The properties and applications of supercritical carbon dioxide

The Properties and Applications of Supercritical Carbon dioxide Abstract In chemical sciences, a supercritical fluid is defined as any substance for which the pressure and temperature conditions that are required to maintain its original molecular integrity are beyond critical levels. Supercritical fluids are popular both as solvents and as anti-solvent in processing polymers. Supercritical fluids play an important role in polymer modification, blending of polymers, particle production, in the formation of polymer composites. Moreover, different studies suggest that the qualities of polymers that are processed with SCF are significantly higher than the quality of their counterparts that are...

Fullerenes

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF FULLERENES Chapter 1: Introduction History of Fullerenes The discovery of fullerenes and its structural elucidation paved the way for defining fullerene graphs. The discovery of fullerenes is attributed to the contribution of the Nobel laureates Harold Kroto, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley . These scientists discovered a novel allotrope of carbon in which the carbon atoms formed close shells. The first fullerene molecule (C60 structure consisting of 60 carbon atoms) represented a football or a dome-like structure . Moreover, this new allotrope mimicked an icosahedra structure called “Buckminsterfullerene.” Buckminsterfullerene was named after the renowned architect...

Structure and Properties Of Fullerenes

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF FULLERENES Abstract The fullerenes are allotropes of carbon. The structural formulae for the fullerenes differ from the other allotropes due to the unusual arrangement of the carbon atoms. The layers and the arrangement of the fullerene allotrope can be represented in the algebraic expressions. The algebra involved in the fullerene definitions gives the mathematical representation of the atom arrangement and the dimension of different molecular layers. The graph theory gives some theorems of the fullerene regarding the established hypothesis and facts. The fullerene graphs use algebraic concepts to support the expressions. The structural configurations of the fullerenes...

Topology Of Fullerenes

TOPOLOGY OF FULLERENES Introduction Fullerenes are defined as carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. There exists a close connection between structural chemistry and the graph theory in pursuing the topology of fullerene. The proposal report seeks to expound on the importance and the objective of the study of the topology of fullerene. The report consists of a brief preview of the previous studies of the study topic. The scope that the study will be able to achieve with the time constraints is also stipulated in the proposal report. The most considered direct graphical description is a sequence of numbers, as a connection table, sometimes topological index (single derived number), a polynomial...

Development of Low fat fried fish by using a protein based edible coatin

CHAPTER 2 Literature Review2.1. Fried Food Consumption and Average Intake of Dietary Fat In the past three decades, obesity or being overweight has been cited as a growing public health concern, primarily due to its prevalence among younger people. Among the various factors that contribute to the health problem attributing to obesity, a persistent dietary pattern that influences the increasing epidemic and shifts away from healthier options is the consumption of fried foods. When people fry their food in oil, the food absorbs the oil while losing water as lipids are exchanged with the frying oil. The amount of oil being absorbed would depend on the type of food and the conditions for frying....

Analysis of 3D printed photoacoustic spectrometer

3D PRINTED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROMETER Name Course Tutor University City/State Date Abstract With continued technological development, a wide range of techniques and equipment have been modified to improve their functionality and ease of use. The tunable diode laser spectroscopy is an example of such improvements that have increased the efficiency in their fields. The TDLS provides a more effective mechanism for tracing and measuring gas components in the atmosphere. Also, the technique offers a more time-efficient method as it incorporates a simple setup that can be adjusted to fit the environment in which it is being operated. Further, TDLS is developed such that it can be modified to fit...