Free What is the future of travel technology in the Middle East? How will the travel industry adapt and implement emerging technologies? Dissertation Example

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What is the future of travel technology in the Middle East? How will the travel industry adapt and implement emerging technologies?

Category: Agriculture

Subcategory: Branding

Level: Masters

Pages: 50

Words: 13750

WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF TRAVEL TECHNOLOGY IN THE MIDDLE EAST? HOW WILL THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY ADAPT AND IMPLEMENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES?
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Abstract
The travel industry in the Middle East has experienced tremendous growth in the recent decade. The growths experienced are attributed to the development of the technological innovations and inventions. Reviews of the study indicate that the Middle East is considered as one of the hubs of the tourism sector with visitors having a higher propensity to spend. The analysis illuminates that a significant part of the development is a by-product of the infusion of new technologies including artificial intelligence, virtual realities, and social media platforms amongst others. Given the growth of the internet and its roles in enhancing businesses, the Middle East has been a significant frontier in ensuring technologies bound to benefit the sector are incorporated into its model. The paper reveals that with adequate investments and a focus into the technologies of the industry, more functions would be automated while attention that is more significant will be given in enhancing the customer experience. The research study also looks into the possible ways in which the technological innovations consumed in the travel industry by the companies in the Middle East is comparable to other industries and businesses. The research takes a quantitative approach and collected secondary data for analysis. The data is then presented in tables, charts, and graphs for stakeholder analysis and drawing of conclusions. Recommendations are also given at the end of the study it helps in faster decision making from the study outcome.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Chapter one: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc506126943 h 51.1Background and purpose of research PAGEREF _Toc506126944 h 51.2 An Overview of the Travel Industry PAGEREF _Toc506126945 h 71.3 Evolution of Travel PAGEREF _Toc506126946 h 81.4 The Research Aim PAGEREF _Toc506126947 h 101.5 Research specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc506126948 h 101.6. Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc506126949 h 101.7. Research Study Overview PAGEREF _Toc506126950 h 111.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc506126951 h 132.Chapter two: literature review PAGEREF _Toc506126952 h 142.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc506126953 h 142.2 The Study Background PAGEREF _Toc506126954 h 142.4 The Travellers and Technologies They Need PAGEREF _Toc506126955 h 162.4.1 Labour Force Travels Requirements and Use of RFIDs Technology PAGEREF _Toc506126956 h 172.4.2 Family Travellers and Use of Virtual Reality Technology PAGEREF _Toc506126957 h 192.4.3 Corporate Travellers and the Use of Artificial Intelligence Technology PAGEREF _Toc506126958 h 20Interactive Voice PAGEREF _Toc506126959 h 212.4.4 Next Gen Travellers and the Use of Social Media Technology PAGEREF _Toc506126960 h 212.5 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc506126961 h 222.6 Empirical Framework PAGEREF _Toc506126962 h 272.7 Analysis of the Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc506126963 h 322.8 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc506126964 h 342.9 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc506126965 h 343.Chapter Three: Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc506126966 h 353.1 Introduction to Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc506126967 h 353.2 Review of the Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc506126968 h 363.3 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc506126969 h 363.4 The Study Population PAGEREF _Toc506126970 h 373.5 The Research Sample and Sampling Methods PAGEREF _Toc506126971 h 383.6 Data Collection Methods PAGEREF _Toc506126972 h 393.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc506126973 h 403.8 Data Presentation PAGEREF _Toc506126974 h 413.9 Ethical Research in the Data PAGEREF _Toc506126975 h 423.10 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc506126976 h 433.11 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc506126977 h 434.Chapter Four: Research Findings and Results PAGEREF _Toc506126978 h 454.1 Introduction to Research Findings and Results PAGEREF _Toc506126979 h 454.2 Review of the research objectives PAGEREF _Toc506126980 h 454.3 Findings on the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry PAGEREF _Toc506126981 h 464.4 Findings on direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements PAGEREF _Toc506126982 h 474.5 Findings on regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions PAGEREF _Toc506126983 h 484.6 Findings on possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry PAGEREF _Toc506126984 h 504.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc506126985 h 535.Chapter Five: Results Analysis and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc506126986 h 545.1 Introduction to results analysis and discussions PAGEREF _Toc506126987 h 545.2Discussions on the Findings PAGEREF _Toc506126988 h 545.3 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc506126989 h 596.Chapter Six: Conclusions and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc506126990 h 606.1 Introduction to conclusions and recommendations PAGEREF _Toc506126991 h 606.2 The Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc506126992 h 60

Chapter one: IntroductionBackground and purpose of researchIn the past decade, the Middle East has grown to represent a global hub for tourism and leisure. Those who visit the region admit that the product offerings ranging from its hotels, beaches, and culture have all played instrumental roles in facilitating the growth of the tourism sector in the Middle East. Nonetheless, it is instrumental to note that the developments experienced in the Middle East are attributed to a range of winds of change that have significantly transformed the operations of the tourism sector in the Middle east. Technological breakthroughs are known to have presented the ideal platform upon, which the industry has managed to showcase its product offerings and further advance them. Rapid innovation, government support, and investments have all played instrumental roles in facilitating the growth of the tourism sector in the region. The government has also provided the necessary infrastructure and financial incentives to help faster the pace of growth and innovation in the sector. Through the internet, the tourism sector is able to showcase its product offerings. Moreover, technological investments have made it easier for the sector to boost its performance by enhancing the travel booking processes, automation of customer management services and similar roles. The ability to integrate technological solutions in the sector have been instrumental in fostering the growth of the tourism sector in the Middle East.
Following the gains that have been received in the industry in various parts of the world, it is without a doubt that the region is poised for significant growths. Amicably, the Middle East is known for its richness in culture, perfect weather for tourists running away from cold winter seasons and vast resources derived from the gains of the oil industry. The development of technological inventions play instrumental roles in enhancing automation and possibly improving the pace at which the sector is providing its offerings. Similarly, the sector anticipates growth given the positive projections of foreign travel throughout the world. The Middle East will most likely benefit out of the development of several technological inventions, all of which have been designed to enhance the quality of services delivered to its clients.
Today, thanks to technology, travelling is no longer a tedious function as it used to be. In the yester years, travellers relied on travel agents to help them make plans regarding appropriate hotel bookings, choice of air travel and the possible places of visit in the country. However, technological inventions have played vital roles in enabling those in the sector make the process much easier. The benefits trickle to virtually all areas of the sector including the food and beverage sectors. Subsequently, developments in technology have also enhanced the security levels thereby giving travellers greater confidence of reliving the product offerings of the region. Thus, a review into the developments of the sector illuminates that the Middle East poses significant potential for being an ideal tourist hub throughout the world.
Normal considerations illuminate that curate and opportunists have taken up the roles to make life better for the travelers through the development of quality innovations that would see the travelers have awesome kind of experience during their travels (2013, p. 51). The developments of such innovations play a significant role in enhancing the quality of service received. The Middle East that has become a modal destination for many global travels in the current century. In this regard, it is evident that the tourism industry is bound for tremendous growth given the rate at which it keeps consuming the cutting edge technologies, innovations and inventions in the industry (Bereznoi, 2015 p. 14-6). The research study seeks to find out the future of the travel industry in the Middle East in the face of cutting-edge technological innovations, inventions, and assimilations in the Middle East countries that are exponentially expanding their accommodation for the global travel enthusiasts.
1.2 An Overview of the Travel IndustryThe travel industry involves the movement of people from one nation to another for various reasons. People move from their nations to others with an aim of experiencing new cultures and the new frontiers that the other countries present. Other people move to other nations because of their work requirements and the need to execute business deals. Since the time of industrializations, businesses that are undertaken across the international boundaries have become very common (Castles, De, & Miller, 2013). Therefore, there has been the increasing need for the development of strategic business partnerships that span the international borders and boundaries. As a result, the travel industry enjoys the growth it experiences due to various reasons and not necessarily for tourism purposes (Castles, De, & Miller, 2013).
Today, significant travellers take part in the movement from one point to another with the aim of experiencing dffrent cultures and view various scenic sites across the world. The need to take part in recreational activities has been gaining ground among several individuals and the corporates. As such, the number of people who have even dreamed of flying out of their countries has been significantly increasing. The different level of endowments that the countries have across the globe, based on their rich cultures, quality governance or unique education styles have played instrumental roles in encouraging several people to take part in travelling throughout the globe (Castles, De, & Miller, 2013). The following chart illustrates the trends in the people movements in the Middle East as compared to the western countries.

1.3 Evolution of TravelAs initially mentioned, prior to the development of the World Wide Web, the society was dependent on the help of tour and travel agencies to complete their missins. It was unfortunate that the say of the agents was final. Given that time for research, assessments and discoveries was also scarce, tour and travel activities were expensive affairs reserved for the rich. In fact, successful companies in the service industry attribute their growth to the era. Travellers had little options and alternatives as the information was scarce. The late 1950’s saw the industry warm up to air travel. Airlines were committed to use the chance to make a profit and exploit an avenue that was evidently poorly exploited. The emergence of computerized booking systems played vital roles in enhancing the efficiency of the sector. Accordingly, hotels also took up the growth positively and invested in desktop computers, thereby making it much easier to manage hotel bookings and check in new clients.
Over time, significant transformations took place in the tours and travel industry. The growth of the World Wide Web transformed the process of travel and accommodation bookings. Users could easily retrieve data from online spaces and make reservations without engaging agents. Besides, hotels also found it fit to like their services with those of other players in the sector such as the airline and shipping companies. A seamless approach for the management of travellers emerged. With time, travel interests started shifting. Corporate firms found it fit to hold their conferences abroad as strategies of exploring the world. World Conference activities also transformed the approaches used in the delivery of service in the sector. Technological investments would span across several domains including the communication devices, business tools, travel and conference tools. Those who invest in appropriate tools were more likely to attract potential clients and find positive reviews on their product offerings.
Given the use and growths of the industry in different dimensions, it is without a doubt that the tour and travel industry is bound to record significant growths. Countries in the Middle East have studies trends on travel and utilized projections based on predictive technologies to help enhance the growth propensity of their tourism sector (Zhu et al., 2012 p. 152). Using predictive technologies has played instrumental roles in enabling the countries to create appropriate reports that help govern the industry on the trends to adapt for the sake of the development of the sector.
Further, the need to have a system for comparative technological use should be addressed by the research study in additions to looking at the key areas and the types of technological tools that have been creating the changes in the travel industry in the Middle East countries. Further, the research must also aim to address the possible challenges are the negative consequences that can be encountered through the use of the technological tools in the travel industry. It also draws focus on to the development of an understanding of how the industry has changed over the years based on how the industry has changed in the event of the technological innovations.
1.4 The Research AimThe main aims of this research study are to put into context, the requirements that would be needed to understand the position of the travel industry in the Middle East in light of the increasing innovations and technological inventions that keeps changing the travel industry landscapes. As such, the following will be the key objectives to be addressed by the study
1.5 Research specific objectivesTo find out the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed
To find out the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements. Whether they are creating positive or negative impacts on the travel industry
To find out the need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry.
To find out the possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole.
To compare the technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry, and how the rates to the technological consumptions and assimilations in the other industries to determine if the rate is too fast.
1.6. Research QuestionsThe development of the research questions, like the statement of the null hypothesis, helps in underscoring the key areas that the research aims to address. Therefore, it has been used for the researchers to simulate key research questions that are in line with the research objectives. Some of the key research questions that will be needed to make conclusions are listed so that the research can have a definite direction and objectives to address. The study will use the following set of research questions.
What are the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed?
What is the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements?
Is there a need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry?
What are the possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole?
Can there be a comparable level that technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry, and how such rate may compare to the technological consumptions and assimilations in the other industries to determine if the rate is too fast?
1.7. Research Study OverviewTechnology continues to find its usage and enthusiasm in the travel industry, especially in the Middle East. Many companies, customers, and travel stakeholders find curate usage of the technological advancements in the travel industry to be so modal. As a result, nobody faces if the technological values and innovations are used in the right way. However, the use of the technological innovations have been found more useful for various companies, and customers created strong networking links that create strong and closer business to customer relations (Hakansson, 2015 p. 82).
Nonetheless, the use of technology in automating virtually all functions in the tourism and travel industry in the Middle East has posed significant challenges to its development. Notably, issues associated with customers’ database hacks that reveal customer details, as well as the glaring risk of impersonation using traveller details, remain core threats that faces the travel industry (Coleman, 2014). In the modern day, the advent of the terrorists and terror activities have increased at alarming rates. Allowing the conditioned use of the technical innovations may be used to inform the rising cases of insecurity that might be posed by the terror’s groups and the other people who may have no interests in the development of peace.
However, security developments have also proved to be efficient in ensuring that there is ample control of the way the society utilizes technology. Accordingly, there is a need to have a control level and moderations body that checks the extent to which the users of the travel industry are applying the technological innovations. The body would ensure that the innovations are used for the benefit of the industry and not necessarily to compromise the safety of the travellers and other users. In the recent, American airlines, united airlines have run into problems with a passenger because of the security threats that some passengers posed to the passengers on board their planes (De, 2016 p. 61). It is a known fact that mobile phones, tablets, and even computers are not safe to use on the planes, and they even have specially defined features called the flight mode. But what happens when a malicious person insists on using the phone in the plane and thus causes havoc to the passengers (Lewis, 2914 p. 7)? These are some of the common dangers that are easily avoided with the increased fascinations of the technological innovations that are used in the travel industry.
1.7 Chapter SummaryCutting edge technologies will play influential roles in the transformation of the performance of the tourism and travel industry. Particularly, The Middle east has emerged as a frontier and a leader in the sector. Technological inventions aim at enhancing the efficiencies of the operations of the industry. The chapter presented background information on how information technology has been used in the travel industry. The information was further developed by looking at the report objectives and the research questions that would be fit in understanding the position of the research study in the analysis of technological influence in the industry. The research overviews help to explain the positions of the research and the possible satisfaction as to why the conduct of the research study in the society would be useful in the development of the research projects. Further, the chapter gives a strong case and justifications of the research study that makes the second chapter. After it is ascertained that there is a need for research in the field, it would be useful for the researchers to delve much into the literature review. The literature review will examine the existing published work in the field and the present the research gap based on the research objectives in the proposal.

Chapter two: literature review2.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents the research with the opportunity to review the existing literature on the topic of the study. The topic is useful in presenting the background information of the study and addresses the theoretical framework of the study. Further, the chapter presents the literature review into detailed and the analysis of the research gap. Further, the topic is useful in dressing the key areas of the research study based on the research objectives. This means that for every objective, there will be a careful theoretical analysis that goes along with the analysis. Further, the chapter also presented the conceptual analogies and the presentations of the research limitations
2.2 The Study BackgroundBetter understanding of the roles of technology in the tourism industry is essential for the study. Besides, it is only through grasping the relevant details regarding the industry that stakeholders can identify the ideal technologies that they can invest in to enhance the operations of the sector. The study seeks to find out the overriding usage of the mobile phones alongside other IT innovations products into context as far as the technological innovations and inventions are concerned (Owen, Bessant, & Heintz, 2013 p. 86). Further, the study delves into the requirements that would be needed to understand the position of the travel industry in the Middle East in light of the increasing innovations and technological inventions that keeps changing the travel industry landscapes. As such, the following will be the key objectives to be addressed by the study. Moreover, the study addresses the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular reaps of travel industry governance that such changes are directed. In doing so, it seeks to find out the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements. On whether the technology is creating positive or negative impacts on the travel industry, it is important to quantify the points of impacts that technological innovations would aim to achieve.
The study on the travel industry also seeks to find out if there need for a regulatory body that can check on the developer of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry. As such, it aims to address the frameworks that would be used in place to check the extent of the technological use in the society, and participation in the travels department. Further, it will precisely delve into the possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole. Addressing the challenges will be useful in analyzing the work. Finally, it would be useful for the research study to address the key challenge that would arise out of the need to compare the technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry. This will help the researchers determine if the rate may compare to the technological consumptions and assimilations in the other industries to determine if the rate is too fast.
2.3 The Account of Innovation in the Travel Industry
Travelling involves the movement of people and luggage from one place to another The development of the formal travels dates back to the time of the development of the railway when Thomas cook headed the commission that initiated the first formal recorded travel agency back in the year 1841. Since then, tremendous changes have been the core of the changes in the industry with the Wright brothers developing the first successful planes that created significant change in the air travel. Air travel introduced a buzz around the need and for travels with the people enjoying both speed and efficiency. Since then, the industry has never taken a back seat in ensuring that the travel experience becomes very memorable. In the years before the internet, computers played important roles at the travel terminals in efficiently arranging customer data, while at the same time, making them easy to retrieve. With the advent of the internet in the 1990’s and the early millennium years, reservations and booking of both hotels and accommodation industry was made very effective through the internet platform. American Airlines, alongside IBM, introduced the SABRE software to create efficiency in managing air travels. Today, the industry has developed great trends in the adoption of different technologies that have created different platforms for the growth and development of the industry requirements.
2.4 The Travellers and Technologies They NeedThe continuous evolution of technology has played instrumental roles in the transformation of the tours and travel industry. Widespread use of the internet has played critical roles in the change of the way the industry delivers services to its customers. Accordingly, Xiang, Magninand Fesenmaier (2015; p. 247) connote that one of the benefits of the sector can be realized in the coordination process through communication technology. High speed internet connections allows instant connection and partner services for clients throughout the world. The integration of communication technologies, which promote instant communication have been influential in enabling planners to make timely bookings. An assessment into the modes and means of hotel bookings in the industry throughout the world indicates that 82% of travellers rely on online tools to make travel bookings and arrangements. Subsequently, a further 71% rely on the internet to make decisions regarding their travel (Hoffman & Offutt, 2015; p. 11) .Xiang, Magninand Fesenmaier (2015; p. 247) illuminate that the use of technology helps to foster seamless interaction and data persistence all across the booking channels. The effects of the process are that the booking process becomes a natural and smooth process personalized to meet the expectations of the traveller. Direct booking technologies have been efficient in helping hotels to eliminate incidences of double booking, which would have had dire consequences on the reputation of service providers. The Middle East ranks amongst the top travel destinations in the world. Its product offerings and the ease of integration of technology have been instrumental in the transformation of the way its tours and travel industry perform. The growths experienced in the specific industries are also evidence of the reliability of technology in enhancing the performance of the sector.
The graph below indicates some of the most prominent cities in the tour and travel industries. Dubai, found in the UAE, takes the lead. Technology use is touted to have played an instrumental role in transforming the performance of its tourism sector.
s
Source: https://www.statista.com/topics/962/global-tourism/
2.4.1 Labour Force Travels Requirements and Use of RFIDs TechnologyThese are the people who move to the Middle East or out of Middle East out of job requirements. They move into the Middle East because they have secured lucrative job opportunities in the pace, or they move as business expatriates out of the region to other places across the global market. The travelers seek employment opportunities to the numerous multinational companies that are mushrooming in the region, especially in the UAE were Abu Dhabi, and Dubai are taking the lead in offering people settling job opportunities.
Travel companies depend on predictive technologies to determine the demands of their guests. As such, they have included cutting-edge technologies in the travel services that help the people to focus on their jobs even before they make the travels. The people are given convenience in the traveling needs. As such, they have been allowed to make an early booking, and the convenience makes them reach their workplaces in time without reporting later. When it comes to convenience at the airports that have eliminated the long queues that people used to endure during a security check and personal biodata verification. Further, the use of the face recognition and the voice recognition tools pioneered by such companies like Travelport & AMADEUS have been instrumental in the contribution to record time clearance from the airports. As if that is not enough, the industry has also been the surging adoption of the luggage tracking tools that means key documentations necessary for the career of the one are not misplaced or lost. As such, they use RFIDS to chive this critical goal and thus making more people fans of the air travel needs. According to Mijix.com, the use of the RFIDS technology is saving the travelers time and money, attributes that are very important to the employee persons seeking travel to the Middle East CITATION moj16 l 1033 (mojix.com, 2016). According to RFID Journal, the use of the RFIDs in luggage tracking is one of the most notable innovations that are improving the travels industry with much success CITATION RFI16 l 1033 (RFIDJournal, 2016). According to their projections, the following is the expected trends in the performance of RFIDS technology in the tracking of the travelers’ luggage. The expected benefits that travel industry will benefit from the use of the RFIDs while tracking luggage for the travelers is poised for growth as shown in the below illustration of data.

Source: CITATION RFI16 l 1033 (RFIDJournal, 2016)2.4.2 Family Travellers and Use of Virtual Reality Technology
These are mainly tourists who visit the Middle East. Tourists visit the Middle East countries for leisure activities. They are the people fascinated by the beauty of the natural landform features, animals and culture. Such people are fascinated with different kinds of technology. One of the technologies of virtual reality. Virtual reality technology is the projection of a place through a three-dimensional technique that makes the place appears real. The use of the virtual reality, that project place of interest like Dubai and Abu Dhabi have seen many people get interested in traveling to the place. The virtual reality allows the prospective travelers to have a first-hand review of the place they want to visit before making such travel. As such they get to know the exiting features that await them, their location and their surroundings. As such, the virtual reality technology has been very useful to the industry. The travel agencies have also made use of the virtual reality tools to carry out marketing. For instance, Thomas Cook, the renowned travel agent used the Samsung’s Gear VR headset to show the clients experiences in key destinations like Dubai and New York, and this aroused interested of the travelers to make appointments and travel to such destinations. Such tools are very useful creating a different perspective in the adaption of technology in the travels industry. Clients can, therefore, view hotel rooms, airports, planes, and cabins with up to a 360-degree view that arouses their travel interests. With such automated and highly technology-dependent tools, the trends in the travel industry are likely to change significantly.
2.4.3 Corporate Travellers and the Use of Artificial Intelligence TechnologyArtificial intelligence is the ability to make use machines to work like human thinking especially in making decisions thinking and forecasting. They generate loads of information about the market that is not only accurate but also very beneficial to the travelers, the travel agencies, and the travel destinations. The travelers can predict the next kind of weather in their destination and thus make most appropriate planning for their landing through the analysis of the Artificial intelligence platforms. Further, the travel agencies can be able to make use of the natural language to ridge the people of different cultures to communicate together. Something like google translate has bridged the communication divide between differed t cultures. The travel agencies that make use of the AI platform are likely to realize higher customer loyalty. Robotics has also been used to make travel arrangements, organizing people and at times saving people, thus allowing the owner’s companies to save on cost and tie while at the same tie improving quality and accuracy of their services. Though there are imminent job cuts, the merits far override the demerits. On the same note, the travel destinations can also make use of the AI platform to offer quality customer analysis and observation models. The use of the AI platforms can be useful in identifying the customer movement trends, patterns and the possible course of their movements, thus helping the destination service providers to plan effectively for them.
Interactive VoiceAnother spectacular invention of the industry is the interactive voice. Developments into such technologies provide a platform for interactive voice, artificial intelligence and virtual realities. The integration of such technologies in facilitating service delivery in the sector have transformed how other parts in the world are using information systems to create an ideal experience for their clients. Arguably, western countries such as the U.S, have made remarkable transformations in the use of similar technologies. It is expected that the Middle East will also follow suit, given the willingness and propensity of its travellers to spend.
2.4.4 Next Gen Travellers and the Use of Social Media TechnologyThe younger generation is the avid technology consumer. The population has a higher likelihood of having disposable income and a greater propensity to spend. As such, they have taken to the use of social media like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to challenges their peers through feeds to take part in the great places they visit. They share photos, posts in the form of texts and videos to their feeds that influences many of their friends to take up the initiatives and follow them to their destinations.
The use of social media platforms has been efficient in generating new mechanisms for reserving hotel bookings, creating reviews and possibly identifying the product offerings of given establishments. A typical case is the way Trip Advisor platforms have emerged to be highly efficient in enabling travellers to make informed decisions regarding their travel. Analysts project that the Middle East enjoys significant product reviews, which play influential roles in encouraging travellers to visit the region.
The graph below illuminates how the use of social media tools have transformed the landscape for the use of technology in the tours and travel industry.

The social media platforms encourage connectivity, instant messaging and sharing of images. The infiltration of the technology posits potential growths and development for the industry.
2.5 Theoretical FrameworkThe movements of people from place to place and their insistent use of the technological improvements can be explained theoretically. There are several theories that explain how and why people move from one place to another and how they assimilate the technological knowledge and improvements in their journeys. Key among the theoretical foundations for people movements are the Time, interaction, and performance theory that was proposed in the years 1991 by McGrath. However, media naturalness theory that was initiated after the advent of the internet tried to create new dimensions and explanations on how the technological values have influenced travel from the contributions of Kick in 2004. The two theories were an addition to the previous two theories that aimed at explaining why people have integrated the technological improvements in the travels. Initially, it was the media richness theory and the social presence theories that explained the constrictions of the technological values and advantages to the field of peoples travel and adaptation of technologies in such travels (Jaeger & Burnett, 2010). These theories are explained inside the Social de-individuation theory that explains the development of technological innovations in the travel requirements that the people have been receding over time.
The time, interaction, and performance theory posts that everything that people do are normally based on the time available is always modal and in many cases, they have multifunctional social values (De, Beijer & Den, 2015 p. 3-5). Therefore people travel from place to place but the time factor remains very important and critical. This calls for the development of travel system that would reduce the amount of time that people spend on the travel functions. This possibly explains why there have been improvements over time on the modes of transport. From the use of tracking where the camels and other beasts of burden were initially used as modes of transport, man has ironed the traveling ideals to automobiles, trains, cycles, airplanes and even rockets. More innovations are in place recovery other time that aims to reduce the amount of time people take between destinations.
Accordingly, the theory further develops a concept that whenever people travel, they developed multiple objectives to achieve. Therefore, traveling from place to another, however expensive may be undertaken because the value of the travel achievable from the traveling modes becomes higher than the amount spent on the traveling. It would make no economic or natural sense for the people to spend more amount of money on the traveling process, a value that would be more than the achieved targets (Vogel, 2014 p. 28). The theory, insinuates that making time travels is a useful way to address the need to envelop the economic values in the society. People travel to carry out economic duties, and so such duets would not be used if the traveling would not be available. Therefore, it is useful for the members of the society to find ways to address their need to achieve a goal, and so they make travels.
The Media naturalness theory developed by Kock, between the years 2001 and the year 2004 attaches the developments realized in the travel industry to the concept of evolutions (Ampoma, 2013). The theory posits that like the evolution of man over the period from the Stone Age theory, the maturity of the brain and the mind have been conditioning. Therefore, the theory believes that the innovations realized in the travel industry are as a result of the natural maturity of the brain. It means, therefore, that the developments should have come about all the same even without the need for research and developments. To explain why they are us in the travel industry, Kock bevies that once the innovations have been made, it is the nature of man to utilize the nearest tools available to solve their problems. As such, the innovations and technological inventions have found variance usage in the travel industry.
Initially, Daft and Angel developed the media-rich fullness theory in the year 1986 (Parks, & Starosielski, eds., 2015). According to their theory, the usefulness of any media explains how much the media can be applied to different platforms. Therefore, the most applied media in the lives of humanity is a strategy to solve problems and it has the highest number of functions. Therefore, in the travel industry, it is always useful to analyze which media would be most appropriate in addressing the targets number of challenges. Therefore, it is useful and important to realize that the need to have a rich tool for solutions generations must be the tool that has the highest number of functions.
The Social presence theory that was initially used since the years 1976 was developed by Short (Kolb, 2014 p. 163). According to the theory, the level of media usefulness depends on the social presence. That is the innovation that is most present or available have the highest degree of usage in the society (Garcia, R., 2005 p. 380-1). Therefore, any tool that is very useful in the society must be the one that is most readily available. The theory, therefore, argues that with innovation, however good they may be, if they are not readily available to be used in the industry, then they cannot be useful at all. The context of the social travels and technological usage, it explains why though there are faster moving objects like the rockets that are used to access the moon, they are not readily available, and so they are rarely put to use in the traveling industry. Plans remain to be the most effective and useful for traveling across the international borders as they are socially available.
The social presence theory, therefore, argues that technology is on technology available if it can be afforded by the users (Treem, & Leonardi, 2013 p. 143-5). Supercomputers that can carry out powerful integration analysis, but they are not used in the travel industry. This means they such computers are not socially present in the society. Therefore, the need for the use of the media in the travel industry should only happen when the media is socially available. This is the essence of the use of the social allocations of informational technology. The theory further posits that the society must develop a rapport with the technology so that the need to have an application of the media would be most useful and viable model for the development of the social values and elements.
The SIDE theory also called the social identity model for personal deindividualization effects that attempt to draw a difference between the cognitive and the values developed in the society and the application of the technology in the travel industry (Hogg, 2016 p. 14). The theory, therefore, explains that with use of the technological values not at the individual level but the business level. The use of the technological value is important in the development of successful journey in the assimilation of the technology, obey for the business usability. This explains why the technological values have been usefully applied in the development of the business social elements.
The theoretical modes are useful in underscoring the explanation of the factors that may show why the innovations are fast finding usability in the travel industry. The theories show that generally, people have the higher affinity to solve problems using the technological innovations that would be applicable in the travels industry (Abdelkafi, Makhotin, & Posselt, 2013 p. 134). The man can mature in the mid, and such maturity means creating something new with every level. Further, people have become more intelligent, thinking and experimenting every day to find an easier way of solving problems.
Once the solutions are in place, they look at the cost-benefit analysis and find the most efficient way to apply the theory. Therefore, the theoretical foundation of the research shows that the need to include the technological innovations in the industry remains inevitable. People are likely to create new solutions to various challenge in the travels industry. Such new solutions are populated and applied in the development of solutions that would be most useful to customers who travel. The businesses are aware that most of the customers need the most useful and succinct solutions.
As such, they have been on the forefront in creating solutions that would be very critical to the success of the customers. Therefore, innovation in the industries, especially the travels industry will be higher over the coming decades (Hawken, Lovins, & Lovins, 2013 p. 99). What remains to be seen for the travel industry is to know how the innovations are likely to create impacts in the society. Today, people can book their flights and hotels from the convenient of their phones. Travelling has been fast-tracked as severity has been increased at the airports (Smith, & Greenfields, 2013). There has been tremendous achievements that technology has applied in improving the speed and the safety of the planes. But will the industry remain significantly viable over the long period when innovations and inventions are fast on creasing on the technological, economic and social fronts?
2.6 Empirical FrameworkVarious research studies have been advanced to try to explain the position of the innovations and inventions in the travel sector. However, the research studies have not been exhaustive in addressing the challenge that the sector may have been facing especially in addressing the possible future directions that the industry is trending into because of technology. The travel industry is very committed to assimilating any technology that arises and promises to improve the level of service delivery (Van Aartsengel, & Kurtoglu, 2013 p. 138). However, the development of such initiates has not been very viable as most of the changes that technology introduces in the industry are not well planned for, but are assimilated all the way. In the era of artificial intelligence, robotics and other advancements in technology, what is likely to be assimilated next by the travel industry may prove to be a major point of concern to the manner in which people over and get accommodated in other places (Ford, 2015 p. 59).
Middle East countries are equally committed to the use of the technological innovations. Today, airlines from the Middle East have been highly consuming technological innovations that have created competitiveness and values in the operational markets (Oum, & Yu, 2012 p. 47). This section looks into the various research studies that have been undertaken in the society, and how the advancements in the technological innovations have been carrying value and challenges that the save time for the operant in the industry. The aim is to try to find out if the future of the industry can be conceptualized from the development of the assimilated technological solutions in the process of services delivery by the traveling agencies from Middle East industries (Okumus, Altinay, & Chathoth, 2010).
In the year 2010, Bennett, and Maton undertook research study that focused on addressing the technological innovations on the students and how the students may be able to apply the technological requirements in solving out their problems in the market. The youth, who are the students are considered the technological native from the research study report (Bennett & Maton, 2010 p. 321-4). However, the research outcome indicated that there had been false assumptions that it is only the youth who are vexed so much into the technological underpinning.
The research found the widespread popularity of the various technological solutions in the industry. It is therefore useful for the research study outcome to address the key challenges that have been developed over the period. The research looked into the critical dichotomy of the digital divide and realized that the people who are assigned the role and the name also grow into adults. Further, the research found out that they also need to talk to the adult’s very often further showing that the use of technologies and innovations in the business fields is not a preserve of a minority, but of a majority (Bennett & Maton, 2010 p. 330-1). Therefore, the applications of these business innovations in the travel industry are cutting across all the ages, and nobody is exempted from the use of technologies needed in the research model. This finding shows that the availability and use of the technology in the travel industry are very important to all the people.
In the year 2015, a more recent research study was undertaken by Buckingham to understand the meaning of technological literacy, and especially among the younger generation whose populations arguably remain strongest the assimilations of the innovations. The research looked into the possession of the digital knowledge the technological innovations to the application of the versions social sphere lie in educations and the development of business generating activities, including the travel industry (Buckingham, 2015 p. 23). According to the research report, there is no need to have a strong presence in the digital literacy skills to assimilate the technological innovations. As such, the innovations and the inventions that have been advanced for the use in the business fields have been receiving greater assimilation because they are not complex, but simple (Buckingham, 2015 p. 23).
More people have been adopted to improve the service deliveries. The research study further intends out that in the travel industry, the development of the technological innovations have been backed by the students’ who seek studies from over the international boundaries (Buckingham, 2015 p. 31). Such students’ travel a lot and are always committed to the use of the technological innovations to ma ether role more refined and simplified. The research underscores the facts that the adoptions of the technological requirement in any field like in education or travel are all hinged on the individual’s knowledge of the assimilated technology (Aziegbe, 2016 p. 335). Fortunately, the knowledge requirement has been low, giving more room for the development of the technological ideas in the travel industry.
The travel industry is also largely influenced by the technological usage to determine the most appropriate facilitator consume. Notably, it is an industry that is highly influenced by the peer pressure and the opinion of others. As such, most of the travelers would like to know the preferences that they fellow travelers had at the facilities that they want to consume. As such, there are online reviews that have been undertaken using technological innovations that arrival useful in the development of success in the determination of here to stay or which airline to use (Hays, Page, & Buhalis, 2013). Trip advisor and other rating site play a key role in showing the users the quality of service of a facility can offer based on the past experiences. The travelers, therefore, look into the ratings before they take the travels. This shows that there is value in the use of the technological innovations that ultimately influence the success of the industry. Casalo, Flavian, Guinaliu, and Ekinci undertook the research study in the year 2015 to understand how the travelers make use of the ratings online to choose their destinations. The research found out that a strong majority of the travelers, more than 87% make use of the trip advisors website to look into their destination’s ratings. This is a strong indication that technological innovations are not elements to be wished away from the travel industries (Casalo, Flavian, Guinaliu, & Ekinci, 2015 p. 29).
They have to be embraced, and such embrace only works to improve the customer experience and service delivery. The use of the facilities, therefore, has resulted in the development of the traveler’s community who influences one another and the choice that can be made about the various trips. This research study creates a practical overview of how the technological innovations have been useful in the development of successful pitching of business services in the industry. Further, it shows that success can be achieved only if the society is committed to sharing information with one another, and when the need to have reviews come calling (Casalo, Flavian, Guinaliu, & Ekinci, 2015 p. 34-6).
Travel agencies business and the general planning of the traveling needs are fast taking the form of online platform development. In the modern day, Online Travel agencies, OTAs are also fast becoming common in the modern day (Law et al., 2015 p. 431-2). This points to the standard to which the industry is taking up the development of the technological trends and values in the modern day and age. Many businesses have taken to pitch their business offers online because it is the place where many customers frequent and because it is also an achievable option for the business pitch. Therefore, it has been a useful way in which most of the traveling firms and companies improve their service offers. Technological innovations are therefore fast taking track of the development of values in the files that would be useful for the achievement of the requisite success.
Based on this analysis, it is useful to look into the research project developed by Xiang, et al., in the year 2015. The research focused on the development of the ideal that would be significant for the market that applies the technological innovations in the industry (Lusch. & Nambisan, 2015). For instance, the research focuses on the development of an understanding of the consumer behaviors and preference patterns that would be useful in reaching out to the customers with the competitive products that they would buy. The research project report indicated that many travel customers prefer online based booking and planning of their travels. More than 70% of all those who traveled in the year 2014 required the online media as a way of developing a sound knowledge about their transport requirements. Many customers admitted that they have been comparing the fight process for instance online before making a booking. Further, many other customers admitted to having used the OTAs services that have been increasingly becoming dominant in the online media (Amini et al., 2015 p. 1549-50).
Siang further noted that there’s strong affinity or the travel agencies that full offer their services online. Owing to the high amounts that would be incurred in need to collect information or develop data or decision making in the travel industry, there is a significant demand for online information that has been usefully important for the success and the development of the business success. The extent of the business success depends on the how the business can offer service delivery model and promises online to the customers. For instance, those businesses that have a strong online presence in their OTAs platform can generate more revenues from higher sales that they can get from the referrals marketing requirements.
Tough researchers have admitted that majority of the technology enthusiast is the generation Y group of society members, he did not rule out the contributions of the other groups in the technological commotions in the travel industry. Using social media for marketing and reaching out to the customer has also become a very common feature on the use of technology in the travel industry. Social media can keep the key customers under close watch and give the personalized interactions with their chosen business brands. The close connecting and associations mean that the business can be able to arouse purchase interests in the ids of the customer, and so when their time to travel arises, they have no option but to choose the business organizations that have been close to them and that have been chatting with them. It shows that technology has become a very common tool in the travel industry that is fast developing into the defector platform for the service delivery.
2.7 Analysis of the Research GapMost of the research studies that have been undertaken in the travel industry assimilation of the technological values have been vested in the past experiences. No research aims to address the possible future positions of the industry in the face of the IT assimilations. Based on the trends, it has been observed that technology used in the travel industry have richly contributed to the service delivery platforms in the industry. Therefore it has been very useful in developing a trends analysis based on the industry statistics into the prediction of the possible future position of the travel industry in light of the technological innovations and inventions. This research study will be therefore very useful in developing a possible prediction of what the future of the travel industry holds especially for the companies and the countries in the Middle East.

2.8 Conceptual Framework228600189230Direction of the technological innovations in the travel industry
Comparing technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry
Development of regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions
Understanding possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry
The future positions of the Travel Industry
Direction of the technological innovations in the travel industry
Comparing technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry
Development of regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions
Understanding possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry
The future positions of the Travel Industry

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2.9 Chapter SummaryThe chapter addressed the elements of the literature review. It was a useful way in which the project research developers highlighted the analysis of the existing literature and the knowledge gaps required for the development of the business success. The chapter began with the chapter instruction showing what would be covered; the dressed the theoretical framework of the study. Further, the research went ahead and addressed the empirical framework before delving on to the research gap analyses. The gap analysis is based on the theoretical and the empirical frameworks. The chapter also looked into the conceptual framework to show the interrelatedness of the version dependent and independent variables as used in the research study.

Chapter Three: Research Methods3.1 Introduction to Research MethodologyThe outcomes of a research process are dependent on the methodology used. The reliability, viability and validity of a research pegs its outcomes on the research methods utilized. The research method provides feasible mechanism of data usage and its potential analysis. Through research methods teams can develop better understanding of what needs to be undertaken. The research method also offers relevant information regarding the population targeted in the study and thus their impacts on the study outcomes. The study research design is, therefore, a way in which the researchers can operationalize the otherwise theoretical descriptions of the research models into a practical reality. The way in which the researchers can change the abstracts to the real value in the study of the research requirements constitute the research methods and models. The chapter will also develop a sampling model for the data collections and analysis.
A sample is a subset of the whole system or pupation of the travel industry businesses that can be targeted with the research study (Zikmund et al., 2013). Sampling models help to identify the modalities that can be used to select the people or the portion of the population to participate in the research. The chapter will also address the data collection methods used in the assessment, evaluation and analysis of the study. Once the data collection methods are adequately addressed, the study will demonstrate better understanding of the data analysis models that would be useful for the research study. Data once analyzed needs to be presented in a model that will allow easy reading, analysis, understanding and decision making. Data presentations models will, therefore, be in place to help the stakeholder to know what happen s from the data analyzed (Kimball, & Ross, 2013). Finally, the research will focus on the development of an understanding of data collection ethical observations and assumptions as well as the limitations of the study. The chapter, therefore, aims to operationalize the required research study model.
3.2 Review of the Research ObjectivesTo find out the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed
To find out the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements for the Middle East.
To find out if there is a need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry.
To find out the possible challenges that may manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole.
To compare the technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry, and how such rates may compare to the technological consumptions and assimilations in the other industries to determine if the rate is too fast.
3.3 Research DesignThe research will take the form of qualitative design. A qualitative research design model is one that makes use of the collected and published data in a given field. The qualitative research design is useful in the development of an understanding of how the trends in the market have an impact on the market values and its requirements (Wedel, and Kamakura, 2012). An analysis of the trend and tie series demonstrates information flow in the industry for a particular period. The analysis is useful in creating a visual representation of the past data, and making the assumed trends to project into the future. The qualitative data collection models are therefore important where there are sufficient historical data collected over a long period and this the researchers can access and model the data into a meaningful and a coherent piece of work.
The research design will be avenues that the researchers will deploy to ensure that there is a strong understanding of the core requirements in the market that wood model the variable data take an observational analysis. The major advantage of the kind of data and the general research is that the data is likely to be accurate as the processes that the data gap through publications are normally very thorough and quality is observed (Guest, Namey, and Mitchell, 2012 pp.). This makes the verification and the analysis of the data to be a critical element in the development of the research databases. The researchers, therefore, will focus on the local libraries, published travel documents as the technological advancements that have been significantly used in the travel industry. The data collected for the research study, therefore, will be able to have traces and verified source that can be used to ascertain the research reliability and validity.
3.4 The Study PopulationThe study populations are the total number of people who would be affected by the research project. In this case, the study population would be all the countries in the Middle East and the business organizations that operate the travel industry. The responses to the questionnaires would be all the employees that work in such organizations and all their customers that they have served in the last financial year. Nonetheless, a study sample will have to be employed given the fact that there are many layers in the sector and cannot all be accommodated into the study (Creswell, & Creswell, 2017). However, for the research validity and accuracy, it would be better to include all the possible stakeholders to the elements presented in the study. It would be in the best interest of all the stakeholders to inform the members of the impending research so that all the members are adequately presented and participated. The study population should be well selected and carefully defined as it has a large amount of determinant factor that would influence the outcome of the research.
The higher the population used in the study, the higher the level of the study accuracy (Csikszentmihalyi, & Larson, 2014). However, not all the research studies can address the issues of concern for the study. In fact, in some research studies, the populations are fully included because they are few. However, in places where the participant of the study were too many, samples were considered the ideal fit. To retain the high-level credibility and the research accuracy, it is always useful to develop a model that would select and differentiate the members who would participate and the members who would not participate. The selections of the participant are based on the available number that can be supported through the research project and models. The section of a given position of the population that needs a particular attribute would comprise the sampling models.
3.5 The Research Sample and Sampling MethodsA research sample is the portions of the population that the researchers would be interested in taking part in the research. Data sampling is a logical and a scientific process that is used to separate the responses from the non-respondents. Therefore, various sampling techniques could be used. In this research study model, it would be important to include a simple random sampling technique for the research. A random sample is where the researchers subject the whole population with the research response questionnaires, given all of the opportunity to participate in the research and then allowing only a few to participate based on the first come and first serve basis. The simple random sampling is a useful model when the population’s members have similar characteristic distributions. The outcome of the study can then be generalized for use on the world population through a reactions model of generalizations.
The sample is the number of people who have participated in the research in the actual sense. The higher the sample ration to the given populations of the study, the higher the possible research accuracy and reliability. The sampling techniques are also useful for the development of the business organizations that cannot be fully governed by the research team. A sample is a representational value (Veal, 2017). Once all the samples are identified and singled out, they are given the opportunity to make a debut in the sales opportunities for the travel industries in the Middle East. The samples, however, should be carefully rolled about to avoid any issue of bias. When given to a population selection, say for instance the gender distribution, there are high chances that the research may be biased. Therefore, adequate and useful balancing of the research samples and models with the key characteristics of the research respondents. As such, people of the same gender, age groups research model.
3.6 Data Collection MethodsData collection is the process of selecting and arranging the data needed for the analysis in the research. It involves the deliberate actions that are taken to identify the possible data sources and to extract the data that is relevant to the study. Data collection methods are useful ways to get what the research study needs to operationalize the work (Hair, 2015). The data collected are then used to arrange the data within the line of the operations of the research. The data collection modes can be based on the research design. There are cases where the research data collection methods are secondary and another case, they are primary. Depending on the kind of the research design, the researchers can choose the kind of data collection that they would need. The secondary data collection models should accompany quantitative research like the one that would take. However, if the research were qualitative, then the data collection would be a primary model.
The data collection process is one that will be done from the published documents for the research study. It will be done from books, or journals, magazines and other periodicals that have rich information about how technological innovations can develop the travel industry. The data collected from the published materials, will be fully acknowledged so that nobody would lay claim of plagiarism cases in the research. The research will then develop a database that will be useful for the analytics development of its success. Data collection models being observed form the reason as to why the process has enough ground to do data analysis. Data collection methods are the foundation of the research data analysis, and therefore must be done accurately (Gale et al., 2013 p. 117). Collecting the data over a long period is useful. However, for this study, it is also important to collect data that would be most relevant. Data that is not more than three years old would be preferred.
3.7 Data AnalysisThe data analysis programs are useful in identifying the kinds of transformations that would give success in the field of the research. Data analysis involves then the development of data values that would be achieved. The analysis of the secondary data will be undertaken through the development of descriptive models of the trends that exist in the market and the industry. Therefore, it is important that various key analysts like the trends can be in pace to help in identifying the core areas in which the work has been researched. The impacts and the influence that has been recorded in the development of the technological innovations in the travel industry for the Middle East countries will be put into focus. Therefore, it would be useful for the achievement of the successful ventures that would create successful market analysis and understanding of the positions that innovations have taken in the travel industry
3.8 Data PresentationData presentations or the research study model will be in one of tables, charts, graphs and diagrams where necessary. The study will rely on visualizations as the ideal mechanism of data presentation. Data visualization refers to the process of making the analyzed data to be in graphical format on the key areas for the ease of decision making. Data development and data analysis are all essential as they make it easier for the audience to read and understand research content (Schoenherr, & Speier‐Pero, 2015 p. 123-4). Data presentation allows the development of the meaning of the data at a glance. It is an important element that helps the decisions makers to read the trends and develop meaning and understanding out of the analyzed data. In many cases, the business executives interested in the data outcome would consider reading the data presented in the graphical forms to develop meaning instantly. It is a useful phenomenon that plays to improve the usability of the data presented.
In this research study model, it would be necessary to present the technological trends applicable in the travel industry in Middle East. The results garnered out of the process will be helpful in the formation of informed opinions regarding the impacts of technology to the industry. Data development and data analysis are all useful ways in which the data would be derived from the research. The graphical models are well selected to help in drawing closer attention and developing the insights that the data would present during the time of its analysis.
3.9 Ethical Research in the Data
These are the good practice that should be conversed in the research. Ethical considerations mean ensuring such practice that would not derail the social value of the research but give it more meaning. The development of the research process is a way in which various social groups may be aggrieved, however, through the development of safe operation and standard practices, it becomes very useful for the data developers and the researchers to practice good practice stat would ensure the research credibility and the reliability of the analysed data. Data development, analysis, and understanding are all important features that would help in creating more value to the data being developed. In this case, the data values would go a long way in addressing the key social elements without drawing criticisms from any section or members of the public.
First, all the data sources to be used in the research will be acknowledged. The acknowledgments will be useful in ensuring that the data are authentic in that plagiarized contents are avoided from the data models. Therefore, the development of the citations and giving credit to the information that the researchers have received from other fields would all be useful ways in which the business organizations would be able to dress the challenges that may exist in the data. Data analysis and data modeling, therefore, must only be cried out within the guidelines of the best practice are the social domains (Schoenherr, & Speier‐Pero, 2015, p. 123). The use of the data analysis and the research project as a whole should not be an avenue of drawing conflicts and contradictions with the social values and requirements.
There are important elements that would be addressed in the data analysis are influenced and involved in the development of the research. For instance, it will be expressively stated that the outcome of the researcher should not be used for witch-hunting in the business organizations. The data presented in the research report should be used as a guide only, and should more severe actions like employee dismissal be necessary, then the research must be supported by other research study reports. It means that no actions should be wholly developed from the outcome of this research study reports without involving the views of the researchers.
Moreover, the research will only seek to make use of the publicly available data. The data analysis must also ensure that there is the strong development of value ethics in the collection of the data in such a way that classified data and other data that are not publicly traded are not included in the research study model. Therefore, it becomes useful that the research team can dress the values and the challenges that may exist in the process models without the development of the challenges to be realized in the study models.
3.10 Limitations of the StudyThe study will be limited to some resources availability. First, the amount of time available for the development of the study is very short. Then it means that the horizon of the study cannot be expanded to a very wide margin. Therefore, it because necessary that sampling is done that reduces the reliability of the research study from 100%. Further, the study will be limited to the publicly available data that can be accessed for the research. It means that classified data and data that travel companies in the Middle East do not allow to be used by the outsiders will not be included in the research outcome. It is therefore useful that the research developers a strong link into the areas where data analysis and development may be limited and develop a strong way in which they can be reduced.
3.11 Chapter SummaryThe chapter looked at the research methods to be applied in the study. It was a useful way in which the readers could explain how the research would be designed and the key factors to be included in the research design. Further, it was to include how the research would identify the population of study as well as the research study sample and sampling models. The research methods topic also went ahead to describe the data collections, data analysis, and the data presentations together it the underlying factors in the data development and data success. The data presentations using charts, tables and graphs or diagrams where necessary were also included elements in the discussion about the topic. The topic also addressed issues of data analysis and the limitations of the study. The information presented in the chapters were, therefore, very useful in the development of the researched work that would go a long way in creating an understanding of chapter four where data collected will be analyzed, and further to chapter five where the data analysis will be discussed into details.

Chapter Four: Research Findings and Results4.1 Introduction to Research Findings and ResultsThe chapter seeks to offer information regarding the findings of the outcomes of the study. The chapter begin with an introduction that also includes the review of the general research objectives. Further presentation of the research outcome is therefore undertaken based on the distributions of the objectives used in the study. Therefore, they provide an opportunity to address the research questions item by item. Further, the use of the research elements can also be presented based on the outcome that is realized from the research study. Once reviewed, a detailed set of results are presented based on the topic areas and the research topic. The chapter ends by looking into the chapter summary that latest to concisely put all the outcome into a short collection.
4.2 Review of the research objectivesResearch specific objectives included the need to have a review of the factors that have contributed significantly to the development of changes in the travel industry in the Middle East countries in light of the technological innovations. The research elements therefore include the need to find out the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed. Analyzing the research objective would be useful in designing the key technologies that have been having the greatest impacts in the industry. Further, the research aimed at finding out the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements. This was a useful research element to determine whether the technologies have a positive or negative impact on the travel industry.
Moreover, the research study seeks to find out if there is need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry. This is a useful dimension that aims to call on the stakeholders to consider developing strategies that would define and control the number of technological assimilations and or consumption in the industry.
Further, the researchers sought to find out the possible challenges that may manifest in the industry. Better understating of the challenges faced would provide a feasible mechanism to offer sustainable solutions that would be used to facilitate the growth of the sector. Once the challenge is identified, they can be addressed objectively towards developing a set of solutions that would see them reduced to the negligible levels. Further, the researchers sought to compare the technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry, and how such rates may compare to the technological consumptions and assimilations in the other industries to determine if the rate is too fast.
4.3 Findings on the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industryAccording to the research undertaken by Ye at al., 2011, some technological innovations have offered solutions to the travelers and the travel industry (p. 634). In looking at the travel industry according to the research report, the researcher finds it difficult to spate the travel industry and the accommodations industry. In fact, based on the research, the development of the insurance industry is also at becoming integrated to most of the travel agenesis in the Middle East. Therefore, when looking at the technological innovations that would be adequate for the development of the changes in the travel industry for the companies in the Middle East, a consideration of the travel industry and the allied industries have been very important.
For instance, the industry has used the technological innovations to introduce online marketing initiatives. In the field of sales and marketing, Huang and Sarigöllü note that product exposure is the most important element for brand recognition and analysis. Therefore, the travel industry company in the Middle East companies have been working hard to influence the industry.
Notably, virtual reality has been significantly influencing the industry in the manner of displays. The three dimensional displays have been creating different operational niches for the customers, travel agents and the destination facilities. On the same note, the use of the RFID technology to track the travellers’ luggage has improved the efficiency of travels and airport clearance. This has been aided by Artificial intelligence that has been used to identify and provide security pass for the travellers. Subsequently, the advent of the social media has given rise to myriad platforms like social media and online booking of travel requirements have got a greater impacts in the industry. These technologies alongside many others have a bearing impact on the couture the new travel industry takes after the innovations are assimilated into its core operations.
4.4 Findings on direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirementsThe research also aimed at finding the direction too much the innovations that apply to the travel industry is headed. NOCs have largely influenced the R&D trends in the Middle East. Notably, the research found out that based on the direction and the assimilations of the technological innovations in the Middle East, NOCs have not managed to keep the pace with the global competitors regarding improving innovation needs and processes. The research found out that there is a strong brand reliability, identification, and recognition among leading Middle East NOCs. However, this has not been efficiently and effectively converted to the travel industry. Nonetheless, there has been an increased campaign to ensure that the travel company in the Middle East move from being technology adopters to becoming innovation leaders CITATION Yah17 l 1033 (Yahya, et al., 2017). The following chart shows the Middle East market resilience that has been observed over the years and as developed through the guidance of the trigon NOC.

4.5 Findings on regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptionsThe study sought to find out if there was a need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the Middle East tourism industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry. This was a useful dimension that aimed to call on the stakeholders to consider developing strategies that would define and control the number of technological assimilations and or consumption in the industry. The following chart summarized the research outcomes.

When compared with the countries found in the western world like Germany and the United Kingdom, the countries found in the Middle East also performed on well, in the development of the innovators that can retain the customers to their services. Custer retention is only possible in cases where the business organization can offer competitive technological innovations inventions.
From the results above, the businesses were able to compete on the level of customer retention based on the technological innovations developed and assimilated in the travel industry for various countries. From the research, it was noted that organizations that deploy the use of the modern technologies have been thriving on the need to create platforms that would improve the lives of people. Therefore, the elaborate strategies put in place by the travel companies in the Middle East to analyze the behaviors of the people are all aimed at improving the experience that the customers receive from the travel business. These business organizations that can offer the greatest customer value get the best customer loyalty levels as in the case of the chart above were Turkey, Korea, United Arabs Emirates and Saudi Arabia performed just as well as the countries in the developed word in customer retention. Such business realize the highest level of sustainable sales volumes, sustained earnings and the highest level of growth sometimes that is exponential. This is the essence of business marketing in the face of well researched and implemented a set of customer based information and attributes in the market.
4.6 Findings on possible challenges that may be manifest in the industryAccording to the research study outcomes, several challenges face the implementation of the technological innovations in the industry. Notably, concerns on security and assimilation of the technology were prominent. Nonetheless, it is evident that the Middle East is committed to enhancing the quality of service it renders in the industry by emulating Western nations. Subsequently, the benefits of the use of modern technologies have been fund to enhance the efficiency of the sector, thereby encouraging more investors to integrate technology with their product offerings. Accordingly, it is evident that the sector has shape up to ensure that it gains the best out of the technological innovations of the sector.

The need to develop a strong industry image was one of the major challenges that were faced in the industry. Therefore, various companies have been attempting to solve the problem using the technological innovations that improve the level of service delivery. Further, there is increasing need to monitor travel market changes in the industry that have been adequately addressed by the advent of innovative technological values that the middle east countries have deployed to develop curate solutions through innovations in IT.
Moreover, the need for dynamic content was also an important factor that was found to pose major challenge on the operations of the sector. Though IT solutions have been useful, they have not managed to offer significant levels of dynamism as expected by the key industry players and stakeholder. There has also been the need to develop an innovative pedagogy that is useful in the development of the business successful pitching models. The last challenges have been the digital natives, the youth or the generation Y who have also internalized technology so much that without the same, they fail to recognize the operations and the good offers that the travel agencies may offer in the market. Innovations in the trade industry are also challenged by the different languages that need to be addressed by many players in the market.
Findings on comparing the technological consumptions and assimilations rate in the travel industry. The extent of the technologic use in the travel industry is very important in understanding the extent to which the solutions have been created. The researchers realized that it would be better to study the technological innovations in the industry based on the comparative model with other industries. The following chart illustrated the research findings.

Based on the level of technological consumptions in the various industries, the assimilations by the resources was still the highest at 24%. Transports and telecommunications were aging behind the likes of wholesale and retail trades and agriculture. This means that though there have been significant improvements in the way people use technological innovations; there have been other sectors that have experienced even higher assimilation. The outcomes indicate that there is a possibility of the industry consuming more technology over the coming years.
Based on the social media platform analysis, it was found out that Facebook usage in the travel industry had taken a dip of 20% since 2013 recording 94% in 2013 and 74% in 2017 both Qatar and Saudi Arabia (Berger & Paris, 2013 p. 299-300). However, there was growth in the usage in other countries like Egypt and UAE. This shows that through the social media marketing platform may face challenges; it remains a significant tool for marketing for the Middle East companies doing travels services CITATION Yah17 l 1033 (Yahya, et al., 2017). In the Middle East, there were concerns about surveillance, particularly from corporations in the travel industry. Their research study found out that there were only 47% of respondents who trusted the news they saw on social media.
4.7 Chapter SummaryThe chapter presented the research outcome based on the desktop research projects that were undertaken in line with the topics of the study. The chapter began with the key chapter analyses and then it progressed to look into the objective areas of the research study. These were important in developing strong round for the development of a competitive analysis that would be in the same agreement with the objectives of the study. The chapter then proceeded to the objective by objective analysis of the research study results. The objective-based analysis is important in the development of a depth understanding of every element that the research aimed to address. It, therefore, ended with the development of a quality summary that shows what the results outline addressed and how the results could be used. The research results analysis was insurant in presenting the outcome. From the outcome, it is possible to develop a more objective approach to the development of the proceeding chapters like the results discussions and analysis.
Chapter Five: Results Analysis and Discussions5.1 Introduction to results analysis and discussionsThe fifth chapter presents the results discussions. The discussions, like in the previous topics are based on the research objectives. Therefore, it is important that the discussions and the analysis that can arise from the research project be undertaken based on the research outcome. Since the research outcome was also developed based on the objectives of the study, it follows suit for chapter five that the same trend will follow. However, for the chapter, the discussions focus on whether the research was able to answer the research questions that were identified at the beginning of the study. As such, it is useful when the research readdress the re-outline the research questions.
Discussions on the FindingsThe discussion section gives an elaborate assessment of the outcomes garnered from the result section. It takes the reader through the specific objectives and answers specific research questions that formed a critical part of the study.
Discussion on research question one: What are the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed?
From the research study findings, various technologies have contributed to the development of success in the industry. The technological innovations have been very useful in the development of the business success. There has been increasing cases where the device and the innovations have been used to improve the level of customer satisfaction and service delivery. This has been influencing the manner and the way in which the travel industry has been achieving over time. Mobile phones have integrated themselves significantly in the development of the business in the industry.
Also, other technological innovations like the websites, the RFIDs, and the mobile applications as well as the internet have all been played crucial roles in the development of the successful business modeling. The analysis justifies that the growths experinced in the industry are a by-productof the adoption of technology in the travel industry. Additionally, the analysis indicates that the rates of assimilation of the technologies have been effective in building the capacities of the Middle East nation to build its tourism industry. The literature review indicated that the Middle East has risen to be a favourite sport for travellers. Thus, the region has been forced to consider the adoption of technology like other regions in the world. Future growths may see the incorporation of virtual realities and AI technologies to enhance service delivery and quality.
The application of security in the industry benefits several sectors. For instance, the safety of travellers is paramount. The technology has been ideal in providing relevant security featur.es to safeguard travellers. In some avenues, technology has also been used to provide communications and marketing functions. In all the spheres, the technological innovation has been very useful in defining the success model of the industry. Therefore, it is useful to realize that the need to have a rich tool for solutions generations must be the tool that has the highest number of functions. The businesses are operating in the travel industry, therefore, have been aiming to increase the usefulness of the media to solve some customer-based challenges. This explains why in the modern world, the travel industry has adopted a high number of innovations and inventions
Discussion on research question two: Is there a need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry?
The study sought to find out the position of the IT usage in the industry. On whether the technology is creating positive or negative impacts on the Middle East travel industry, it is important to quantify the points of impacts that technological innovations would aim to achieve. For instance, the study on the travel industry sought to find out if there need for a regulatory body that can check on the developer of technological consumptions in the Middle East Travel industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry. As such, it aims to address the frameworks that would be used in place to check the extent of the technological use in the society and participation in the travels department
But the essence of the study found out that the level of assimilation of the technical information and innovation in the market was still below other players. It means that there is no cause for alarm on whether the usage of the technological innovation of the Middle East travel companies needs the extremes. The retails and the wholes trades as well the agricultural needs have assimilated more technological innovations in the region. Regulating the invitational in the travel industry of issue east would not achieve much. The technology used in the industry is never enough in the first place.
Discussion on research question three: What are the possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole?
The research study unearthed some challenges that the travel industry in the Middle East is facing in light of the technological innovations needed in the field. The research found out that most companies in the region have a low canon image. This means that the technological innovations have not improved their images in comparison to the competitors from other countries. According to the research study, it is only the Fly Emirates that have capitalized in the technological innovations to improve the brand equity, with most countries having their companies in the travel industry playing in low waters. Further, the companies reported challenge of the monitoring travels in the modern society. This is a factor that was reaffirmed by the disappearance of the Malaysian Plane, MH 370 that was lost in the year 2014 followed by some cash that ever becomes common for the airlines from the region.
The need to develop the dynamic constant that would soon different requirements and markets remain a challenge on most of the industry players. Further, the companies in Middle East that aim to address the digital divides and the digital natives influence in the development of performance is still a major challenge that they need to address adequately. Finally, the research revealed that there was the major challenge of the foreign language development that has remained difficult for many companies.
The research also went ahead to address the question of the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements. Based on the research study outcome, the following chart was envisioned.

The research noted out that there are different levels to which technology has played roles in the development of the understanding of its roles. Technology has addressed the solvable problems in the travel industry, the difficult problems and the wicked problems. The impacts that such solutions have created in the industry are also important. Some impacts have been near term, others have been mid-term, and yet others have been the far term. In all the cases, the changes the technological innovations have introduced in the industry have all been aiming at improving the technological success.
5.3 Chapter SummaryThe chapter presented the research analysis and discussion of the research results. It first dressed the research questions and then went ahead to give a detailed analysis and discussion of every research question. The outcome of the chapter is important in making the conclusions and recommendations.

Chapter Six: Conclusions and Recommendations6.1 Introduction to conclusions and recommendationsThis chapter provides the conclusions and recommendations. The last chapter of the study, therefore, provides a final note on what the research was all amount. The recommendations are undertaken based on what the research is all about in the objectives. The research finding noted that technology indeed had been a useful tool that has challenged the operations of the various travel companies in the Middle East.
6.2 The Recommendations
Specifically, the research has been useful in addressing the challenges of the application of the IT resources. The following as some of the recommendations that can be possible from the research study.
There was the need to find out the key technologies that have created the greatest changes in the travel industry and the particular areas of travel industry governance that such changes are directed. The research reported that the technological use in the companies operating travel sector in the Middle East has moderately and adequately used the technological innovations. Therefore, in the Middle East, there is no need to worry about the direction that the technological innovation in the industry.
The study seeks to find out the direction in which the technological innovations influence the industrial travel requirements. Whether they are creating positive or negative impacts on the travel industry.
As noted, the rate of assimilation of technology in the travel company operating the Middle East. More action therefore is needed to help in roping in more industries to adopt more technological needs in the industry.
Further, the study seeks to find out if there need for a regulatory body that can check on the development of technological consumptions in the industry and what can be done to check on the growth of the technical information in the industry.
To this question, it was found to be unnecessary as such regulations will on scuttle innovations in the industry.
Finally, there was a need to find out the possible challenges that may be manifest in the industry and how each of the challenges can be able to address the key requirements of the industry as a whole.
There was a challenge that exists in the industry. However, most of the challenges can be solved by the technological inventions that they may have in the field.

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