Social Activity and Effects on Depression in the Elderly
Methodology and method
The qualitative method was preferred to quantitative for this systematic review due to the limitation of the data available and the design of the study. Regarding ethics, the study seeks a systematized review on only researched based literature that has made the standard ethical requirement. My sources of the review will be approved by the Institution Review Board to ascertain their ethical content and for ethical approval.
Social Activity and Effects on Depression in the Elderly
I designed search strategy to retrieve data from the original research published in English between 2008 and 2017 on the topic. The main concepts used were social activity and effects of depression. I used the computerized search on electronic databases where subject headings and some specific database Thesaurus terms were applied. These included the AMED, academic search complete, MEDLINE, CINAHL complete; psych INFO, Pub Med, and ASSIA. Three interfaces were used to look for these terms including the Google scholar, EBSCOHost and the Research gate. On the qualitative studies with the required inclusion, criteria were considered in the list of reference.
For inclusion in the reference list, studies were to be eligible based on the population it studied. In this case, it must involve the older adults above 65 years living in the community. Then the participants must be suffering from depression and involved in some social activities. The study needs to address the social activities of the older adults and that it used mixed methods though, the qualitative analysis was required (Roberson Jr, and Pelclova, 2014, pg. 138). Studies were included in case they met the intervention requirement whether the intervention was an individual based or group based or activity based. The intervention involved the mentors with different activity programs (Greaves, and Farbus, 2006, pg. 135).
The excluded studies included those that were not published in English, with participants below 65 years, which apply the qualitative analysis to conclude. Other studies excluded are those that involved long-term research on older people in institutions of care.
Prisma flow chart399415289560Records identified through database searching (n =3124 )
00Records identified through database searching (n =3124 )
3238500222885Additional records identified through other sources (n =124 )
00Additional records identified through other sources (n =124 )
1356995157480Records after duplicates removed (n =245 )
00Records after duplicates removed (n =245 )
4124325278765Records excluded (n =78 )
00Records excluded (n =78 )
1943100278765Records screened (n =166 )
00Records screened (n =166 )
4229100205105Full-text articles excluded, with reasons (n =13 )
00Full-text articles excluded, with reasons (n =13 )
1905000206375Full-text articles assessed for eligibility (n =22 )
00Full-text articles assessed for eligibility (n =22 )
1895475198120Studies included in qualitative synthesis (n =3 )
00Studies included in qualitative synthesis (n =3 )
1895475224790Studies included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis)(n = 6 )
00Studies included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis)(n = 6 )
A qualitative critical review appraisal form was used to measure the qualitative studies of the three articles used in the systematic review (Letts, Wilkins, Law, Stewart, Bosch, and Westmorland, 2007, pg. 1). The articles were identified by the names of the authors as Greaves and Farbus, (2006), Roberson and Pelclova, (2014) and Flatt, Hughes, Documét, Lingler, Trauth, and Albert, (2015). They were named first, second and third article respectively for the critical appraisal. Each of the articles was checked against the various criteria, and a rating of yes, no, and not given. All the three articles were rated yes for the review. The citation of the three articles was examined, and the first and the third article used the correct MLA citation while the second article used the correct APA citation. The study purpose was appraised on whether the study meets its purpose or states the research question. The first, second and the third articles used were found to have stated the research question. The literature review for each study was checked if it could justify the need for the study and its clarity and if the literature used was relevant or not. The literature reviews used in all the three articles were relevant to the area of study and justified the topic of study. Each study design was appraised and determined its appropriateness for the research question. The study design of each of the three articles was appropriate to address the research question. The appraisal was based on the studies meeting the rationale or its purpose and all the ethical and legal matters observed in the design. The theoretical or the philosophical perspective of each study in the three articles was examined and if the researcher identified it. The perception of the authors in the three articles was that the social activities in one way or the other affect the well- being and cognitive health of the older people.
The methods used in each study were examined and measured if they explain the philosophical underpinnings and the purpose of the study. Each of the three studies used the interviews, focus group and observation of participants, and the results were used to measure their achievement. Other factors of the articles appraised included the sampling methods if ethical issues covered data collection method whether it met the descriptive clarity or the collection strategies involved procedural Rigor. Methods of data analysis for the studies were appraised regarding the analytical rigor and theoretical connections. The three articles were found to have used the quantitative and the qualitative analysis. The analytical rigor looked at the inductiveness and the consistency of the analyzed data. The conclusion and implications of each study and its use for future implementation were appraised. Each conclusion of the study was examined in terms bringing all the ideas together and makes a judgment and any limitations experienced. All the three articles were rated yes for the conclusion.
For the data extraction, a Data extraction tool for analyzing review data was used to get the required information from the articles to be used in the study (Taylor, 2007, pg. 1). The tool also ensured that the consistency existed between the studies under review and the reviewers. For each study, the extracted data captured the date of extraction, identified the study regarding the author of the article, title, and the citation. Data extraction of these studies examined the qualities in meeting the inclusion criteria for review of the study, the study type, quality, design, analysis, findings, and population. The data extraction of the three articles captured all the criteria that each study meet including the names of the authors, article titles, inclusion criteria, design, analysis and the finding of the study in each article. The data in the three studies were subjected to the qualitative analysis where the various concepts were extracted and the themes identified. The data was as well used to generate new ideas and themes, and the qualitative researchers gave their comments and reports. All the three studies were able to establish the positive impacts of the social activities to older adults regarding well- being and cognitive health. Various themes emerging from each of the articles, for instance, in the first article, themes such as physical and social benefits emerged while in the second and third articles, all the social, health and physical and the psychological benefits emerged.
Analysis and synthesis of the secondary data
The first article, Greaves, and Farbus, (2006), studies the older adults with depression and socially isolated. The social interventions involving creativity and mentoring this group are used where the mentors introduced various individually tailored activities. 80 percent of the participants recorded positive changes after exposure to social activities. The second article, Roberson, and Pelclova, (2014), studies the effects of social dancing on the well-being of the older adults. The study involved survey and observation of the focus group in dance locations. Participant observation and the use of the questionnaires and the focus group helped to reach results. The social dance was found to contributing to physical activities. The third article, Flatt, Hughes, Documét, Lingler, Trauth, and Albert, (2015), a qualitative study involved the views of the older adults on various types of social activities and the purpose. Then various social activities like motion, game, creativity, and altruism identified. The identified purposes were belongingness, relaxation, enjoyment, and stimulation. The results associated different social activities to positive well- being and cognitive health.
Themes were identified in the first study where the responses of the participants showed increase alertness, self- worth and life optimism leading to psychosocial and physical health benefits emerging. In the second study, the physical health was the main theme identified among the participants who gained the physical activity since they indicated these themselves. The atmosphere was another theme identified as dancers got enjoyment since some indicated that they danced to have fun. In the third study, participants indicated that they had relaxation, enjoyment and felt the sense of belongingness which forms the main themes identified. Therefore, of all the three studies, the emerging themes highlighted most of the benefits the participants got in social activities involvement.
Flatt, J.D., Hughes, T.F., Documét, P.I., Lingler, J.H., Trauth, J.M. and Albert, S.M., 2015. A qualitative study on the types and purposes of social activities in late life. Activities, adaptation & aging, 39(2), pp.109-132.
Greaves, C.J., and Farbus, L., 2006. Effects of creative and social activity on the health and well-being of socially isolated older people: outcomes from a multi-method observational study. The journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126(3), pp.134-142.
Letts, L., Wilkins, S., Law, M., Stewart, D., Bosch, J. and Westmorland, M., 2007. Guidelines for critical review form: Qualitative studies (Version 2.0). McMaster University Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group.
Roberson Jr, D.N., and Pelclova, J., 2014. Social dancing and older adults: the playground for physical activity. Ageing International, 39(2), pp.124-143.
Taylor, M. (2007). Evidence-based practice for occupational therapists. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
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