on the cultural level or at the level of the nation. Instead, it can be seen in the types of changes that take place as well as the elements that are seen in the changes at the same time. India and astonish have been proven to be countries that operate by democracy. This implies that they have the same pattern when it comes to changes. This is contrary to the Chinese organizations. The histories in the countries also play a massive role in the management changes. In India and Estonia, there is a role that is played by the foreigners in the changes. However, foreigners do not affect the Chinese organizations. The cultural backgrounds also play a massive role in the changes.
Therefore, the changes are only due to fear of what the organizations within India and Estonia. On the other end, the organizations in India are inevitably changing because of the inertia. The increase in the levels of stress was the main factor that was seen as negative during the changes in the three countries. Increased works and workload in Estonia are a massive cause of stress. Ion the other hand, there is there is a massive leadership problem in India. These countries have devised, methods that can be used in overcoming resistance (Howard 231). There is the communication in the Indian companies. On the other hand, the companies that are in Estonia and China use education as the main means of overcoming the leadership stress.
Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad adds that the business and environmental changes are driven by different aspects of the society (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 187). Some of the most common are the developments in the technical aspects of the business as well as the social and political conditions that are seen in the countries. The claims of Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad, have been backed by the findings of Pihlak who claims that the changes in technology a politics have been rapid from the year 1990 due to several reasons (Pihlak 113). Pihlak adds that there has been an improvement in technologies and the political landscapes of different countries have changed as well (Pihlak 114). Coping with the changes in the countries that have been hit by the wave of socialism have been difficult. These organizations have complex structures as compared to the organizations that have been in the stable conditions for a long time.
From the early 1990s, the three countries have had their variations through the time regarding organizational makeup (Pihlak 113). Even though India and China are located in basis, there is still a massive variation in the organizational structures and the leadership systems that they are applying. Estonia is in Europe. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union also implies that it does not have the stability that it had for a long time. The solvent collapse had a massive impact on the three organizations. The Soviet Union collapsing was even more relevant to Estonia. It had for a long time been part of the stronger Soviet Union. Even though China had a limited effect on the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was still some element of inheritance that came from the era. The three countries also had to welcome the market economy, something they had not done for ages. The countries had to adapt to the new changes in the environment. The studies that show the changes that are inescapable even makes it difficult to adjust to the theory that had been applied in the other countries.
Institutional changes are one of the theories that have been used to explain the changes that have taken place in these three countries (Pihlak 113). Institutionalism argues that all the organizations that are in a country are all embedded in the society and ways of the country (Sopow 23). The institutional environment is made up of the cultural factors and the environmental structures (Pihlak 111). These institutions are part of the laws and structures that are defining a society. Hence they are affected by the changes in the environment. Apart from these, Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 186 adds that there are the cultural events that are also part of the institutions (Hanif, Yasir, and Arshad 186). All these are part of the social phenomena. Institutionalism states that any changes that take place in the country or the environment are also reflected in the institutions. If there is a collapse in the other institutions, there will be a collapse or some changes in the institutions as well.
Cultural components of the issues within a country have a massive role to play in deciding the changes that take place in the country (Pihlak 113). The aspects of culture cannot be ignored in the decisions if the organization. Culture covers everything that takes place in a country. Pihlak and Ruth state that the culture also has changed in management (Pihlak and Ruth 225). The three countries also have some form of similarity regarding their cultural makeup. The changes are the only seen in the management and the methods that the organizations are using. Therefore, these research works found that the changes in the organizations are only due to cultures in the members that are involved in the changes.

Works cited
Hanif, Muzammil, Yasir Shafique Khan, and Arshad Zaheer. “Impact of organizational resistance to change on BPR implementation: A case of state bank of Estonia.” European Journal of Business and Management 6.4 (2014): 186-196.
Howard, L. W. (2017). Validating the competing values model as a representation of organizational cultures. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 6(3), 231-250.
Pihlak, Ülle, and Ruth Alas. “Resistance to change in Indian, Chinese and Estonian organizations.” Journal of Indian Business Research 4.4 (2012): 224-243.
Pihlak, Ülle. “Change management in Indian organizations compared to Chinese and Estonian organizations (2009-2011).” Baltic Journal of Economics 13.1 (2013): 111.
Sopow, Eli. “The impact of culture and climate on change: Distinguishing between culture and climate to change the organization.” Strategic HR Review 6.2 (2007): 20-23.

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