RNR Model and Recidivism
The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model is a mechanism employed by federal supervision system in the US and other nations such as Canada to supervise offenders with the aim of minimizing recidivism and possibly protecting the community from the risks posed by offenders (Sing et al., 2018). The RNR model is applied in risk assessment activities as it can establish the probability of an offender repeating a crime and also in identifying some criminogenic factors, which, if altered, can minimize the possibilities of recidivism (Singh et al., 2018).
RNR Model and Recidivism
The National Institute of Justice (2018), defines recidivism as relapsing to criminal activities and often occurs after one is sanctioned and gets intervention for a former crime. Recidivism is measured using criminal acts that occur after one is rearrested, reconvicted or remanded to prison either with or without a fresh sentence within three years after their release (National Institute of Justice, 2018). According to Van Hasselt & Bourke (2018), the RNR model bears three basic principles that boost its functionality. The first principle is a risk, where the intensity of intervention is aligned with the risk possibilities of recidivism. Under this principle, treatment should match an offender’s risk and is commonly applied in moderate and high-risk cases and requires input from clinical and actuarial experts.
Needs, the second principle, is where the program concentrates on an offender’s criminogenic needs (Van Hasselt & Bourke, 2018). According to Andrews and Bonta (2010), there are eight central criminal needs, which are: a history of having antisocial or criminal traits, displaying patterns of anti-socialism, antisocial cognition, having antisocial peers, educational and employment challenges, dysfunctional intimate and family relationships, poor leisure activities and substance abuse. Responsivity is the third principle and entails delivery of an intervention in a means that improves an offender’s reception and attitude towards services (Van Hasselt & Bourke, 2018). This includes the offenders’ learning styles, their cultural background and also their willingness for treatment.
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39.
National Institute of Justice. (2018). Recidivism. Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/topics/corrections/recidivism/Pages/welcome.aspx
Singh, J. P., Kroner, D. G., Desmarais, S. L., Wormith, J. S., & Hamilton, Z. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of Recidivism Risk/Needs Assessment Tools. John Wiley & Sons.
Van Hasselt, V. B., & Bourke, M. L. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of Behavioral Criminology.
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