Should the UN intervene into to oppressive regimes?
Should The UN Intervene Into To Oppressive Regimes?
A comparative examination of the legal and human rights justifications for intervening in Afghanistan and Libya and the inaction in Syria.
TOC o “1-3” h z u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc528254492 h 3Abstract PAGEREF _Toc528254493 h 5Introduction PAGEREF _Toc528254494 h 6Study Questions PAGEREF _Toc528254495 h 8Aims and Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc528254496 h 9Research Methodology and Material PAGEREF _Toc528254497 h 9Statement of the Thesis Problem PAGEREF _Toc528254498 h 10Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc528254499 h 11Role of the United Nations PAGEREF _Toc528254500 h 11Findings and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc528254501 h 16The United Nations interventions PAGEREF _Toc528254502 h 16The history of the united nation PAGEREF _Toc528254503 h 20The Dumbarton Oak Proposal PAGEREF _Toc528254504 h 24Various functions of the united nation organs PAGEREF _Toc528254505 h 31Peacekeeping, and Peace Building process in the united nation PAGEREF _Toc528254506 h 33Functions of the military actions PAGEREF _Toc528254507 h 33Control of arms and disarmament PAGEREF _Toc528254508 h 34Legal Basis for the intervention and the use of force throughout Afghanistan PAGEREF _Toc528254509 h 42Crisis in Libya PAGEREF _Toc528254510 h 43United nation intervention in the Libya crisis PAGEREF _Toc528254511 h 46The situation in Syria in comparison to Afghanistan and Libya crisis: Reasons why the United Nations failed to act or intervene PAGEREF _Toc528254512 h 48Various reasons why the united nation did not intervene with the crisis in Syria PAGEREF _Toc528254513 h 52Challenges for various interventions PAGEREF _Toc528254514 h 54What the others say about the situation PAGEREF _Toc528254515 h 57R2p Application PAGEREF _Toc528254516 h 58The role of US, UK and France PAGEREF _Toc528254517 h 59Opinion Leaders PAGEREF _Toc528254518 h 60Concern for other countries PAGEREF _Toc528254519 h 62Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc528254520 h 65References PAGEREF _Toc528254521 h 68
DeclarationI hereby declare that the work presented in this paper is original and has been done by me. The content of not been published or submitted anywhere for any degree or certificate program. All the literature presented here have all been cited in accordance with the requirements of the academics. In case there are works from outside, they have been duly cited as required.
AbstractThe emergence of the Arabic revolution is a surprise to the whole world. This is specifically true for the western countries that have often faced numerous social, political and cultural challenges for intervening in the actions of the ruling regime. Therefore, the different in application of the intervention strategies in the cases of Libya and Syria have raised questions in different academic and international quotas. It has always been the concern of the whole globe to pressure the United Nations to intervene in such a situations. However, there are no action that have been taken in some countries such as Syria. This thesis explores the importance of humanitarian interventions and their influence in comparison to the national strategic with the focus on the laws that govern these intervention strategies. The thesis argues that the three examined states; the United States, France, and Germany acknowledge the importance of humanitarian interventions, but they would rather prefer some of the basic geostatic issues and are also facing challenges from the decisions that have to be made by the other body’s o the United Nations. The next topic of interest is the parameters and their respective interest that have shown importance through the comparison of political social and military frameworks that have been applied in Syria and Libya. The policies and when humanitarian intervention is a legal requirement for the UN through an examination of the resolutions from the 1990s.
Keywords: United Nations, Afghanistan, Human Rights, Human rights, NATO forces, Libya, United States
IntroductionIn the year 2011, the former Libyan president Muammar Gaddafi was killed after eight months of war in Libya. The fight was between the Libyan troops, tribesmen, and royalties of the Muammar Gaddafi against those who supported the national transition council of Libya (NTCL). This rebellion in Libya was seen to be part of the Arabic revolution or the “Arab spring.” The other parts of this spring included the unprecedented revolt, so which were unsuccessful suggest the movements in Egypt and Tunisia. Other attempts like the movements in Yemen and Syria have not been successful with the kings of Jordan and Morocco being able to retain their positions and stay ahead of the protest. The unrest in Libya started due to the performance of the government and living conditions coupled with cases of corruption and despondency of many citizens. The people felt this country was hit by massive corruption and there are many cases of failed expectations throughout the country.
An international intervention that was based on the United Nations (UN) resolution 1973 took place after a decision that was made extraordinarily fast. The reasons behind interventions why mainly humanitarian. As a result, different nations started to participate in combination with the NATO forces. When compared to their political treatment and humanitarian actions in countries such as Syria, the determination of humanitarian actions and global community participation in the coalition against Gaddafi was surprising and unique in its way. Also, Gaddafi’s troops were attacked just 21 days after the protest that began. On the other hand, Syrian leader, Bashar al Assad resorted to suppressing the ongoing revolt in Syria from the year 2011. There have never been any humanitarian for international intervention. The response to these two cases is quite explicable (Kersavage, 2014). Similar to the demands of the Libyan people, the protesters of Syria have demanded the same rights including more democracy, ending corruption and improving the lives of the citizens.
As a result of the differences in these two actions, opinions and discussions about the reasons why an intervention have been relatively easier to apply in Libya but almost impossible to enforce in Syria remain the main reason that the distinction between these two cases (Quinton-Brown, 2013). From the public perspective, the most followed argument are always best on these two basic reasons: One is that there was a publicly launched thread against the protesters by Gaddafi for the Libyan case. The other is the two-time rejection resolutions at the United Nations security cancel (UNSC) for the Syrian case (Blackford, 2014). The Chinese and Russian strongholds of massively rejected and humanitarian intervention for the Syrian case. However, from the scholarship perspective, there is a more sophisticated discussion comparing the official statements. This statement conveys that the main reason for the united nation resolution was following the 1973 chatter that stated that a united nation has to apply all the necessary measures to protect the citizen. The citizens have to be protected from an imminent massacre and a call for help for an obligation of any basic rights. This was taking place in Libya under the regime of Gaddafi (Herron, 2012).
After the justification for the massive involvement of military interventions, there is an edge in the new era. The use of military intervention to enforce human rights and to protect the population from leaders does not seem to be politically agreed but appears to be necessary. Because of the unique developments in Libya, all the governments that came to be sovereign have to fear the consequences of international military intervention and therefore can reduce their torture for the population.
It is the role of the international communities to protect the human rights to prevent from oppressing their population. In the Syrian violence, more than 1000 protesters have been killed, and there have been no interventions by the international community. This demonstrates an international concern regarding human rights and justice. Effective behavior of the international community has been remarkable because of the actions that have been taken by the Syrian regime against the protesters. Efforts by the Syrian government had been hash on his citizens and human rights of the population. It, therefore, raises questions on the international context about the interventions in Libya and the possible reasons why there is a massive difference between Libya and Syria.
This adopts the discussion by evaluating the rationale that is used for international interventions in comparison for the cases in Libya and the enduring Syrian conflict. The study will identify the growing international laws that allow interventions. The following questions will be answered through this disease.
Study Questionsi) Should the UN intervene into the oppressive regimes?
ii) What were the initiatives or the international interventions in Libya and various reasons for nonintervention in Syria and how does this fit into the wider geo-static context?
iii) Why was there the NATO intervention, nations and other participant nations too quickly act on the case of Libya but also hesitant to act on the case of Syria?
iv) Did the interventions in Libya imply s serious implementations of being responsible for protecting in international politics?
v) Have the international morals and norms changed to favor humanitarian rights that are higher or does the case for Libya qualify to be a special and an individual case?
Aims and study objectives
This will state the various reasons for the United Nations to intervene in the offensive and oppressive regimes in different countries. The other objective is to show whether it is necessary for the UN to intervene in the oppressive regimes and whether it should be mandatory for the United Nations to get involved when the local citizens are massacred. This study also analyses the reasons why the United Nations fail to intervene in some countries where there are violations that are vivid and appear to be disturbing to the other countries. The other objection to this study is to show why the UN and the US intervened into the case of Libya and failed to intervene in constant concern in Syria. Apart from these, this disease will show whether it should be made an acct for the United Nations to intervene in two cases that a country has called for help from the UN. This discussion will also identify the growing international law that allows the functions of the Security Council.
Research Methodology and MaterialThe United nation’s charter will be the main source of this work. Also, some of the various general assembly printings and resolutions shall be a consultant to help in this work to arrive at a reasonable conclusion. The reports from the united Security Council submitted by various reporters are also important for this paper. Articles, as well as different books that have addressed the issue of the human right and the united nation, will be of importance. Also, the scholarly contributions are referred to throughout this thesis. Apart from these, there be internet sources as well as postulation with articles from United Nations websites that will give more information about the laws and various procedures.
Statement of the Thesis ProblemThis work will attend to the problem of the differences in interventions that are done by the United Nations and whether the united nations should be involved in an oppressive regime. Currently, numerous cases have been reported from Syria where more than a thousand people have been killed. It has been a concern from the local people and others as to why the united nations are not involving human right interventions or military interventions to stop such oppressive regimes. This is different from the case of Libya where the recognition together with the US was quick to act and to assist NATO to overthrow an oppressive regime. The paper looks deeply into what actions are called for by the US and UN to look into particular countries and when interference from the other powerfully nations becomes necessary.
Literature ReviewRole of the United NationsThe main reason for establishing the UN was to protect the entire piece of the human race. Protecting and advancing the human rights and enforcing the rights are the maintenance behind the establishment of the United Nations (Aranda García, 2013). Before the United Nations, there was the League of Nations (Stark, 2017) and (Karlsrud, 2018). The League of Nations (LN) was also in charge of ensuring that the countries are at peace and that nobody went to war against each other. However, failure to protect the world against the Second World War was the reason for its downfall (Chung, 2016), (Davenport, 2016) and (Brostrom, 2015). The united nation (UN) invaded Afghanistan in search of Osama bin Laden showed the partisan nature of the UN. It also shows that the UN was behind this attack. Despite the unlawful invasion of Afghanistan, there are no drastic measures that were taken to penalize or to punish the UN (Ross and Grabosky, 2014). When it came to Libya, Muammar Gaddafi was the main target for the USA forces. He was mainly targeted because of his antics and criticism of the United States (Kesselman and Joseph, 2018).
Even though he had a democratic nature, the support that natter forces were given also raises questions about the partisan data with the USA and the UN. The differences can also be seen on the actions against Bashir al-Assad who continuously kills in subjects, and the united nations do not act (Davenport, 2011). To successfully answer these questions, we will, first of all, show the broad understanding of humanitarian interventions, responsibilities of the United Nations to protect and the well-defined human rights interventions by the United Nations charter (Mole and Meredith, 2010). Several issues have been reduced from these concepts such as the objectives and criteria for interventions as well as the explanations for the decision-making process that involves several states such as Germany, right china and the African states (O’Sullivan, 2017). In the past, states could use serenity concepts as a shield to prevent them from having foreign interference (Dieu, 2014). This allowed government forces as well as some of their clients to penetrate and perpetrate genocide as well as a mass atrocity against their population (El-Kassaby, 2015). The international community, through did nation security council together with the united nations charter is supposed to protect and intervene when a state has manifested failure to protect its population, or the state is actively using force against the civilians (Comras, 2010). This rate is known as the responsibility to protect (R2P) (Fox, 2012), (Allin and Jones, 2012) and (Marin, 2015). The r2p law holds various states accountable for perpetrating or supporting genocide, war, and ethnic bias nurse the crimes against humanity within their borders (Madsen, Selsbaek, and Wittstrøm, 2012). This law was passed in the year 2005 at the world summit and was adopted by the United Nations general assembly. The concept behind r2p is to call for the international community to take a diplomatic and humanitarian action so that they can protect the population from acts when these same states have failed to do so (Chomsky, 2015) and (Qadir and Rehman, 2015).
There are some armed interventions that other states can use onto a foreign state to calm the situations (Aaronson et al., 2016). This is also considered to be a controversial issues intentionally. In both countries and Libya, there was a peaceful protest that was suppressed by the government troop, police and military officers from the year 2011. In these two cases, two repressive governments used intimidations, violence, and extrajudicial killings to maintain their authority. In Libya, United Nations Security Council intervened in the situation as they cited the laws stipulated in the R2P. The first sanction was imposed on the members of the government that was headed by Gaddafi. Sensations of violence were also demanded by the interveners (Werrell, Femia, and Sternberg, 2015). In this Instance, the sanctions were imposed on the members of the Gaddafi government. These people were accused of being too violent against their people (Gibbs, 2015) and (Gilgan, 2017). Just three weeks after the initial interventions, the Security Council passed on the resolution of the year 1973 (Miller, 2012). This revolution cover authorized a no-fly zone and all necessary measures needed to protect the civilians and the population within the area. Just within less than three weeks, the United Nations and NATO planes enforced the no-fly zone, as they conducted airstrikes against Gadhafi forces. This process led to a full collapse of the Gaddafi regime and the eventual death that took place in October. It is crucial to note that the regime change was mainly posted from the outside and it was not part of the original goal of the military intervention that took place in Libya (Bellamy, 2018). This was not the official policy according to the united nation (UN). Bejesky, 2014). In this time, it appeared that the r2p policy had eventually come into practice videos the potential for changing the methods that the international community can use in regards to the sovereignty of the state and prevention of mass atrocity (Williamson, 2016).
In 1973, the United Nations Security Council was done the secretary general ban Ki-moon hearing that the Security Council takes decision that was historical (Stent, 2016). This 1973 resolution confirms that international community is determined to fulfill all its responsibilities of protecting the civilians from any violence perpetrated upon them by their local government (Saliternik, 2015). The Libyan people have formed the new regime and are working. Hence, it is some difficulties that are faced towards forming a functioning democracy in relation to the human rights (Finer, 2017). On the other hand, the case of Syria has been different. In Syria, the United Nations Security Council have been slow to act when the situation was deteriorating. The first killings in the area took place in March the year 2011 (Yetişti, 2011). They are heavily up troops and government forces that went against the protesters. Initially, love it forces killed hundreds of people. A draught resolution was finally introduced by countries such as France, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Bloomfield, 2017). This resolution condemned the Syrian government and accused of abusing human rights. The resolution demanded an immediate sensation and stoppage of the attacks that took place against the civilians (Garner, Lawson and Ferdinand, 2016). This resolution also stated that there would be sanctions considered within 30 days in case Syria does not the stated resolution (Colin, 2016). In October 2011, Russia and China vetoed the stated resolution (Gharib, 2015). In spite of the ongoing mass atrocities and the reports that indicated the systematic killings of the people by President Bashar al Assad, the United Nations Security Council has been reluctant to take any actions of imposing sanctions or intervening to protect the civilians (Gaskarth, 2016). This has been said to be against the norms of United Nations responsibilities which is to protect the civilians (Sarkin, 2015) and (Benitez, 2015). Apart from this, they are other united nations Security Council resolutions that have binding provisions that have been voted as well.
There have been other cases that have been vetoed just like the case of Syria, and the situation has escalated into a civil war becoming an international concern. Resolution 2139 was passed the year 2014. This includes condemnations on human right abuse and violence with no tangible measures to enforce these laws (Diehl and Irish, 2011). Notwithstanding the application of r2p, it has been evidence to that there will be actions taken by the Security Council on all the cases after the evaluation from the experienced interest (Forsythe, 2011) and (Zwier, 2017). Hence even though the resolution of the year 1973 expressed determination to protect the people cover subsequent military actions, the only way they can intervene s if there is an expressed interest of converging powers at international level (Stein, 2018). This conversion powers can be the permanent five members of the united nation security council (P-5) (O’Rourke, 2014). Also, there are various disagreements by the original actors and the rebel groups. This further impedes the intervention of international military to take similar measures in ending this conflicts (Averre & Davies, 2015).
United Nations Security Council
The united nation Security Council is the main body that authorizes decisions for the members to implement according to the charter (Jellinek, 2012). According to chapter seven of the charter, the Security Council can determine the threats to peace and decide measures that may not involve the use of force to be employed to make a decision (Turns, 2016) and (Ramos, 2013). They take such actions through the air, mainland or sea if needed for the United Nations to make necessary peace restorations. Hence, the use of force may not be reinstated in regards to the resolution of conflicts (Krieg, 2016). The council is made up of 15 members, and they may impose actions to allow the use of force in case 9 members can vote for the draft resolution (Gilman, 2017). Nonetheless, the council only has 10 of its members elected for a two-year term while each of the p-5 members have the rights to veto the resolutions of the security council (Lukyanov, 2016). Even though there are 15 members to the council, p-5 states have the potential to retain the statue of the “first among equals” and use its account against the vast majority of the defeated resolutions (Huang, and Shih, 2016). Therefore, it does not matter the majority if they vote for or against the resolution as long as the p-5 members are against the resolution (Leurs, 2014).
Despite various efforts that have been put by other nations especially the African countries on the united nations to act, this issue is a complex one that has to be analyzed from there fundamentals that make up what law is. The United nation’s charter has passed several laws. One of them is that security or military interventions have only to be acted on by the members of the Security Council (SC). The Security Council are in charge of all the military interventions in a sovereign country. Before acting on a resolution to solve a political crisis of an oppressive foreign regime, they have to be consultations from various powers that are part of the united nation. In most cases, these powers are held by powerful individual countries. It is also a concern for the united nation members that the most powerful countries have to remain in power without elections. Hence, it may undo the rules that had already been written by the people themselves. Have a foreign intervention, they have to be a rule, and that rule has to be accepted by countries such as Russia and China. Without this, even an intervention rule that has been passed by the council can still be overturned by these two countries.
Findings and DiscussionThe United Nations interventionsThe literature above shows how difficult it is for the UN to intervene in the operations of a sovereign and an independent country. From the charter, it is always difficult to get into the matters of sovereign countries (Kersavage, 2014). As a result, the united nation has always faced criticism for not intervening in the foreign states while they have abruptly acted on the other states. These differences have led to numerous debates as to why they are not intervening in open massacre experienced in other states (De Dieu, 2014. Even do the case for Libya was relatively clear cut for an international intervention that is based on and r2p rule, the intervention was due to other factors that influenced it (Blackford, 2014). Various powerful states how different influences and interests in the country. These factors affected the application of the laws that deal with intervention including the r2p law (Herron, 2012). France and the United Kingdom insisted on interventions while the United States endorsed the intervention in contrary to the other cases. At the same time, Russia and China were reluctant to veto against to the rule of intervention. This paved the way for an immediate ceasefire intervention from the different superpower nations from Europe and the US. The outcome of these interventions male saved a life but also had massive implications for the future application or the r2p role (Congyue, 2018). The Libyan operation may not have successfully taken place participation and the U support for political efforts from France and the UK. Even if the parties that intervened claimed that their goal was not to remove Gaddafi from power, it was later clear that the presidents of the core intervening parties such as the United States and France stated that it would be impossible to imagine Libya with Muammar Gaddafi as its president. The coalition between these countries was significant indiscretion on what proceeded for them to intervene and to recommend actions upon overthrowing Gaddafi. The actions by natto indicated the determination that they had on overthrowing the existing government. NATO was committed to secure a regime change and to be on the rebels. After receiving the US, France, and the United Kingdom support, they succeeded in overthrowing Muammar Gaddafi (Ţuţuianu, 2013). As well, the perceptions of China and Russia massively important in influencing the outcome of the decision made by the Security Council on Libya. This accounted for their resistance two international actions in Syria (Byman, 2012).
The interests from the united nation security council converged to prompt shown in Libya; they did not do this with Syria (Mahoney, 2015). The outbreak of conflict in Syria was coinciding with that one of Libya. People hoped that the actions that were taken against Gaddafi’s government who will be taken against the Syrian government to fulfill the obligations of r2p for the people of Syria. Protests against President Bashar al-Assad who is an aristocrat that has ruled the country from the year 2000 after the death of his father, Hafiz. His father her first ruled the country for nearly 40 years under the same policies (Nanda, 2011). Our initial stages, these protests were peaceful but why eventually met with violence that was perpetrated by the soldiers of the ruling government (Rachor, 2014). As the protest against the government regime rose, more killings and attacks of civilians increased as the col for an international intervention increased. Those were concerned wanted the international community to halt the violence and have the united nation’s Security Council consider actions in the future to avoid this situation (Hassan, 2016). None of their potential resolutions taken to impose anytime soon or authorize the use of force to overthrow the government (Shirokova, 2012). This plan was broken as a united nation observer was sent to monitor the situation. However, the whole process was broken as father actions were not officially considered by the cancel due to the resistance by Russia and China (Feratovic, 2017). On the other hand, the deal was broken to have control of chemical weapons from Syria to dispose of them (Jacobs, 2014). Countries and numerous regional organizations condemned these actions as they endorsed various anti-government that were outside the United Nations (Kindarji, 2018). The Syrian case was more important and complex than that one of Libya. While Muammar Gaddafi did not enjoy a close relationship with other members of the united nation, the Syrian government has strong internal support from the United Nations (Gibbins, 2017). For several months, many people protested on the streets as they called for more freedom and overthrow of President Assad. The activists who are out and were killed for protesting why the soldiers (Quinton-Brown, 2013). Whistler surges operated through brutal force and conducted house-to-house killing making numerous arrests and sanctioning the neighborhoods with various barricades. Many services have been cut off including electricity water and telephone operations. Within their later months, violence and war worsened (Huang, and Shih, 2016). For a long time, the violence and atrocities that followed the failure to intervene by the united nation. The position of Syria acquired arms right decisions making the conflict to be military based. In the year 2012, the secretary of the united nation Banki-moon jobs about torture and executions that took place in Syria mainly done by the government that systematically attracts its people (Duncan, Lynch, Ramsay, and Watson, 2013). From these findings, it is crucial to note that the united nation has the responsibility to protect the citizens of a sovereign country. They should always be at the forefront of safeguarding sovereign citizens from the operative regime. However, this act becomes crucial and attracts interest from the various power states (Gilgan, 2017). Some of the powerful countries include China and Russia. These two states are part of the P5 group that is overseeing any of the resolutions, and they have to verify that the recommendations are to the best interests of the people (Gilman, (2017). In most cases, the stated reason for not involving in intervention against a foreign regime is because they are avoiding a similar situation that took place in Libya. As a result, it is never easy to intervene in a clear notion. It is this reason that the case for Syria has remained pending and no action has been done. Unlike the case of Afghanistan, it could be seen that it was addressed to the entire globe (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). For the other hand, the kiss in Syria has not involved other people. It is therefore important that the other countries have to stay away from their actions of a sovereign Syrian people (Hassan, 2016). There are other human rights violations documented in many reports by the independent national commission of inquiry as well as a report established by the united nation rights council (Hedenstierna, 2015). There are other human rights. The forces of Syrian government acted on a shoot to kill orders that interrupted peaceful public assemblies or funeral professions. Residential arrests for the fortified positions and other resistant civilians was rampant during this period (Strong, 2015). The government on Syria decided to kill everyone who supported their position and failed to protect its people (Walling, 2013). They decided to test all measures necessary to maintain their power and position. The main reasoning was that the attacks were against the guns and terrorists in the country as they refused to acknowledge any legitimate opposition. The violent tactics used by the government have been referred to us rattlers and inhuman.
The history of the united nationThe quest for peace and a better world have existed continuously so that humanity can continue to exist successfully. This value cannot be overemphasized by the organizations around the globe. Responsibilities of the United Nations are to establish a system where humanity lives in peace. In the year 1899, there was an international conference of peace that was held at The Hague (Hedenstierna, 2015). This conference was geared towards discussing modalities that could be used in settling crisis around the globe. The modalities who’d guide against was through the rules of warfare (Herron, 2012).From this conference, it was decided that pacific settlement on international disputes should be used in dealing with attributions methods of mediation. These methods will determine whether people are settling to war or they were settling to resolving disputes through peace (Huang, and Shih, 2016). In 1899, and The Hague hosted the international peace conference in a discussion that would resolve the means of peace. Before the formation of the united nation, they existed a league of nations which was an organization with similar objectives but under different circumstances (Huang, and Shih, 2016). Events that led to World War 1 in the year 1919 were built by the treaty of Versailles. These rules were to create a collaboration throughout the globe that would establish peace and security. The League of Nations would not prevent World War 2 from taking place and was deemed to have failed. In the year 1941, there were representatives from countries such as Great Britain, Australia and South Africa who signed a declaration in the ancient St James Palace (Jacobs, 2014). These nations convened to give out a statement that could function and represent the maxims of peace. This statements reflected the willing of the people to have peace in the world. He stated that the only way that they blog can enjoy a peaceful coexistence is when they are willing to co-operate as free people in the world to relieve the aggression and minus from others (Jellinek, 2012). This way, baby enjoy York Olympic security as well as social security and less intent of going to war.
India 1942, President Roosevelt together with Winston Churchill and T. V. Soong of China where does subscription on behalf of their countries to a document that became known as the declaration of the United Nations (Karlsrud, 2018). After some time, the other nations also subscribe to this documentation as the added their signatures. The document was crucial as it led to the government signatories to a war effort them against making peace against a concern of everyone (Kersavage, 2014). The whole organization was in light of the standards by the Atlantic Charter. This was a principle that was provided in the United Nations declaration. The declaration stated that it is subscribed to a current pro with an aim over the countries. Below is the statement;
“…subscribed to a common program of purposes and principles embodied in
The Joint Declaration of the President of the United States of America and the
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Dated August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Charter…” (un.org, nod, 2015).
The name the united nation was brought up by the president of the United States at the time who was Franklin Roosevelt (Kesselman, Krieger, and Joseph, 2018). This is no relation to the documentation within the standard genetic modules of the United Nations peacekeeping. At the time that the declaration was being made by the united nations in the year 1942, there was a second world war, and there are presenter tips of 26 nations so that the government will continue to fight against the against these powers (Kindarji,2018). Krieg, 2016). As a result, by the year 1943, all the allies from the first nations were all committed to see victory and create a world that had a common goal. The goal of this countries was at stated below;
“….men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.”
In most cases, the premise that was on the word association was not yet characterized or in any way articulated in the subtle elements including the definition that came during the meeting of the other ministers in the united nation (Leurs, 2014). Force, the UK and the US were the main participants in this documentation together with the USSR. This declaration is sure that there should be collective captivity that will be used in managing all the adversities and those who are surrendered in the war (Leurs, 2014). Two months later after their declaration of the four power, Roosevelt and sterling med at the capital of Iran to announce that there was an immersive step towards achieving the peace that the united nation have been looking for, this declaration read as below:
“We are sure that our concord will win an enduring peace. We recognize fully
The supreme responsibility resting upon all the United Nations and us to make a
The peace which will command the goodwill of the overwhelming mass of the
Peoples of the world and banish the scourge and terror of war for many
Generations” (un.org nod, 2015)
They are principles to the new face that projected that there was an international organization meeting that would be held in Washington dc that would be attended by the Chinese government, the USSR as well as Great Britain (Leurs, 2014).
The Dumbarton Oak ProposalAt this meeting, the main principle bodies tried to constitute an organization which would be eventually known as the United Nations organization (United Nations, 2012). The following are components of the body that came up within the meeting.
i. The first is the general assembly which will be composed of all the members that have economic and social conceives working indicts authority.
ii. The second is the Security Council that is made up of 11 nation’s members. It is also made up of five of whom are supposed to be lasting, and vi are to be looked over by the remaining people within the general assembly so that they can hold office for a long time. This means that the Security Council is made up of five people who are permanent and cannot be changed anytime. However, it is also made up of six members who are changeable through time-to-time.
iii) The third component is that they have to be the international court of justice. The international court responsible for prosecuting those who are perpetrating human injustices and those who are continuously instigating with their countries or in countries abroad.
iv) The fourth component is a secretariat. The secretary issues that are different from all the other components of the United Nations.
Apart from these, there’s an economic and social council but will be working under the power of the general assembly. These arrangements were made on the obligations towards counteracting a future war in case it breaks out. The power of deciding a war was also put upon the Security Council as the sole obligate and managing for and against different wars. The general assembly is concerned about examining and making suggestions that are specific to confronting the circumstances that concern welfare. The general assembly is mainly concerned with the social concern for the people in the United Nations (Leurs, 2014). .The general assembly had the option of examining and talking about solutions that would advance common goals to determine the outcome of the war (Lukyanov, 2016). The general assembly considers issues participation and peacekeeping as well as security that are based on the general standards. Hence, the general assembly, therefore, cannot consider any matters before Security Council has considered the matter and as discussed into details (Lukyanov, 2016). An initial voting method in the Security Council was addressed to determine the outcome of declarations. This meeting was conducted by Churchill and Roosevelt together with other remote priests and stuff to determine the outcome of the give me the note was that are likely to happen and to solve the issues that have gone in the past (Lukyanov, 2016). Yea the important part is that this meeting agreed that the absence of a powerful force such as the Security Council was the mean issue that leads to failure and death of the League of Nations (Madsen, Selsbaek, and Wittstrøm, 012). After three years, the operations that were made at the San Francisco conference for the states that had declared war on Germany and Japan. This states subscribe to the nation declaration and also invited to take part in the final decisions.
The San Francisco Conference
There was a total of 46 countries invited to the San Francisco conference. These countries added transparency and had declared war on Germany and Japan as well as pledging to the United Nations declarations act. Some of the countries that were not in attendance included Poland. Inlets of the structures and the political formations that were declared, the conference was to go on just as it had been intended (Mahoney, 2015). The conference had different countries such as Byelorussian Soviet socialist republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Denmark as well as Argentina.
Therefore, the agents of all the 50 countries that together with the convergence of the world population and individuals from different stresses with representations of different religions as well as all the continents (Mahoney, 2015). The participants established a free world that was to do away with the abuses and inequalities. The world was also free from tests for blood that many countries are hard for a long time. Most of the recommendations were Dumbarton Oaks conference. Then they chattels that were included here were those of the nation’s template that is leading under the positions of the inherent prevalence of the humankind (Marin, 2015). Even so, they were disagreements in the conference; the main idea was to leave to speculations that had not been achieved regarding peace and the various classes of interest that had to be tackled. The disagreements were the result of the nation’s themselves failing to agree as well as their lack of much favor that other nations needed (Marin, 2015). The result of this meeting also gave rise to exist between the Arab league and the other nations.
The additional level-headed discussions were based on the preview of the international court of justice that was agreed upon stating that no country should be forced to accept the decision or be compelled to go to the court (Miller, 2012). The international criminal court was personalization from the countries that wanted to pursue justice international level. They could also be the drawer from the court based on their agreement at the country level (Miller, 2012). The members shall, therefore, take their matters to court for settlement if the country is bound independently.
Which nation had the right at the Security Council to exercise a veto that was based on the actions by the members of the powerful Security Council (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). This issue coast immersive debate as there was a worry that was genuine by the small powers or nations that had limited power in case one of the big threatened the piece that they had. Most of the countries that vouched against the big five were worried that one of the big five countries which starts to interfere with a piece of the smaller countries (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). As a result, where those that were powerful demanded that this procurement was one of the fundamental reasons for keeping the world at peace and that it would fall more vigorously if the big five were not elected here. Nevada important subjects that were part of the discussions to determine the set-up of resolving the dispute (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). Leading the ideal discussion was the right of humankind. Throughout the globe, there had been cases where countries had been influenced by their power. An example is when they were decisions colonize the whole African continent. Many of African countries who added that this idea of big 5 was just a manifestation of the colonization. It was therefore confirmed in the chatter that the government of China France is Britain Soviet Union as well as the United States hi signatures and therefore signified the notification with the state’s department of the United States (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). As a result, the U was formed in the year 1945.
The organs within the united nation
United Nations, they are six organs that are responsible for various issues. When it comes to humanitarian actions, most of these organs coordinated together to determine the things that should be done to solve the situation. Also, these organs co-operate with each other to come up with the best solution that would help solve the situation in different countries. The first organ is the general assembly. This organ is the core responsible for discussing all the structural parts of the united nation. The general assembly examines matters that emerge under the charter in the united nation and makes possible suggestions as for their assembly. However, there re matters that are considered to be of deep Security Council. Assembly also farms the various becomes and contravene meetings between September and December. That done on an annual basis at the capital to the UN general assembly (Mole, and Meredith, 2010).
The map of the general assembly has been done to completion by the six principle boards that incorporate the human rights council and the other bodies within the secretariat of the United States. The Security Council is the most important component of the UN as it addresses the intervention matters. It means the decision of intervening into a foreign county if the vote is passed and the reasons of intervention are clear. Contrary to the nation’s assembly, the Security Council usually intervenes at any time depending on cases whether peace has been threatened or not (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). The Security Council have to carry out decisions and determine the rules of the Security Council. In case there is a risk of having war in the world, the lack of this is brought before the council so that they can gather and assert the possible objectives and means to stop these wars. Usually, the first step of the Security Council is to meet and contemplate on ways that they can orchestrate peace which is the countries that are involved in the war. The Security Council through the UN can send the peacekeepers to the locations where there is no peace (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). The Security Council can intervene with any strategy that they feel appropriate to stop their possibility of war. This council has 15 members in total the main members of the security council of China, United Kingdom, United States, France, and Russia. The other members of the Security Council are chosen by the general assembly (Gilgan, 2017). These people serve for two years.
The other ten members of the Security Council arches by the general assembly. They then serve two years in office. Which uses in the assembly requires nine votes that come from parts that not change. This and changing what it is come from what is known as the veto (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). The choice for the inquiries cannot be taken if there is a negative vote by the changeless part. The veto’s the most important thing in making decisions for the Security Council. It is the same issue that the Security Council proposes to the general assembly on arrangement and affirmations of individuals who want to get into the united nation. Through time. There have been requests by different member countries to incorporate new challenges or changes that would have members of the veto who can be changed from time to time (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016).
The Economic and Social Council is the other element of the United Nations. The economic and social council is responsible for organizing the social work as well as the economy works the United Nations in general. The economic and social council is made up of 54 countries that have been chosen from all areas around the globe (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). This council is committed welfare of the steps, and they’re supposed to coordinate economic and social changes within the various countries. He also communicates the needs of various governments to amend the needs of their citizens. Please cancel conserves their economic and social life of the entire human race in a delightful way. Ensure that they meet their specific needs, general assembly setup agencies that help disassembly to conduct its duties. Some of the organs that have been set include the food and agriculture organization as well as the world health organization. There have been other bodies such as United Nations development programs and the children’s fund (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). The committee is also concerned about the children’s education and welfare, and they are formed United Nations children’s fund. Elder services and organizations are concerned about the social and economic welfare of different countries. Trusteeship Council is the other body that is a saint under the United Nations chapter in guarding the administration of trust territories. These two stories are former felonies that depend on the international system.
The decisions here were made to make nations fall for the same settlement that would work towards achieving the freedom and self-power. Before the formation of the council, they are more than eighty territories that accomplished anatomically assist the United Nations. Indian 8094, reparations of this council was suspended to meet the last event had required. The international court of justice had been the principal level guide that gave the definitions for the members who wanted to join the cult. Joining the quotes should be consent and a choice. Justice for the court is done at the Hague Netherlands. The other important component is the secretariat. The Secretariat have workers and staff members located ate United States. The other offices are those that are located in Geneva, and Nairobi. This component has over 16000 members of staff that are placed at different workplaces within their countries or the united nation. The office also incorporates the kinds of stuff of peacekeepers to avoid the aggregation number. The secretary general is the head of the secretariat and performs some of the functions delegated by the UN. The proposal was done by the Security Council and suggested for a five-year term for the secretary-general. As the leader of the managerial features of the organizations, the secretary general and she was that all the works are coordinated according to the plans. Resources and implement various server solutions of the united nation. This position can also be used to prevent conflicts and has the capability of promoting peace through settlements of disputes in various countries. General me sometimes act on his initiatives another to deal with other problems such as humanitarian issues through different countries.
Various functions of the united nation organsDomain role of the UN is to ensure the international peace and security for all the countries. On chapter six of its charter, there is a provision of the settlement of disputes through the use of interventions within the Security Council. Some of the methods used for peacekeeping includes negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. There are times that the judicial decisions are also taken. The Security Council may sometimes investigate any dispute and determine whether there is a danger of international peace. In most cases, the issues that require intervention are those that are viewed to be a threat at the global level. Such disputes are looked at an international level. Despite this stage of a dispute, the Security Council may intervene to seek a lasting solution which is peaceful so that the crisis can end. The main point is to aggregate a security activity in the place where hostility is taking place or meet with the resistance at the angles of the country. This is found in section 7 of the charter. Interests where there disputes within their communities, the Security Council may decide to meet the rebels to talk to them to meet with the ruling authority. The Security Council Also can arrange all the measures that are compelling regarding there conciliatory approvals (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). They can also use military approvals and interventions to furnish power in concurrence to the settlements that have been elevated. United Nations charter states that the general assembly have to involve in the process of peace keeping.
This procedure is refined at the charter as follows;
“While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation
The functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall
Not make any recommendation about that dispute or situation unless
The Security Council so requests” (all-history.org, 2015).
In-the-ear 1950, the general assembly change the interventions and put all the power on to a veto vote. Therefore, the decision to intervene on military terms can be done at the Security Council. When it comes to the assembly, then there are those who can reject the proposal to intervene (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). This is where the veto comes to be more powerful than the general assembly.
The process of peacekeeping and peace building in the United Nations.
Peacekeeping, and Peace Building process in the united nationThe global military service was used to take part in their list in truth that was in the year 1948. However, is intervention is not specified within the charter of the United Nations? The action was done through the use of powers that question to the gathering of the troops. Peacekeeping process was also used during the crisis in Egypt, Israel, and the United Kingdom. The missions of peacekeeping and the form of different structures that are framed to see a truce and not to bolster the existing already. It is not supposed to encourage rebellion within the country. Therefore, these missions are supposed to encourage tranquility and have a structure that develops peace within the pretense of a crisis (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). After 1948, united nations attempted to get involved in peacekeeping missions through the use of repeated troops from nations that were fair-minded and unbiased that perform perpetual securities. There have been cases of peacekeeping approved from their 1988. So far there are more than 8000 peacekeeping troops that come from representations of old 77 nations that can be sent to all places around the globe (Marin, 2015). To perform these military actions, various issues have to be implemented
Functions of the military actionsThrough subscribing to the UN charter, the incumbent members have to agree to put all the forces and military ammunition at their disposal as well as their types of machinery that can promote and maintain aids. This means that everyone at the United Nations is responsible for giving a contribution towards a peacekeeping mission (Miller, 2012). Definitions come from various countries on a global scale so that they can use to maintain peace where necessary. Despite some countries, only more access to ammunitions than others, the division of the contribution is equal among all the members.
Control of arms and disarmamentThe united nation organizes belief that global peace and security prompts all nations to control the entire weapon licensing in case it is needed. United Nations charter also have the powers to arm and disarm the countries if necessary. United Nations organizer’s trust that the global peace and security upkeep will prompt all the countries to control the lessening of weapons if necessary (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). The charter has the powers the chart also gives you the power to the general assembly to pass all the possible recommendations to the Security Council about the control of arms to prevent any form of animations that have been done indiscriminately. The chattels and powers the economy and construction.
This is the other role of the United Nations charter. Secretariat and they large parts of the organs organizes because studying advancement wildfire and prosperity for the nations. This also involves bringing back the economic status of the country back to where it used to be so that there is a successful restoration process. Even though the World Bank is sufficient from the nations, it has a role in the economic and social council as a particular office. The post-war reconstruction and specialized help improve the status of their member countries (Mole, and Meredith, 2010).
Financing development and economic terms
The World Bank is in charge of assigning financial, monetary advancement to various nations. International Finance Corporation came to existence in the year 1956. It was an arm of the World Bank for their private speculation streams. It was a partnership but had the power to make direct credit or in ventures that are private without having a consultation with the government. This was to ensure that there are an advanced settlement returns. General assembly you revision to the expert in finance and the arrangements that are distinctive for the offices in the project. United nation also improves their endeavors through implementing projects that can improve life.
Trade and Development
The international trade system deals with the general agreement for traffics and promoting traders between the countries that are industrialized. However, the general assembly established the United Nations conference on trade and development that addressed trade between the countries that were developing as well. The assertions allowed for a general system that would give fewer levies other changes to the nations that were poor. The Second World War caused many people to be displaced from Asia and some of the European nations. This also cited a massive issue on refugee relocation The main challenge has been the definition of reduced by different countries making the policies to be implemented in others differently by the countries that have different roles.
Human rights forma a crucial part of the UN charter. Health and Welfare problems
Through the Unisex, the united nation and how the wellbeing condition of the people all over the world. The world health organization is meant to improve the living conditions of the people and promote health care facilities as well as healthcare education. Unisex ensures that the children are accommodated including those that had been affected by the world war.
Unisex became the United Nations organization in the year 1953. It is financed by the states that are permitted to nourish their young children in over 100 nations globally. They also provide other necessities such as the attire and food to the children who are suffering. The initiatives by the Unisex and she was that diseases such as tuberculosis, and whooping cough had been eliminated. Apart from these activities, there are other roles such as regulating the pharmaceuticals to control the nature of medication that would guarantee accessibility and affordable costs by the members of the united nation. Design diverse also focus on battling the spread of HIV Aids.
While focusing on the development, ecology is also an important issue for the United Nations. The general assembly organized a conference that was mainly based on the human environment in Stockholm in the year 1972. This meeting prompted the United Nations environmental program to be formed at the time. The environmental program was to ensure there is a discovery four different environmental issues such as contamination of the Mediterranean Sea and different dangers that the aquatic lives were facing. Other issues such as different stretching the certification were also looked at as well as the ozone layer that is created by the human chemicals. The natural weather changes also formed part of the discussion so that the committee can look on how to preserve the weather while prompting for economic development.
There are various forms of drugs and narcotics that are authorized by the general assembly. This commission was authorized in the year 1946 to advise recommendations on how hard drugs are used throughout the globe (Mole, and Meredith, 2010). Various countries have different legalities about her drugs and drug use. Then the acoustic control committee has to take into consideration all the factors affecting these countries.
Crisis in Afghanistan and Libya: The Origin of this Crisis, Oceans, and Operations in the Countries, Justifications for the Interventions of the United Nations
The crisis in Afghanistan goes a long way even before the start of the Arab nations. History and sauces describe this crisis as one of them main plagues that have ever hit the missions in the Arab world. In the year 1978, the Marxist republic party of Afghanistan conducted account by using the help of other communist soldiers. They successfully lead the coup and executed the first-ever president of Afghanistan was known as Mohammad Khan. Records show that after two years, more than fifty thousand people had been killed by the communist Afghanistan gym. Afghanistan also became country of interest for the army of Soviet that did invade the country to help local communist (Gilman, (2017). Soviet I’m yours wanted to establish oppressive regime within the country. It was this invention that turned out to start the main war that lasted for more than ten years. This resulted in hundreds of thousands of people and civilians dying. In the world villages were run down by the stages, some children and adults were being executed and other people being burned alive (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). From the record, it was noted that the forces known as the mujahedin group relied more on the support from the United States. Mujahidin was supplied by the arms and intelligence from us as well. Many bones were channeled into Afghanistan through the Pakistan route.
These arms from the United States straight into the hands of mujahedeen. Apart from the United States, other countries supported mujahedeen including China Saudi Arabia and others. A communist regime which was led by Kabul fell and vanished after some time during the war. The mujahedeen took the war to the Soviet Union innovation forcing them to withdraw their troops from Afghanistan (Hassan, Ventevogel, Jefee-Bahloul, Barkil-Oteo, and Kirmayer, 2016). It was after they had removed the troops that the government fails. They are various political parties who agreed on the accord and the establishment of the Islamic state of Afghanistan headed by the interim government. From this moment onwards, there was the rise of another militia position that was led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (Hassan, 2016). He led various forces from within and started to bombard Kabul. Outside this force, three other forces came up we started to fight against each other. At the time countries such as Pakistan, Iran, and India why interested in influencing the outcome of the war between these forces. They organized their forces and started to torment Kabul. This force so conjured in the year 1995 and by the time another militia came up known as the Taliban (Hassan, 2016). After the attack by the Taliban, various and rests in my youth again. Death at an alarming scale with many Afghanistan citizens who are innocent dying. The Taliban also launched a massive attack on Kabul in the year 1995 and was defeated massively (Hassan, 2016). After the defeat, many people felt that this would end the Taliban group. However, the group reemerged and reorganized itself in the year 1996. When they came back, they were backed by the Pakistan country, and they are also backed by money from Saudi Arabia. Up until today, the Taliban has remained as one of the most feared group and a powerful one. The Taliban have remained strong despite all the efforts that have been put b the UN and the USA. All the members are brainwashed members of the Islamic extremists. They are composed of the students that are determined to cause chaos throughout the country. It is therefore subjective to determine the main impact and the reasons for interventions as a humanitarian act in Afghanistan.
In the year 1996, the Taliban group took over the Kabul army to set up and Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. It became protocol that the outside world especially the European nations so the condition in Afghanistan as an opportunity to impose their sanctuary and become partisan in their configurations. Even presently, they are various institutions and regimes that do not allow the government to perform its duties or to thrive. There are various atrocious that was conducted as well as frictions and lawlessness during the period. Human rights were violated with these rulings affecting many people. Atrocities were committed in large varieties with numerous violations. The abuses that were reported by the human rights watch and the justice projections failed. United Islamic front which was another alliance party was made under Hamid Masood. This was the resistant military that was driven by political power determined to rebel against the Taliban emirates (Hedenstierna, 2015). Taliban emirates were upheld by the Pakistani army with numerous other members of al Qaeda from the Arab nations and central Asia. There are videos nongovernment institutions that reported different branches of Afghanistan government for violating the rights of within the country (Hedenstierna, 2015). It was also reported that some women and children are used to perpetuate the wars. Apart from these, the American soldiers were reported to be committing a crime and featuring innocent Afghanistan’s especially those who are held at the Bigram prisons. After the attack on the US on the September 11th, the Taliban forces decided to promote terrorism Sudan environment to promote terrorists. Osama bin Laden was their veteran and a fighter who campaigned against the Soviet forces. Osama was the leader of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization. He was a leading figure and had remained until the time that he died. Bin Laden also led sophisticated terror groups in the Islamic world. His attack on the United States was planned and executed properly from Afghanistan (Hedenstierna, 2015). Volcano terror group part of the war in Afghanistan and they also participated in the Somali civil war. The other uprisings that al Qaeda participated in included the Iraqi war, the uprising in Yemen as well as the Maghreb. Some of their executions that have been successfully done by the al-Qaeda included USA bombing and the 9/11 attack ok world trade organization (Hedenstierna, 2015). The attack on the world trade organization led to the invasion of Afghanistan.
Apart from this, the Afghanistan national security was being accused of straining its prisons and torturing suspects as well as harassing some of the international journalists who had gone to cover the stories. The local security forces also imprisoned their people and killed the local people as well. Several civilians were also killed in the war between themselves and the warlords which resulted in too many children being killed and women getting raped. The governments that were getting into power limited freedom to the media by continuously invoking the Islamic law and performing selective crackdowns (Gilman, (2017).). After the refusal of extradition of bin Laden, we were backed by some of the strong forces within the international community to respond through the military action. As a result, the US launched an attack in the year 2001 by bombing 26 Taliban bases through the support of some of the Afghanistan forces. The Security Council also authorized the US and the UN to overthrow the Taliban. The statements to overthrow the Taliban’s was an allowance by the united nations for an invasion of Afghanistan by an external force. Some of the NATO allies decided to form an international assistance force that will give the balance in military support. Through the invasion, united states were also running an operation known as anti-heroes military operation within Afghanistan. In the year 2002, the United Nations Security Council established an assistant mission to be carried out in Afghanistan that would establish and manage all the humanitarian relief managed by the United in Afghanistan (Gilman, (2017). Humanitarian operations were the beginning of
A reconstruction process to help with the relief work; relief works as well as recovery activities for the people who had been affected. Despite all the inventions and the interventions by the UN and the US, Afghanistan was viewed as a failed state. This is because there was an upright on the Taliban between the year 2007 and 2008. There are many NATO countries that have reported references about the viability of the political operations. Afghanistan has also suffered bitterly from the rivalry that they receive from their military involvement with outside countries (Gilman, 2017). These rivalries from there powerful forces are beneficial to this process and if they leave the country in total dismay. For example, many countries try to participate in the humanitarian actions while only benefiting themselves. Through receiving the credits fro interventions, they benefit on their own leaving behind even more casualties. It is almost impossible to save everyone through the relief methods.
Legal Basis for the intervention and the use of force throughout AfghanistanSeveral people have questioned the interventions in Afghanistan. In article 2 chapter 3 of the United Nations charter, there is a low that state that all the members have to settle their international disputes through peaceful means. The solution for disputes should be settled based on international peace security and justice commission is not endangered. This translates that different countries have to use their own ways and means of solving their own disputes. However, if the dispute within a country acts as a risk to the entire globe, then there can be an intervention. The question that was asked for this issue is that how the united nation assigned the necessary measures in settling this dispute. You should be able first that the day of the attack, the chairman of the leader of the Taliban called out a press conference and declared bin Laden murder. He also said that Osama bin Laden would be captured if they got a formal request from the United States openly (Gilman, 2017). They were also willing to detain Osama bin Laden in case there was a request by the US or any third party. The leaders of the Taliban wanted the bombing by the US to be halted. However, President Bush declared that discussion onto whether is innocent or guilty will be charged. The president declared the death of Bin Laden. The main intention of the United States was to ensure that justice has been done and that Osama bin Laden was brought to book. Another intention of the US was to destroy the al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Above all, they wanted complete control over Afghanistan. At the time, United Nations did not ask for any evidence against the al Qaeda for their involvement in the attack. Therefore, various scholars have concluded that the UN together with the US did not want to solve this problem in justice and a diplomatic way according to how it is stated in the charter. International criminal court states of the right of self-defense nice to everyone. Observers have concluded that the attack by the United States on Afghanistan was not even political but an extreme flex of power by the United States. The residence knew very well that the main causes of the attack. Terrorists are individuals and in the country. Therefore to act against terrorists, it is best to bring to book those who are part of the malice (Gilman, 2017). Osama bin Laden had also not held any political office in Afghanistan. A war against Afghanistan is a war against the innocent people. The bombings that took place in Afghanistan were fully supported by forces of NATO. Also, the nineteen men who were charged with bombing why not Afghanistan members. There are various human right violations that were also correct during the invasions and the war. On their behalf, the United States defended themselves by claiming that through invading Afghanistan, there will be no more terrorist acts in the future.
Crisis in LibyaIn the year 1969, Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto president and leader of Libya. Israel lasted for mother four decades. To get his power, Muammar Gaddafi led young Libyan military officers against King Idris I. This was a coup that was successfully conducted by Muammar Gaddafi. However, the school was peaceful. It made king Idris flee from the country. This made Gaddafi together with the Libyan revolution cancelled to leave the existing molecule constitutional monarchy government (Gilman, 2017). When they came to power, Gaddafi and his team initiated a different process where the funds were directed toward implementing better services. Gaddafi ensures that there were education for the people, health care services and infrastructure throughout Libya. Under Gaddafi, Libya became a powerful nation with a lot of riches to which many people attribute to the fall of Gaddafi. Some of the changes that Gaddafi made included shutting down the oil that was being exported to other countries without benefiting the country. Libya also cut ties with other European nations another powerful Asian country. As a result of the landscape and availability of oil, Libya made massive strides under Gaddafi and ensured that they made the profit throughout. The country developed successfully and became one of the richest in Africa (Gilman, 2017). Despite their indemnity that Gadaffi had with the outside countries, DVR continuously succeeded in helping the people of Libya.
In the year 2011, there was a civil war through the Arab spring that led to forces that formed beginners to Gaddafi. The national transition council was an anti-Gaddafi movement that wanted to form an interim government by the rebels. The public protests that were fiercely experienced in cities such as Beni and Walid that seriously condemned and protested against the administration of Gaddafi. The main concern for the rebels was that they felt that the government had failed them in various ways. The main complaint that was raised included the fact that the government did not want to provide essential commodities such as affordable health care and house care. The lack of essential amenities and severe political corruption in accordance to Protestants. Evidence of these claims literal proved to be non-existent as Libya proves to be one of the most prosperous countries throughout their regime of Gaddafi (Gilman, 2017). As an item that started as a mere protest, resistance against Gaddafi was later on developed into violence that resulted from Arabic movement through Tunisia all the way to Egypt. This was also meant that Gaddafi government had arrested the activists who claimed it was human rights activists. This event culminated the already existing crisis as many protesters started to change into anti-governmental demonstrations. The inspiration from the other movements that had succeeded in Tunisia and Egypt made the people demand the removal of the government and an immediate departure of Gaddafi. From the human rights activists, various leaders who started to turn against the government and decided to turn the situation u into and national conflict with fully-fledged civil war activities. From his past activities, Muammar Gaddafi was one of the most troublemakers in the Arabic world. He had caused trouble with people in Africa and had made labia an enemy of many people throughout the globe. One of the accusations that are made against Gaddafi was that he was the person who financed Polisario. Polisario was deliberation and the struggle for independence in Western Sahara against Morocco. He was also responsible for overthrowing the president of Chad and let her own wanted to confess ticket all day phosphate richest in chad. Gaddafi also fully supported the wall in Uganda and was afraid to the dictator Idi Amin Dada. He was also a supporter of the Irish republican army that fought against the Northern Ireland army and the British government. Gaddafi’s role in Lebanon crisis was swimming and when he supported Mouse brigade. He was also alleged to have planned the successes to his throne by forming his kinship (Gilman, 2017). Throughout the globe, Gaddafi supported most of the rebels and was part of the revolutions that took place throughout the Arabic spring. Almost every leader in the globe was agonist Gaddafi who had supported the opposition in one way or another. This leads to numerous episodes from the western world. The hatred from the western world even escalated when it was alleged that Gaddafi tore the United States charter in front of the delegates. Gaddafi also accused the security council of the united nations of being part of al-Qaeda. Some of the issues that Gaddafi raised concerns over most of the members in the united nation include demand of more than 7 trillion dollars in compensation for the ravages of colonizing Africa. Gaddafi also demanded that President Bush and Bill Clinton were to be tried for being part of the Iraqi war. Apart from these accusations, that happy was not pleased with the veto status in the united nation. He compared the Security Council status to a terrorist group and claimed that the Security Council was more of a terrorist council than a peacekeeping cancel.
United nation intervention in the Libya crisisMany scholars have questioned the intervention or the united nation into the Libyan crisis. There are also questions of adherence to the United Nations charter and how it came to allow the prosecution of the Libyan leader with the support to the rebels. Mini cooper oppression in the tenets of the law that allows the UN charter to intervene and overthrow and the undemocratic government even if it is not part of that legally form a government. The overthrow of Gaddafi came as a result of an individual that was done by the US, UK and France. Through the main procedures, the key idea was to stop Gaddafi from slaughtering his own people. Still, they have and concerns raised about the interests of the united nation and these countries such as the united states when the intervened and stopped Muammar Gaddafi. According to chapter 8 of the United Nations charter, the United Nations recognizes sub-regional agencies arrangements in relation to peace keeping. These agencies have been empowered to resolve to specific settlement procedures so that they can solve disputes among their members or the country. Article 58 what’s the status that the countries should resolve the issues without resource or outside interventions.
The leaders at the national level also signed a provision that enables them to defend themselves in case an attack or car against one of their members. This treaty also focused on a state that decides to use force against the other. This article does not apply to labia because the UN did not attack any of the states that belong to not. The Security Council understood how it was crucial for different bodies to get involved in enforcing peaceful resolutions in the country of Libya. They also understood that according to article 54 of the chatter, all the other countries that are part of the resolution should be great enforcing peace. Therefore the Security Council stated that resolution that was passed in the year 1973. This resolution demanded that the united nation and the secretary general, as well as the league of Arab nations, should be authorized to exercise their authority. NATO, however, did not comply with the article 54 of the chatter because it is never governed by the chapter fate of the chatter. A similar case to place in Bosnia and Herzegovina where NATO did not comply with the article 8. As the security council allowed NATO to act despite the legalities that did not apply to it. Many questions were asked behind the reasons why that were allowed to act on obligations or security measures. Other forces watched natto as they invaded Libya were trying to capture Gaddafi, the person who was considered to be stern against the United Nations.
The situation in Syria in comparison to Afghanistan and Libya crisis: Reasons why the United Nations failed to act or interveneThe war in Syria started in the year 2011. Throughout this time, modern 250000 people have lost their lives with numerous others getting seriously injured. The situation has created one of the worst refugees that have been seen for nearly 30 years. The crisis in Syria started in the year 2011 and is still going on in connection to the Arab spring revolution that started in the same year. The crisis is a fight against President al-Assad and his administration. There are various people who lost their lives and properties worth millions of dollars. During the crisis, the Syrian army acted through the national defense force to perpetrate some of the killings. However, the army has also been receiving your support from Russia and other Arabic countries such as Iran and Iraq. Russia started carbon in the air in the quest to create domination within the local people. How far along time accused the government of Syria and the military of violating the human rights and killing its people leading to the displacement of most people within the local area and creating a refugee crisis throughout the globe. The international community has also condemned the situation in Syria. The administration of the country has banned any form of gathering that has more than 5 people. The military is allowed to arrest this who are in a group and detained them as violators of the law. President Bashar al-Assad has been believed to perpetrate these actions through failing to execute transformations on a common term. The human rights observers have confirmed that the regime of President Bashar al-Assad been unsuccessful in giving the people fundamental human rights. The human rights watch also claim that the president is also interested in the political power of the country. In Syria, there is no freedom of speech. The regime has been molesting and intimidating the protesters or antagonists were trying to oppose the regime government. The other by relations that the country has been accused of include discrimination against women and other ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities are marginalized and should not express their views about this situation. Hence, many ethnic communities going against each other trying to get in power as well. Many tribes have formed groups that are fighting against the other tribes especially those who are favored by the government. This discrimination has proved to be fertile leading to many people losing their lives in the battles. Syrian situation only got worse when the government was threatened by some of the opposition groups. No one is allowed to oppose the regime government that has no being seen to be non-democratic and oppressive.
In March of the year 2015, the protesters started to march towards Damascus when they wanted democratic reforms. The protesters also wanted prisoners who had been captured to be released by the president. To counter these protests, the security fixes started to shoot regularly at the protesters injuring and killing many as well. There are several others who were arrested during the protests according to various reports, the protest game up after a boy and his friends were arrested for writing a graffiti. A graffiti was used in sending a message about them pure governorship of president Bashar al-Assad and all the social justifications about mismanagement. The people who are in the office did not accept this graffiti, and they claim that the boy and his friend overstepped towards authority.
Despite the message that was sent by the graffiti, President Bashar al Assad claims that these protests were mainly triggered by the forces which were from outside of the country. The protesters were, therefore, trying to trigger foreign conspiracy and push and Israeli propaganda. The initial demand for releasing the prisoners who are political detainees gave the government an ultimatum. Political demands even shifted from demands of releasing the prisoners to resigning of president for Bashar al-Assad. The demand for resigning of president al-Assad spread over numerous other cities as well. On April the same year, the military forces of the president conducted a brutal assault on the citizens through the use of a matrix and gums prompting a mass number of deaths. Over 1000 civilians were arrested most of whom were students and activists as well as those who campaigned for human rights. Anyone who was associated with any activities going against the president was arrested with those who tried to resist the arrest being killed instantly. On July the same year, there were seven officers who defected from the army to form an alliance to rebel against the government of President Bashar al-Assad. To counter these, there was a crocodile called Ramadan massacre where more than 200 individuals were killed and hundreds more injured. The rebels from the military also received support from countries such as turkey. The headquarter of these rebels are in turkey where they receive help and other military support. According to these rebels, the Syrian government used illegal means to fight them by releasing Islam is too malicious and give them arms to fight the rebels. They claim that this was an illegal act and an opportunity that was taken by President Bashar al Assad to try and stop the rebels. Towards the end of the year 2011, there were more repairs that arose and launched massive air raids and air force intelligence that fart on the air of Damascus. These rebels ambushed the business of military and killed more than 27 so yes. However, they suffered a greater loss with more than 72 members of them being killed. There have been reports about the British and French Special Forces giving assistance to this rebels who are fighting against President Bashar al-Assad. In January 2012, the president tried to apply artillery operations to end the resistance groups by destroying several homes of the civilians. The army applied and intensive use of air raids and tanks that will emerge. In the war, both the rebels and the government military officers claim to have won after different crackdowns. In 2013, the death from the civil war had reached to more than ten thousand people. United Arab league special representative who was acting by the time for Syria was Kofi Annan. He tried to bring peace to an end the hostilities. However, during his trials to bring peace between the government and the persistent process, the Syrian military was busy running down places and killing hundreds of individuals. There were children who also perpetrated in different regions. There was a cease-fire that was to be agreed. However, it failed with both sides killing many innocent people. This ensured that anon withdrew his efforts from Syria. The kangaroo piece move that was initiated by the Arab League of Nations withdrew its support. After this is file operations had failed to take place, the massacre and killings continued to take place with even hundreds of more deaths being suffered through the massacre called haul massacre. The United Nations declared Syria as being in the state of civil war. The defense minister who is the brother-in-law of President Bashar al-Assad the guild in a suicide bombing mission that was conducted in Damascus. The intelligence chief of Syria was also wounded seriously in the bombing that was later on claimed to have been done by the rebel groups.
Later on in the year 2012, the United Nations started to report that the president of Syria was using fighting get to kill his own people. About 21 activists were killed by the army who were loyal to President Assad. On 18th November, there were insurgents who eliminated a base that was occupied by 46 Aleppo government. This was reported to be the largest army bases for the government of Syria. In the process, there are more than 300 troops of Syria that were killed. 60 of them were captured while they were still alive. The invasion was also accompanied by a car explosion that killed several people. The president ordered his army to kill people who are in the mosque where the civilians were praying and killed more than 41 people. The reports from this scenario stated that the towns of veneers and Bayda had more than 100 people killed by the army of Syria. Most of the victims were children and women who are helpless during this time. In June, there was a program amount fighters that attacked a rebel group and killed more than for them. The Isis group, later on, joined this crisis which made it even worse than expected. From all these wars, it was a concern to many observers why the international community and the United Nations turned a blind eye to the situation despite thousands of civilians dead and millions of properties being destroyed day by day. The united nation only made several comments and made promises of taking action. However, no legitimate activities such as the one that was taken only beer have been taken against the president of Syria.
Various reasons why the united nation did not intervene with the crisis in SyriaUntil today, the government of Syria is still under the leadership of president Bashir al-Assad and security forces have been focusing on the civilians. Attention has also been shifted towards the ISIS and another extremist in Islamic groups. Many people have been questioning the reasons behind the United Nations and NATO not involving into the operations of Syria. The united nations have also remained hesitant to interfere with any parallel feature that could resemble the ones that had been applied in Libya. It is also concerning because the issue of Syria is more than 1000 times worse than the condition that Libya was in when the intervention was done by NATO and the UN. The attacks on civilians have been attributed to reasons for not intervening by the USA, the United Kingdom and France. The reasons why NATO have decided not to intervene in the crisis in Syria. Despite the issues that have been identified by various scholars, the reasons for lack of interventions lies deep beyond what the various scholars have been trying to explain. There are several laws that have been stated such as the Syrian situation not being a massive threat to the international community. The case or Syria is have been different from Afghanistan and Libya in various ways. One of the ways is that Afghanistan proved to be the basis of the terrorist activities.
The variations can be seen in the fastest means of interventions network applied. The case of Syria has been matched by numerous conspiracies and different theories especially from the layman’s point of view. Some believed that the president of Syria has numerous allies who are powerful at the United Nations. Such arguments that Syrian president has not posted any bread to the international community. The fact that he has not presented any threat to the international community makes him likable by them. Apart from this, they state that Syria does not offer any benefits to the international community and therefore they do not want to intervene in humanitarian actions. These claims are being backed by the fact that he had numerous enemies during his time as the president of Libya. Gaddafi was also posing threats to others who are interested in Africa. These people so Gaddafi as the king of Africa who would take over if his wish was granted. The case was different in Syria.
Challenges for various interventionsThe main criticism that the united nations have received in recent years is that it has not taken part in certain human right issues and measures that can help save situations. Many people are pointing at the united nation as a particular political body that selects when to intervene and not want to intervene. Several people accuse the United Nations have been neglecting the issue in Syria but decided to venture into Afghanistan. However, the underlying causes are different here. Before the United Nations can decide to intervene in a situation that involves a foreign country or government, there are issues that have to be decided upon. There has to be a decision by the Security Council which is part of the united nation to intervene. The Security Council can also meet at any time making it have an advantage over the general assembly. Most of them involve numerous discussions that have to take place with various country heads giving their opinions on the issues (Williamson, 2016). There are some powerful countries within the Security Council that have to approve an intervention before it takes place. Similar situation happened when an intervention took place in Libya. The united states also have a huge say in some of the operations. It could be seen that the United Nations would not do enough to intervene in the situation when the united states attack Afghanistan. One of the ways that this intervention has been explained is that the al-Qaeda boys it’s for the entire globe. Therefore it was up to any superpower to ensure that the threat posed by the al-Qaeda could not be poised to others as well. The al-Qaeda approve one of the challenges too many countries. The United Nations had to accept the interventions of the United States not minding if it was right or wrong. It is this similar issue that allowed the United Nations to take matters into their own hands and hunt down Osama bin Laden (Williamson, 2016). To a large degree, the United States succeeded because summer bin Laden was eventually killed. Many people have been questioning the bases of killing Osama bin Laden. They claim that if the United States wanted to get revenge, then it was up to the United Nations to set court proceedings for Osama bin Laden. There were numerous challenges which were also accompanying these claims as well. One of them is that Osama bin Laden was protected by a group of Taliban people who were also threats to their Afghanistan nation. The war in Afghanistan was also one that could not be identified by the united nation. This was because there were several forces that were involved some of which have been successful up-to-date (Williamson, 2016). The Taliban have proved to be a force to be reckoned with and have challenged the United Nations despite the interventions that were done by the United States. The September 11th attack was key to these interventions. United Nations was attacked by the Taliban group that arranged for a bombing of the buildings in United States. Other countries were so fearful that the al Qaeda group under Osama bin Laden was threat to humanity. Many people so the thread that was placed by your summer bin laden are therefore approved for the interventions by the United States. NATO, on the other hand, was concerned about international peace. As a result, they also lead a hand in intervening into the issues of Afghanistan. The right to protect also gives the United Nations and the ability to intervene in a country if they feel that they are used an infringement of laws. Most the governments that are operative end up killing their own people in their own country. Search issues call for massive interventions. The United States being the superpower is always at the forefront of seeing through a successful humanitarian intervention. Also, the united states were key to the formation of the united nation. It was President Roosevelt that decided to call for a meeting that late around led to the birth of the United Nations. As a result, they are the ones who have been more active in intervening when they feel that the people being oppressed. The right to protect is always important when citing the reasons for intervening into a country. As an r e  to be taken into consult, the cases of Libya and Afghanistan were all based on humanitarian intervention. In most cases, the European Union has been successful in leveraging the situations. However, it has not been successful in some cases. One of these cases is Afghanistan where the Taliban group is still consistently healing the people. These terrorist groups are also becoming more powerful. The UN have been reluctant in going back to Afghanistan so as to settle the situation successfully with the Taliban group. This is a complex group that sometimes may not be easy to deal with. The efforts by the United States were mainly as a result of the agreement by the whole nations about the threats that were posted by your summer bin laden to the entire globe (Williamson, 2016). On the other hand, the issue of Gaddafi has been quite difficult to explain by their standards of the interventions. The nephew never really seemed to be a threat to the entire globe. However, he had been accused of taking advantage of the refugees and refusing to side with most of the humanitarian actions. Gadhafi was also known to be aiding terrorist group that was perpetrating murderous acts all through the Arab spring. As a result, the case for Gaddafi was also justifiable in one way or another. The right to protect allows the Security Council to assign NATO, United States the United Kingdom and France to intervene in most of the oppressive regimes. The challenge becomes eminent that United Nations and NATO forces have to support a rebel group. It is never assured scenario whether the rebel group is capable of leading a nation.
What the others say about the situationAccording to an interview by the Russian minister who was being questioned about the interventions that are necessary for different commentaries, the minister gave his opinion on what has been a challenge for others to understand. He said that foreign intervention in to matters that are considered domestic is unacceptable in any standards. Also, he clarified that it is unacceptable for any country with a powerful or not to use force in international relationships. This also involves countries that consider themselves civilized. This implies that if a country is civilized, then it is wrong for anyone to embezzle into their activities. The country should be allowed to solve their domestic matters on their own. This is what a democratic country should be allowed to do. Hence, it is a challenge for everyone wants to intervene in the matters that are domestic in other countries (Williamson, 2016). This is because two most of the interventions are likely to use force. Using force in a country that is not yours is considered unethical and a form of terrorism.
Even though other still question their interventions that the unmade on to Libya in relation to this statement by the Russian minister, there are others who still feel that the points made by the Russian ministers about intervention into the domestic matters is true. Recently, the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, United States, and France have been pushing for an intervention to prevent the atrocities that are taking place in Syria. These remarks always rebuke omissions of those who would want to venture into the actions of Bashar al Assad and to stop him from killing his own people. Everything should be based on the rule of responsibility to protect (R2P). The future of this rule or responsibility to protect is always in question. There are those who are also fighting this rule or responsibility to protect based on what they feel about the sovereignty of a country. Responsibility to protect is the main reason why the United Nations ventured into Libya and help the position fight the powerful oppressive government. Being that its future is uncertain, application of this doctrine has proved to be complex for everyone including those who are willing to help them intervene into the matters of Syria.
R2p ApplicationR2p was drawn by the United Nations in the year 1990s. This was after the war that led to massive killings in countries such as Bosnia and Rwanda. The atrocities in the two countries led to the united nation looking for ways in which they can avoid such attacks in the future. These atrocities were redefined and given the name genocidal actions. It is known that is used in dealing with conflicts that involve civilians that are attacked. Most of the actions that lead to the complete application of r2p were the attacks that were done in the year 2005. The language has been referred to by many people or inbox directly to justify some of the very basic interventions that have been taking place. For example, the French intervention in the Ivory Coast that took place in the year 2011 on the same r2p. The same applications were given to the interventions in Mali ad the eventual fall of the Gaddafi regime. The same conflict has been applied with the doctrine that is designed to prevent and mitigate people from being killed in Syria. However, the application has been different. This model was brave by the United Nations and also modular protecting civilians. It has stalled from being applied in protection to just a mere doctrine that cannot find means of proper application (Williamson, 2016). The use of the military as an option for intervention have also been debated for a long time. Therefore, it is unlikely that this method will be used in the future for humanitarian interventions on atrocity itself. Humanitarian interventions should be able to save lives and not to consume more lives. Tit makes it difficult considering it as an option as there is too many resistance to the use of military interventions on humanitarian grounds.
The US, UK and FranceWill the United States, France and the United Kingdom ministers are all saying that there are cases of military intervention. Through their foreign ministries, the three countries have been campaigning for a crucial role that the imagination could play in military. However, three sisters from other forces and other countries that are against such interventions are what makes it difficult to apply and apply. By not acting on such grounds, the UN and the US, in particular, are damaging the future that it has as well as the credibility when he threatens to use force on other countries. There have been several questions as to how these military interventions are conducted in the first place. The questions have been raised from operations that have been described as large-scale and offensive to those that flowed the efforts of nation-building such as the one scene Iraq and Afghanistan. The interventions that what took place in Libya, Mali and Ivory Coast. The opponent different intervention forms in Syria have cited numerous complexities and practical problems including those who are on the rebel side being the minority of the fighters. However, the biggest stumbling block how being the basic application of the r2p rule itself in the years that have gone by including the case in Libya.
Opinion LeadersSome international lawyers have admitted to the difficulties that they find when applying the rules that they were implementing in the year 2005. They say that there are two people were given meaning of the “never again” tag after the address crises that was seen in Cambodia Rwanda and Bosnia. Application of this rule has faced difficulties in the recent time, especially on its practicality. A doctrine that was meant to be optimistic in its application and to end the internal mass atrocities and crimes that are done by the leaders on their own people have faced several controversies. The main one was after the Security Council played a massive role in the operations in Libya that were led by NATO forces. Also, the paralysis that was generated while responding to Syria led to a collapse of the consensus at an international level. Disruption leads to paralysis of the possible interventions that could have been done in Syria. Before conducting the operations, the Security Council and some of the most powerful forces within the United Nations have to see through it (Williamson, 2016). As a result, the case of Syria has stood in the way of possible interventions as the realization of an agreement on when to launch an attack and to avoid the controversies that arose from the Libyan cases seems more and more difficult with each day.
The deliberations that were done over in Libya were the landmarks of the application of r2p rules. The application and the name by the United Nations security council to resolve these atrocities with all the means necessary subsequent backlash, challenges that are still being chased and felt today. The main concern was based on the reasons that were brought by countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa as well as China. This countries as well as the three powerful countries “P3″, United States, France and the United Kingdom, wanted to settle for a regime change and they sought to do everything possible within their means to achieve this.
There are particular concerns that were raised after the interveners refused of us that worry allegiance to ceasefire options. For example, in Libya, the ceasefire offers were rejected, there were other options such as supporting the rebel side. This meant that they interveners also supported to the civil war. It became a serious concern because this one is not a matter that can be debated to be right or wrong. Killing the relatives of Gaddafi also raise concerns as it implies that innocent lives were lost easily. Losing innocent lives in support of arable that is not known whether they will rule right or wrong have been pursued by several people. By siding with the rebels, please proves to be biased and partisan according to some people. Many people came up with suggestions that UN and the US were supporting a civil war. It is such concerns that have raised questions over the need to help overthrow a government. It never lies to determine whether overthrowing the good act that will solve the civil war solution for a long time. A case in Syria also points out to the same scenario like the one in Libya. Intervening into the case in Syria would mean that the united nation is supporting the rebels. Many and questioning such as calling it being partisan in a situation that needs careful consideration. Libya also provided confirmation that they are objecting the application of the r2p rule in the first place. On the other hand, South Africa was also initiating the new norm of intervention to prevent cases of atrocities and killing the civilians. Therefore, the gyms packed r2p application. Other concern was that the p3 countries refused to report any progress about the operation in Libya. This proved to be a massive betrayal on the parts of those who interviewed into the situation. Reporting the matter can be a way of showing that the operators are not partisan and that we are willing to listen to the cases by other members. At the same time, failing to report also shows that the participants may also have been supporting the ongoing atrocities or conducting illegal operations on their own.
There are those who have suffered as a result of the applications of the right to protect documentation. These people state that the application of the r2p rule has the possibility of creating conflicts perceptions. The application may mean that the rebel forces are also resumes that are sponsored by the international interveners who are coming to aid it. As a result, there are reduced possibilities of finding an association solution between the rebel forces and the operational government.
Most of these solutions have been led why countries such as Brazil and India. These countries claim that the interventions illuminated by the agendas of a few countries. They are operated and dominated by a suspicion that interveners marked on the agendas that are pushed by the US, France and the UK. According to countries such as Brazil, it is not fair for only a few countries claiming to be right on applying the rules that will involve losses of life and pinning it down to the foreign country. The United States, France and Britain have for a long-time dominated these interventions.
Concern for other countriesAs a result, search countries insist that the possibility of using military intervention in the future should be authorized by the UN and guarded by the assessment of achieving the desired outcome. It should give the information that is transparent and the information coupled with a real-time reporting of the progress to the members of the council. This would mean that all the operations that are going on during the intervention r transference and they are solving the complexities of the conflict. The informed mechanism will also be part of the transparency making it a successful operation that will be acceptable by all the other members of the council. This will also prevent these operations and interventions being used by the p3 countries. The agendas of the country should be at the top priority when intervening but note the operations of the p3 countries. An example of this case is where the United Nations allowed the United States on Afghanistan. All the operations that were done in Afghanistan where all questioned and all reflected the agenda of the US. It acted as an act of revenge rather than the intervention to save human rights (Williamson, 2016). The r2p rule was not even used in the first place as most all the atrocities are still taking place even today. The outcomes were not achieved and were not clear in any way. The same applied to Libya this makes the actions of the intravenous questionable by countries such as Brazil. This event raises more questions about the objectives of the international community. It is also complex when cases such as chemical weapons having been used in the regime of Assad in Syria. The use of chemical weapons is also a form of terrorism on the countries that the interventions are taking place in. Some of the officials in the United States have suggested the best ways of policy changes. Includes in this category re the provisions of the small arms to the groups that did identify as rebel members that are not part of the jihads. Others have been calling for full-blown intervention and do not mind about the wrong or right people. Therefore, lifting the United Nations the European Union embassy in Syria would be deemed as a folly act. The r2p rule is in many ways legitimizing the Kosovo interventions. The success of interventions in Kosovo proved to be the basis of all the interventions that had been done of late. It had been successful, and it proved that r2p could be well applied in oppressive governments to help save people. It was the same initiative that was seen as an intervention in Libya. After the success of Kosovo, it was eminent that leave here could be the next case of success where the local people will be saved from the operation on the non-democratic leaders (Williamson, 2016). However, it also raised issues since they were in Syria and Libya all happened concurrently. If the United Nations were concerned about stopping the killings within the Arab spring, then the intervention should have taken place simultaneously. However, this was not the case as Libya was independently handled. It is claimed that the ambulance was lifted in Syria making it even more difficult for other interviewers. The application of r2p legitimation in Kosovo intervention has in many respects been a success. It would, therefore, remain the aspirations for any future intervention. The failure of Libya and the criticism that the UN and the US together with NATO have faced makes more difficult interventions in the future. The subject of military intervention is also likely to be objected by many people especially the human rights bodies. Even if people are questioning the outcome of the Gaddafi and rest, it has been deemed a success by many people. The facts that the destiny of their citizens has remained in their own hands means that it has been a success in several ways. At the same time, others feel that Gaddafi was leading the country better. However, this is just a matter of opinion where everyone will give on their own.
Official reports about Libya also state that the outcome of the situation is far less dangerous and gross than those that were realized in Iraq. This means that there was some sort of success even if the outcome was unpredictable and was not what was intended. The observers also confirm that even with the existence of r2p, there are several tests to the interventions that determine its practicality or whether the interventions do more harm than good to what is expected. One of the key issues and lessons that can be learnt in interventions is that there is a likelihood of consequences that are intended that follows it (Williamson, 2016). Whether the interventions have better objectives, the most likely outcome is not what is expected. Sequences that follows the interventions are always subjective rather than being objective the way they’re intended. It is always about the powerless civilians who fight against the dictator as well as the regional tension that is involved. It may not appear as open as others may think that intervention should be done or it would be done.
As a consequence, before making an intervention, the decision to intervene is a single intervention. There is serious diplomacy that has to be reached at an international consensus. During their diplomatic act, opinions differ, and many people have several interests in the decisions. In relative terms, the interventions are not easy to determine as black-and-white as many people suggest. It is this reason why many people and the United Nations have been hesitant on meandering with these issues of Syria. The best solution is to find if there could be an approach of using a cease-fire or using non-violent or not military interventions. This way, everyone is likely to be satisfied and a notary more lives will be lost.
Conclusion and RecommendationsIn conclusion, the international community have the responsibility to protect under their responsibility to take a humanitarian intervention in protecting innocent civilians from threats and killings by the oppressive governments. However, the campaign launched to overthrow Gaddafi was allowed in an attempt to establish democracy. Even though the new government still struggle to maintain peace, the widespread killings and bloodshed, had ended. It is this outcome that the Chinese government and the Russian government are concern about as they try to avoid similar occurrences in Syria. It is also easy to argue for the case of Libya due to the nature of the death of Gadaffi in relation to his operations and his last for vengeance and attacks on various terrorists. Similarly, in Syria, European countries would like to see President Assad leave office because of humanitarian reasons (Hassan et al., 2016). It is the same case that has been evaluated by the members for quite a long time. To deal with oppressive regimes, they have to be a successful implementation of r2p in future cases. The following ways have to be exclusively implemented:
1. UNSC Reforms
2. Applying the R2P in a more courteous manner
3. Acting outside of the United Nations
The first recommendation is that the Security Council have to be fundamentally reformed. Under the current structure, there is a massive difference in power that is hugely in the hands of P5 countries. Emerging powers like India Brazil and Japan do not have a say in these regimes as well as Africa and Latin America. The reforms are not easy, due to the massive disagreement about making reforms on permanent members.
Even though the Security Council have not acted in the case of Syria, the initiatives have been taken in some ways. France under the ECO WAS members have been using several strategies to help with the situation through the approval by the Security Council to counter Islam extremists. There was a military action authorized to prevent the spread of the diseases in the Central African Republic (Mousavian, 2015). The concept is that members have to take great care when considering interventions implications. This way they avoid direct changing regime and also considering the interests of countries such as Russia and China (Kersavage, 2014). Acting outside the United Nation is a controversial action that is outside international law. However, regional organizations can implement sanctions and diplomatic pressure against an oppressive government. There are individual states that are willing to help Syria avoid atrocities towards its people. Racial discrimination is an issue at an international level as well as religious discrimination.
ReferencesAaronson, M., Ahram, A. I., Duffield, M., Etzioni, A., Holland, J., Mac Ginty, R., & Roberts, D. (2016). The Journal of Intervention and State building ten years on critical reflections and stimulating ideas on an evolving scholarship. Journal of Intervention and State building, 10(1), 3-24.
Allin, D. H., & Jones, E. (2012). Chapter Two: Barack Obama and the limits of a superpower. Adelphi Series, 52(430-431), 71-110.
Aranda García, J. A. (2013). Libya, Syria and The Responsibility to Protect: A Case Study to determine what accounted for the different outcomes.
Averre, D., & Davies, L. (2015). Russia, humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: the case of Syria. International Affairs, 91(4), 813-834.
Bejesky, R. (2014). CPA Dictates on Iraq: Not an Update to the Customary International Law of Occupation but the Nucleus of Blowback with the Emergence of ISIS. Syracuse J. Int’l L. & Com., 42, 273.
Bellamy, A. J. (2018). Ending Atrocity Crimes: The False Promise of Fatalism. Ethics & International Affairs, 32(3), 329-337.
Benitez, R. L. (2015). Making a case for humanitarian intervention: national interest and moral imperative (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School).
Blackford, W. R. (2014). The Responsibility to Protect and International Law: Moral, Legal and Practical Perspectives on Kosovo, Libya, and Syria.
Bloomfield, A. (2017). India and the Responsibility to Protect. Routledge.
Brostrom, J. (2015). Humanitarian intervention and the moral dimension of violence. In Violence and the state. Manchester University Press.
Byman, D. (2012). Regime change in the Middle East: Problems and prospects. Political Science Quarterly, 127(1), 25-46.
Chomsky, N. (2015). New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor, and the” Responsibility to Protect” Today. Routledge.
Chung, A. (2016). Humanising Interstate Affairs: Redefining Sovereignty for the Post-Modern Era. Aldea Mundo, 21(41).
Colin, S. E. O. W. (2016). Chasing the Frontier in Humanitarian Intervention Law: The Case for Aequitas ad Bellum. Asian Journal of International Law, 6(2), 294-325.
Comras, V. D. (2010). Flawed diplomacy: the United Nations & the war on terrorism. Potomac Books, Inc.
Congyue, W. (2018). Domestic Contestation after Norm Embeddedness: The comparison between R2P’s diffusion in Germany and China.
Davenport, J. J. (2011). Just war theory, humanitarian intervention, and the need for a democratic federation. Journal of Religious Ethics, 39(3), 493-555.
Davenport, J. J. (2016). In Defense of the Responsibility to Protect: A Response to Weissman. Criminal Justice Ethics, 35(1), 39-67.
De Dieu, I. J. (2014). The Prospect of International Intervention Legitimacy: Critical Study of Libyan Conflict of 2011 (Doctoral Dissertation, Kigali Independent University).
Diehl, P. F., Kulkami, S., & Irish, A. (2011). The Bush Doctrine and the Use of Force: Reflections on Rule Construction and Application. Loy. U. Chi. Intel L. Rev., 9, 71.
Duncan, G., Lynch, O., Ramsay, G., & Watson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). State terrorism and human rights: international responses since the end of the cold war. Routledge.
El-Kassaby, D. (2015). Law is discourse. Discourse is rhetoric. Therefore, Law is rhetoric. A rhetorical analysis of the responsibility to protect.
Feratovic, M. (2017). Humanitarian Interventions: Comparative Analysis of Humanitarian Interventions in Bosnia and Central African Republic (Doctoral dissertation, Long Island University, The Brooklyn Center).
Finer, S. (2017). The man on horseback: The role of the military in politics. Routledge.
Forsythe, D. P. (2011). US foreign policy and human rights: Situating Obama. Human Rights Quarterly, 767-789.
Fox, G. H. (2012). Transformative occupation and the unilateralist impulse. International Review of the Red Cross, 94(885), 237-266.
Garner, R., Lawson, S., & Ferdinand, P. (2016). Introduction to politics. Oxford University Press.
Gaskarth, J. (2016). The fiasco of the 2013 Syria votes: Decline and denial in British foreign policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(5), 718-734.
Gibbins, J. (2017). Power play: The United Arab Emirates’ new approach to geopolitics. Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy, 9.
Gibbs, D. N. (2015). How the Srebrenica Massacre Redefined US Foreign Policy. Class, Race, and Corporate Power, 3(2), 5.
Gilgan, C. M. (2017). Exploring the Link between R 2 P and Refugee Protection: Arriving at Resettlement. Global Responsibility to Protect, 9(4), 366-394.
Gilman, W. D. (2017). The Future of Intervention: Examining the Legacy of the Responsibility to Protect.
Hassan, G., Ventevogel, P., Jefee-Bahloul, H., Barkil-Oteo, A., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2016). Mental health and psychosocial well-being of Syrians affected by armed conflict. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 25(2), 129-141.
Hassan, S. A. M. (2016). Terrorism: an analysis of the international legal framework, international and regional responses case study: Syria.
Hedenstierna, S. (2015). Defining a Security Council Mandate in Humanitarian Interventions: The Legal Status of Explanations of Vote.
Herron, J. (2012). Responsibility to Protect: Moral Triumph or Gateway to Allowing Powerful States to Invade Weaker States in Violation of the UN Charter. Temp. Intel & Comp. LJ, 26, 367.
Huang, C. C., & Shih, C. Y. (2016). Harmonious intervention: China’s quest for relational security. Routledge.
Jacobs, L. (2014). Our Responsibility to Protect Libya & Syria: A change in thinking about military intervention.
Jellinek, E. M. (2012). The Impact of the Responsibility to Protect on State Behaviour: An Analysis (Doctoral dissertation).
Karlsrud, J. (2018). UN Peace Operations in a Changing World. In The UN at War (pp. 11-31). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Kersavage, K. (2014, January). The “responsibility to protect” our answer to “never again”? Libya, Syria and a critical analysis of R2P. In International Affairs Forum (Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 23-41). Routledge.
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J., & Joseph, W. A. (2018). Introduction to comparative politics: political challenges and changing agendas. Cengage Learning.
Kindarji, V. (2018). Sitting on our hands: comparing Canada’s intervention policy in Libya and Syria.
Krieg, A. (2016). Externalizing the burden of war: the Obama Doctrine and US foreign policy in the Middle East. International Affairs, 92(1), 97-113.
Leurs, S. (2014). The Responsibility to Protect or the Responsibility to Select? A Critical Analysis of the Selectivity of Russia, the United States, and France to Intervene in Libya but not in Syria.
Lukyanov, F. (2016). Putin’s Foreign Policy: The Quest to Restore Russia’s Rightful Place. Foreign Aff. 95, 30.
Madsen, M. M., Selsbaek, S., & Wittstrøm, S. (2012). The Responsibility to Protect and the intervention in Libya. Department of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde University, Dezembro.
Mahoney, K. J. (2015). Can Mass Atrocities Pose A Threat To Global Security? (Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University).
Marin, A. (2015). Dictatorial peace? Comparing the conflict-proneness of authoritarian regimes in post-Soviet Eurasia: a research agenda. In 9th EISA Pan-European Conference on International Relations” The Worlds of Violence.
Miller, P. D. (2012). Five Pillars of American Grand Strategy. Survival, 54(5), 7-44.
Mole, N., & Meredith, C. (2010). Asylum and the European convention on human rights (Vol. 9). Council of Europe.
Mousavian, S. H. (2015). To Solve the Syria Crisis, We Need to Overcome These Three Obstacles. The World post.
Nanda, V. P. (2011). From Paralysis in Rwanda to Bold Moves in Libya: Emergence of the Responsibility to Protect Norm under International Law-Is the International Community Ready for It. Hous. J. Int’l L., 34, 1.
O’Rourke, J. (2014). Education for Syrian Refugees: The Failure of Second-Generation Human Rights during Extraordinary Crisis. Alb. L. Rev., 78, 711.
O’Sullivan, S. (2017). Military Intervention in the Middle East and North Africa: The Case of NATO in Libya. Routledge.
Qadir, M. I., & Rehman, M. S. (2015). Organization of Islamic Co-operation (OIC) and Prospects of Yemeni Conflict Resolution: Delusion or Plausible Reality. Journal of Political Studies, 22(2), 367. Qadir, M. I., & Rehman, M. S. (2015). Organization of Islamic Co-operation (OIC) and Prospects of Yemeni Conflict Resolution: Delusion or Plausible Reality. Journal of Political Studies, 22(2), 367.
Quinton-Brown, P. (2013). Mapping dissent: the responsibility to protect and its state critics. Global Responsibility to Protect, 5(3), 260-282.
Rachor, J. R. (2014). The Puzzle of Humanitarian Intervention: Why the US militarily intervenes in some failed or fragile nation states and abstains from others.
Ramos, J. M. (2013). Changing norms through actions: The evolution of sovereignty. Oxford University Press. Hoeling, S. (2015). Can R2P practice what it promises? A case study on the Syrian civil war. Anchor Academic Publishing (aap_verlag).
Ross, J. I., & Grabosky, P. (2014). Controlling state crime and the possibility of creating more victims. Towards a victimology of state crime, 225-237.
Saliternik, M. (2015). Reducing the Price of Peace: The Human Rights Responsibilities of Third-Party Facilitators. Vand. J. Transnat’l L., 48, 179.
Sarkin, J. (2015). The rise and fall (and supposed rise again) of the responsibility to protect (R2P) as a norm of international law: R2P in the human rights landscape. In Reassessing the Responsibility to Protect (pp. 51-73). Routledge.
Shirokova, A. (2012). The Political Reality of Humanitarian Rhetoric: Addressing the Dangers of R2P-interventions.
Stark, C. (2017). The legality of the use of force against terrorists: an examination of the united air strikes against the Islamic State in Syria (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town).
Stein, J. G. (2018). Flawed Strategies and Missed Signals: Crisis Bargaining Between the Superpowers, October 1973. In The Middle East and the United States (pp. 197-219). Routledge.
Stent, A. (2016). Putin’s Power Play in Syria: How to Respond to Russia’s Intervention. Foreign Aff. 95, 106.
Strong, J. (2015). Interpreting the Syria vote: parliament and British foreign policy. International Affairs, 91(5), 1123-1139.
Turns, D. (2016). A Liberal Way to War? International Law and Two Centuries of ‘Benevolent Aggression.’ The Liberal Way of War: Legal Perspectives, 279.
Ţuţuianu, S. (2013). The Responsibility to Protect. In Towards Global Justice: Sovereignty in an Interdependent World (pp. 217-241). TMC Asser Press, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Walling, C. B. (2013). All necessary measures: The United Nations and humanitarian intervention. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Werrell, C. E., Femia, F., & Sternberg, T. (2015). Did we see it coming? State fragility, climate vulnerability, and the uprisings in Syria and Egypt. SAIS review of international affairs, 35(1), 29-46.
Williamson, M. (2016). Terrorism, war, and international law: the legality of the use of force against Afghanistan in 2001. Routledge.
Yetişti, Y. B. (2011). Humanitarian intervention: legality, legitimacy, and morality-any prospects for a solution? (Doctoral dissertation, DEÜ Sosyal Bilimleri Enstitüsü).
Zwier, P. J. (2017). The history of US relations with Syria: the role of Obama–and now Trump. In Peacemaking, Religious Belief and the Rule of Law (pp. 56-87). Routledge.
Free Should the UN intervene into to oppressive regimes? Dissertation Example
Do you need an original paper?
Approach our writing company and get top-quality work written from scratch strictly on time!