Free Development of Low-Fat Fried Fish using Protein-based Edible Coating Dissertation Example
Development of Low-Fat Fried Fish Using Protein-based Edible Coating
Obesity is a preventable chronic disease defined by the characteristic accumulation of excessive adipose tissue within the body CITATION Hub00 l 1033 (Hubbard, 2000). Obesity is expressed in body mass index (BMI), an index used to quantify body weight according to height, of thirty or more resulting from an excessively higher calorie consumption than the body can burn. According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2017), the prevalence of obesity and overweight has continually increased over the past two decades with the non-Hispanic Black female demographic having the highest rates of obesity (56.5%). Flegal, Carroll, and Kit, (2012) observe that age-adjusted obesity was prevalent among approximately 58.5% of African American women and 38.8% of the African American male population. Obesity prevalence is also higher among women than men in the African American (54.8%) and the Hispanic (50.6%) demographic compared to the non-Hispanic white (38.0%) and the Asian American (14.8%) population CITATION Hal17 l 1033 (Hales, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2017).
The Slave Era is believed to have contributed significantly to the current dietary patterns among African Americans CITATION Hor18 l 1033 (Horton, 2018). The food that they consumed during the slave era consisted mostly of chicken, meat, pork feet and pig intestines, which was spare food from their slave owners. In a study conducted to investigate the dietary patterns of African American population in the rural parts of the Southern States, Bovell-Benjamin, Dawkins, Pace, and Shikany (2010) determined that more than a third of the participants consumed grit prepared using the addition of fat and salt. Several studies have linked deep-fried foods to African American families more than any other race. African American describes deep-fried food such as fried poultry, bacon, and processed luncheon meat as ‘Soul Food’ that has been associated with historical cooking practices among early African American families in Tuskegee (Bovell-Benjamin et al., 2010). In modern African American dietary patterns, a high proportion of the population (77-79%) continually consumes primarily fried fish and poultry while 59% of the female African American and 38% of the African American male population consumed fast food comprised of fried chicken nuggets and French fries (Bovell-Benjamin et al., 2010). The observed ethnic disparity in the obesity indices in America may be attributed to a complex interaction of socio-economic factors, dietary patterns, and levels of physical activity CITATION Wan07 l 1033 (Wang et al., 2007).
Deep-frying is a commonly used food preparation mechanism where fat or oil is used as a medium for heat transfer directly into the food at a higher temperature than the boiling point of water (Ananey-Obiri, Matthews, Azahrani, Ibrahim, Galanakis, & Tahergorabi, 2018). Domestic households and industries alike commonly use frying as a cooking method since it enhances the texture, color, and palatability of food CITATION Por12 l 1033 (Porta et al., 2012). The process of deep-frying also allows for fat uptake by food as food lies in direct contact with the oil, increasing its total lipid content. The type of oil used for deep-frying varies depending on factors such as cost, stability, and the susceptibility to oxidation CITATION Gad15 l 1033 (Gadiraju, Patel, Gaziano, & Djoussé, 2015). For instance, highly unsaturated fats such as corn oil have short frying periods at 150˚C to 200˚C and a short shelf life since they are easily oxidized. On the other hand, oils with high saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palm oil and partially hydrogenated oils such as sunflower oil have longer frying periods and higher stability profiles which increase the shelf life for food (Gadiraju et al., 2015). The deep-fried foods industry in America is the highest earning in the world and constitutes a large percentage of the dietary intake of the American population CITATION Jah10 l 1033 (Jahren & Schubert, 2010). Food industries around the world have largely adopted frying in making processed food as it increases the food’s durability.
Consumption of deep-fried foods has serious health implications since the method of cooking increases the overall food lipid/fat content. The Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990 that require food manufacturers to provide the ingredient and nutrient content information exclude restaurants from this requirement CITATION Jah10 l 1033 (Jahren & Schubert, 2010). The American population that largely consume fried foods from restaurants have an increased risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Thus, health experts have sought out means to reduce the fat uptake by foods during deep-frying. Past studies indicate that the use of a suitable food coating prior to frying can reduce oil imbibition by the food CITATION AlA11 l 1033 (Al-Abdullah, Angor, Al-Abdullah, & Ajo, 2011). An edible film is applied to the food prior to frying, acting as a barrier to moisture content loss in the food, and reducing fat uptake.
Objectives and Hypotheses
The primary objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of muscle protein (fish protein) as an edible coating on fat uptake reduction during deep-frying. Secondly, the study assesses the difference between fish protein edible coating and cornstarch and sweet potato starch battering on the reduction of oil uptake during deep-frying. Lastly, the study evaluates the difference between cornstarch and sweet potato starch-prepared batter on the total fat content of fried foods.
Hypothesis 1 (H1): Application of fish protein edible coating to food prior to frying reduces oil absorption during the deep frying process.
Hypothesis 2 (H2): There is a significant difference between fish protein edible coating and starch-based battering on the total fat content of the fried foods.
Hypothesis 3 (H3): There is a significant difference between cornstarch and sweet potato starch-based battering on the total fat content of the fried foods.
Reduction of Fat Uptake using the Process of Edible Coating and Battering
Food scientists have linked oil absorption during the deep frying process to water loss through the capillary mechanism where the water vapor escapes through the food pores resulting in oil uptake in the food CITATION Mel03 l 1033 (Mellema, 2003). During deep-frying, water vapor migrates from the core of the food to the surface as more water escapes from the surface leaving a void for oil to be absorbed by the food CITATION Mel03 l 1033 (Mellema, 2003). Thus, oil uptake is largely determined by the moisture content of the food. According to Mellema (2003), thin edible films or thick coating (batter) low the moisture content and permeability of the food. A thin coating is thought to reduce the size and number of pores through which moisture can escape from the food and subsequently reducing the amount of fat inflow. The low-moisture level edible coating may be effective in reducing the moisture level on the food surface. Additionally, since fat-uptake also depends on the contact angle, coating and batters serve to alter the surface structure and reduce the surface area in contact with oil upon frying.
Edible coatings and battering may also work in reducing surface level evaporation by thermo-gelling or cross-linking (Mellema, 2003). Thermo-gelling films such as cellulose derivatives (cornstarch) lower the capillary pressures and the evaporation damage since the thermogel film lower water diffusivity. Cross-linking and thermo-gelling increase the cohesive forces on the surface of the food making it more brittle thereby increasing the water-retaining capacity of the food during deep-frying CITATION Ana18 l 1033 (Ananey-Obiri et al., 2018). Thick coating or battering may be more effective for the process of thermo-gelling since they are less susceptible to puncturing than thin films (Mellema, 2003). Battering involves dipping food in a liquid mixture of flour, water, and seasoning that forms a crust during deep-frying CITATION Alt04 l 1033 (Altunakar, Sahin, & Sumnu, 2004). Crusts formed from batter coatings enhance the texture, color, and flavor of the food while reducing moisture loss and oil uptake. Sweet potato starch used in battering was less effective in reducing oil uptake than cornstarch. Oil uptake in starch battering depends on the amylose content. The higher the amylose content as in cornstarch releases more amylose during deep-frying which forms a mechanically stable edible film coating that inhibits oil uptake during deep frying CITATION Zha14 l 1033 (Zhanga, Yanga, Jib, & Ma, 2014).
According to Ananey-Obiri et al. (2018), myofibrillar (muscle) proteins can serve as a better edible coating during deep-frying than polysaccharide-based edible coatings. Myofibrillar protein coating solutions may be prepared from the washed meat of low-cost fish or chicken or filleting of trimmed meat. The process of forming edible coatings during deep-frying is induced by heat and pH changes or addition of impurities that initiate protein denaturation revealing the myosin and actin within their structure. Myosin and actin then form a renewable and abundant continuous matrix with closely knitted structures that serves as an edible film. The matrix is capable of forming numerous bonds within its structure, which increases the mechanical and physical barrier properties required of edible film coatings. Muscle protein edible films increase the nutritional value of the food while performing the function of oil-uptake reduction CITATION Ana18 l 1033 (Ananey-Obiri et al., 2018).
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